Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) as Predictors of Incident CKD Stage 3: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.9). 04/2012; 60(2):233-40. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.02.336
Source: PubMed


Identifying individuals at risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is critical for timely treatment initiation to slow progression of the disease. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) are known biomarkers of acute kidney injury, but it is unknown whether these markers are associated with incident CKD stage 3 in the general population.
Matched case-control study.
African American and white participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who at baseline had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio ≤30 mg/g. 143 controls were matched for age, sex, and race to 143 cases of incident CKD stage 3 after 8.6 years of follow-up.
Quartile of NGAL and KIM-1.
Incident CKD stage 3 (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at follow-up and a decrease in eGFR from baseline to follow-up ≥25%).
Both NGAL (P = 0.05) and KIM-1 levels (P < 0.001) were correlated positively with baseline urinary albumin-creatinine ratio; neither was associated with baseline eGFR. Participants with NGAL concentrations in the fourth quartile had more than 2-fold higher odds (adjusted OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 0.96-4.64) of incident CKD stage 3 compared with participants in the first quartile after multivariable adjustment (P-trend = 0.03). Adjustment for urinary creatinine and albumin levels resulted in a nonsignificant association (highest quartile adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.64-3.58; P = 0.2). No significant association between KIM-1 level and incident CKD was observed in crude or adjusted models.
The relatively small sample size of the study limits precision and power to detect weak associations.
Higher NGAL, but not KIM-1, levels were associated with incident CKD stage 3. Adjustment for urinary creatinine and albumin concentration attenuated this association. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the utility of urinary NGAL as a marker of CKD risk.

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    • "It is important to dividing stage 3 based on data supporting different outcomes and risk profiles into categories 3a and 3b [15]. Bhavsar NA, et al. found that concentration of urinary NGAL was associated with incident CKD stage 3 [16]. Interestingly, the results of this study "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A revised classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) in 2012. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) was considered as one of the most promising biomarkers in clinical nephrology. The aim of this study was to examine the level of NGAL in patients with different impairment of GFR based on the new classification, and to evaluate whether NGAL in serum or urine was associated with different risk categories in CKD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 240 patients with CKD. NGAL, serum cystatin C, β₂-macroglobulin (β₂-MG), urine α₁-macroglobulin (α₁-MG) and albuminuria were tested in patients with various degrees of renal impairment. Results: Good correlation was found between the NGAL and the cystatin C, β₂-MG and the α₁-MG (r > 0.7). The level of sNGAL in CKD stage 3b was more than that in CKD stage 3a (P = 0.025). The concentration of the NGAL increased progressively with the increasing of risk categories (proposed by the revised CKD classification). The cutoff value of NGAL was calculated from stage 2 to stage 5. ROC analysis showed good AUC (sNGAL > 0.8, uNGAL > 0.7) and high specificity (sNGAL > 87%, uNGAL > 90%) on the cutoff value of NGAL. Conclusion: The results confirm NGAL as a useful biomarker in clinical nephrology which is helpful to diagnosis and evaluate the categories for CKD proposed by the KDIGO.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
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    • "Urinary KIM-1 level also has been shown to correlate with fibrotic changes in experimental models of chronic kidney disease [35]. Seven studies included in this paper were involved in ICU patients, Emergency Department patients and general hospital ward, which might combined some chronic disease or other unknown diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a proximal tubular injury biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), with variable performance characteristics depending on clinical and population settings. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of urinary KIM-1 in AKI. Relevant studies were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Elsevier Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. A total of 2979 patients from 11 eligible studies were enrolled in the analysis. Five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and four case-control studies were identified for meta-analysis. The estimated sensitivity of urinary KIM-1 for the diagnosis of AKI was 74.0% (95% CI, 61.0%-84.0%), and specificity was 86.0% (95% CI, 74.0%-93.0%). The SROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.86(0.83-0.89). Subgroup analysis suggested that population settings and detection time were the key factors affecting the efficiency of KIM-1 for AKI diagnosis. Various population settings, different definition of AKI and Serum creatinine level used as the standard might have influence on AKI diagnosis. The relatively small number of studies and heterogeneity between them also affected the evaluation. Urinary KIM-1 may be a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI with considerable predictive value, especially for cardiac surgery patients, and its potential value needs to be validated in large studies and across a broader scope of clinical settings.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Another study with type 1 diabetic patients revealed that urine NGAL and L-FABP levels were not related to the decline in GFR, after adjustment for known promoters of progression [21]. A matched case-control study for predicting incident CKD stage 3 also showed that adjustment for urinary creatinine and albumin concentration attenuated this association between NGAL and incident CKD stage [32]. Our study included 140 diabetic patients with varying degrees of diabetic nephropathy; however, most of them had mild diabetic nephropathy (albuminuria <300 mg/day; eGFR >60). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) are emerging as excellent biomarkers in the urine and plasma for the early prediction of acute and chronic kidney injury. The aims of this prospective study were to determine the role of albuminuria, and that of serum and urine levels of NGAL and L-FABP as predictors of a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A longitudinal cohort study with one hundred forty type 2 diabetic patients was conducted. Serum and urine levels of NGAL and L-FABP, and the urine albumin excretion rate were determined. The correlation between the kidney injury biomarkers and rate of GFR decline was analyzed. The eGFR of study subjects decreased significantly as the study progressed (86.4±31.1 vs. 74.4±27.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P<0.001), and the urine albumin excretion rate increased significantly (264.9±1060.3 vs. 557.7±2092.5 mg/day, P = 0.009). The baseline urine albumin excretion rate and serum L-FABP level were significantly correlated with baseline eGFR (P<0.05). The results of regression analysis for the correlations between the rate of eGFR change and the baseline levels of NGAL and L-FABP, and the urine albumin excretion rate showed that only the urine albumin excretion rate was significantly correlated with the rate of eGFR change (standardized coefficients: -0.378; t: -4.298; P<0.001). Tubular markers, such as NGAL and L-FABP, may not be predictive factors associated with GFR decline in type 2 diabetic patients.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
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