Article

Spin-Orbit-Coupled Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190, China.
Physical Review Letters (Impact Factor: 7.51). 03/2012; 108(12):125301. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.125301
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We propose an experimental scheme to create spin-orbit coupling in spin-3 Cr atoms using Raman processes. By employing the linear Zeeman effect and optical Stark shift, two spin states within the ground electronic manifold are selected, which results in a pseudospin-1/2 model. We further study the ground state structures of a spin-orbit-coupled Cr condensate. We show that, in addition to the stripe structures induced by the spin-orbit coupling, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction gives rise to the vortex phase, in which a spontaneous spin vortex is formed.

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Available from: Su Yi, Apr 16, 2014
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    • "The SOC-DDI system was introduced, in a form relevant to the experimental implementation, in Refs. [78] [79] [80]. 2D fundamental solitons in the system of this type, which includes the attractive DDI and local repulsive nonlinearity, were recently investigated in Ref. [81] (to focus on the most interesting situation, we here consider only the DDI nonlinearity). "
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    ABSTRACT: We report families of two-dimensional (2D) composite solitons in spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, with two localized components linearly mixed by the spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and the intrinsic nonlinearity represented by the dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) between atomic magnetic moments polarized in-plane by an external magnetic field. Recently, stable solitons were predicted in the form of semi-vortices ( composites built of coupled fundamental and vortical components ) in the 2D system combining the SOC and contact attractive interactions. Replacing the latter by the anisotropic long-range DDI, we demonstrate that, for a fixed norm of the soliton, the system supports a continuous family of stable spatially asymmetric vortex solitons (AVSs), parameterized by an offset of the pivot of the vortical component relative to its fundamental counterpart. The offset is limited by a certain maximum value, while the energy of the AVS practically does not depend on the offset. At small values of the norm, the vortex solitons are subject to a weak oscillatory instability. In the present system, with the Galilean invariance broken by the SOC, the composite solitons are set in motion by a kick whose strength exceeds a certain depinning value. The kicked solitons feature a negative effective mass, drifting along a spiral trajectory opposite to the direction of the kick. A critical angular velocity, up to which the semi-vortices may follow rotation of the polarizing magnetic field, is found too.
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    • "Thus we will present our results on ground states and dynamics of SO-coupled BECs based on the CGPEs (1.10). We remark that our methods and results are still valid for other theoretical models for SO-coupled BECs in the literatures [28] [16] [32] [13] [18]. For the CGPEs (1.10), when k 0 = 0, i.e., a two-component BEC without SO coupling and without/with Raman coupling corresponding to Ω = 0/Ω = 0, ground state structures and dynamical properties have been studied theoretically in the literature [4] [11] [24] [5] [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We study analytically and asymptotically as well as numerically ground states and dynamics of two-component spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) modeled by the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (CGPEs). In fact, due to the appearance of the spin-orbit (SO) coupling in the two-component BEC with a Raman coupling, the ground state structures and dynamical properties become very rich and complicated. For the ground states, we establish the existence and non-existence results under different parameter regimes, and obtain their limiting behaviors and/or structures with different combinations of the SO and Raman coupling strengths. For the dynamics, we show that the motion of the center-of-mass is either non-periodic or with different frequency to the trapping frequency when the external trapping potential is taken as harmonic and the initial data is chosen as a stationary state (e.g. ground state) with a shift, which is completely different from the case of a two-component BEC without the SO coupling, and obtain the semiclassical limit of the CGPEs in the linear case via the Wigner transform method. Efficient and accurate numerical methods are proposed for computing the ground states and dynamics, especially for the case of box potentials. Numerical results are reported to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical methods and show the rich phenomenon in the SO-coupled BECs.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
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    ABSTRACT: We present an overview of our recent theoretical studies on the quantum phenomena of the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates, including the phase diagram, soliton solutions and the formation of the topological spin textures. A brief exploration of the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the ground-state properties is given. We put forward proposals by using the transmission spectra of an optical cavity to probe the quantum ground states: the ferromagnetic and polar phases. Quasi-one-dimension solitons and ring dark solitons are studied. It is predicted that characteristics of the magnetic solitons in optical lattice can be tuned by controlling the long-range light-induced and static magnetic dipoledipole interactions; solutions of single-component magnetic and single-, two-, three-components polar solitons are found; ring dark solitons in spin-1 condensates are predicted to live longer lifetimes than that in their scalar counterparts. In the formation of spin textures, we have considered the theoretical model of a rapidly quenched and fast rotating trapped spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, whose dynamics can be studied by solving the stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equations. Spontaneous generation of nontrivial topological defects, such as the hexagonal lattice skyrmions and square lattice of half-quantized vortices was predicted. In particular, crystallization of merons (half skyrmions) can be generated in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.
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