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... When research examines only disability status without taking into account other key demographic characteristics, important elements may be missed. For example, socioeconomic inequality can be considered as a potential risk factor for increased involvement in the bullying situation, as students of low SES are at higher risk of victimization (Due et al., 2009;Fu, Land, & Lamb, 2013;Son et al., 2014). In addition, a meta-analysis on socioeconomic status and bullying revealed that both victims and bully-victims (i.e., those who concurrently perpetrate and are victimized by bullying behavior) were more likely to come from low SES households (Tippett & Wolke, 2014). ...
... Girls with learning disabilities, for instance, have reported being victimized more than boys with learning disabilities (Nabuzoka & Smith, 1993). In addition to disability status, race, gender, and SES also have accounted for variance in victimization (Due et al., 2009). However, because victimization is only one part of the bully dynamic, much more research is needed to establish associations among student demographic characteristics, specific disabilities, and specific bullying roles. ...
... Research has suggested that a high concentration of student poverty in a school was associated with an increased risk for bullying involvement among middle school students, and may have increased the risk for involvement in retaliatory aggression and fights among elementary students (Bradshaw, Sawyer, & O'Brennan, 2009). Further, Due et al. (2009) suggested that the association between SES and bullying behavior may be more salient where SES among students varies markedly from the general wealth of a school or community. ...
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Using a stigma-based bullying framework, the current study investigated how (a) disability status was related to bullying-related behaviors when controlling for gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status; (b) gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status moderated the associations of disability status with bullying-related behaviors; and (c) classification in specific disability categories was associated with bullying-related behaviors with a sample of 10,483 students (47.8% female) in elementary, middle, and high school. School records data were collected on grade level, gender, free or reduced lunch price status, disability status, and disability category. Students completed the Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire (BPBQ), rating five types of bully role behaviors (bullying behavior, assistant behavior, victimization, defending behavior, and outsider behavior). Findings indicated that having a disability was associated with increased victimization, assisting, and defending behavior. Furthermore, disability status interacted in meaningful ways with several demographic factors: (a) females with a disability reported more victimization and reported engaging in more outsider behaviors than females without a disability, (b) elementary students with a disability reported more assisting and less defending behaviors than those without a disability, (c) high school students with a disability reported less bullying and assisting behaviors and more defending behaviors than those without a disability, and (d) students with a disability from low socioeconomic backgrounds reported more bullying and outsider behaviors than students not from lower socioeconomic family backgrounds. When comparing students from specific disability categories to those with no disability, students with an emotional disability reported more assisting, victimization, and outsider behaviors; students with other health impairment reported more assisting, victimization, and defending; students with autism reported less defending and outsider behaviors; and students with a learning disability reported more defending behavior. Exploratory analyses of the effects of school-level factors found that school size (enrollment) was positively related to prevalence of assisting and outsider behavior. The percentage of low-income students in a school was positively associated with the extent of victimization and defending behaviors reported, but negatively associated with the extent of outsider behaviors reported.
... Some theories and studies suggested that community poverty is associated with student exposure to peer victimization (Carlson, 2006;Due et al., 2009;Khoury-Kassabri et al., 2004). In contrast, other studies found no significant link between them (Chaux, Molano, & Podlesky, 2009). ...
... This study showed that teachers' maltreatment of students was less likely to be reported by students from impoverished communities or districts. These findings differed from the previous theories that predicted positive or insignificant associations between victimization at school and community poverty rates (Carlson, 2006;Chaux et al., 2009;Due et al., 2009;Khoury-Kassabri et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2018). Perhaps our findings were due to the much smaller student-teacher ratios in the schools located in impoverished districts (Taiwan Ministry of Education, 2014). ...
Article
Background and objective: Unlike most other studies on school victimization, which mainly focused on student self-reports and one-level analysis, this study used a multi-informant and multilevel analysis to examine how personal and school factors reported by students (gender, grade level, delinquency, perpetration against the student, and quality of the teacher-child relationship), family factors reported by parents (family income, the family's financial stress, parent-child interaction, parental monitoring, parental psychological distress, parental involvement in school, and parental attitude towards corporal punishment), and community factors collected from government data (district/community poverty rates, and urban and rural areas) were associated with student reports of victimization by their teachers. Participants and setting: 1262 junior high students (grades 7-9) and their parents/guardians in Taiwan. Methods: Multi-stage cluster random sampling and self-administered questionnaire survey. Results: A total of 38.7% of students reported maltreatment by teachers during the semester. The results of Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that student delinquency, school violence perpetration, poor teacher-child relationships, the positive attitudes of parents toward corporal punishment, and communities/districts with low poverty rates were positively associated with student victimization. Conclusions: Psychological and corporal punishment in educational settings was legally banned in Taiwan in 2007. Our findings imply that legal prohibition is not enough to eliminate maltreatment by teachers. Comprehensive intervention programs are urgently needed, and potential intervention programs should target students from districts with low poverty rates. These programs should also focus on managing student delinquency and school violence, promoting supportive teacher-child relationships, and discouraging positive parental attitudes toward corporal punishment.
... 4,5 While antibullying efforts focus on school contexts and the social relationships of targeted individuals and perpetrators, 6 epidemiological studies have identified links between bullying and area-level income inequality. [7][8][9] One such study 7 found that national income inequality was correlated with bullying by 11-year-olds in 37 countries (r = 0.62) after controlling for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and area-level wealth. This association is consistent with research in criminology that has found that various forms of interpersonal violence (eg, firearm assaults, sexual assaults, racism, homicides, child maltreatment) are more prevalent in areas where income inequality is greater. ...
... To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of an association between early-life inequality and adolescent bullying. It lends temporal evidence to the cross-sectional associations reported previously [7][8][9] and has implications for violence prevention and public health research. ...
Article
Importance While the association between income inequality and interpersonal violence has been attributed to the psychosocial effects of inequality (eg, increased class anxiety, reduced social capital), longitudinal evidence for this pathway is limited by a reliance on small ecological studies and cross-sectional data. The developmental consequences of early-life inequality for subsequent involvement in violence have not been investigated. Objective To examine the association between income inequality during infancy and early childhood and adolescents’ involvement in bullying others, experiences of being bullied, or both. Design, Setting, and Participants The Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey study was conducted in European and North American schools. This analysis used individual data on bullying (being bullied, bullying others, or both) from 6 consecutive school-based surveys of 11-year-old to 15-year-old students carried out in 40 countries between February 1994 to March 2014. Data analysis occurred from March 2018 to January 2019. Exposure National Gini indices of income inequality for every year of life spanning a 35-year period (1979 to 2014). Main Outcomes and Measures Being bullied, bullying others, and both outcomes were measured using a common definition and questions adapted from the Bully-Victim Questionnaire and translated to many languages. Results The sample included 425 938 male students and 448 265 female students from 162 country–survey year groups in 29 196 schools. Linear regression coefficients indicated that early-life income inequality from birth to 4 years was positively associated with being bullied (male students: linear regression coefficient, 18.26 [95% CI, 11.04-25.47]; P < .001; female students: linear regression coefficient, 15.67 [95% CI, 10.02-21.33]; P < .001), and dual involvement in being bullied and bullying others (male students: linear regression coefficient, 5.55 [95% CI, 2.67-8.44]; P < .001; female students: linear regression coefficient, 2.45 [95% CI, 0.93-3.97]; P < .001), after differences in lifetime mean income inequality (from birth to when bullying was measured), national per capita income, family socioeconomic position, age, and cohort were controlled. No such association was found with bullying others after differences in being bullied were controlled. Conclusions and Relevance Being bullied is associated with early-life exposure to income inequality. Although further research on the underlying pathways is needed to guide intervention, these results suggest temporality in the association between inequality and violence and suggest that growing up in areas of high income inequality is associated with victimization in adolescence.
... Así pues, se define aporofobia como aquel sentimiento de rechazo o temor al pobre, al desamparado, al que carece de salidas, de medios o de recursos, culpando de esta forma al mismo de la situación en la cual se encuentra (Andrade, 2008). Diversos estudios señalan que los menores de familias con menos recursos son más propensos a estar involucrados en actos violentos, tanto como víctima como agresor (Due et al., 2009;Jansen et al., 2011; Tippett y Wolke, 2014;Wolke et al., 2010). Se ha constatado ampliamente la importancia de las actitudes favorables a la violencia como un factor predictivo del comportamiento violento, sobre todo en aquellas conductas no premeditadas (Brown et al., 2011;Fazio, 1990). ...
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INTRODUCCIÓN: La Aporofobia o discriminación por estatus social o poder socioeconómico ha sido descrita en la bibliografía tanto a nivel teórico como a través de datos empíricos. Este tipo de conductas hostiles se dan tanto en la cultura de los adultos como en los centros escolares. La aporofobia como patología psicológica y social no ha sido estudiada en profundidad a pesar de que su definición y los argumentos que la definen están bastante claros (Pozo-Enciso y Arbieto-Mamani, 2019). Aunque no existe una definición para menores, en 1995 asistimos a la primera conceptualización por Cortina (Cortina, 2017). Así pues, se define aporofobia como aquel sentimiento de rechazo o temor al pobre, al desamparado, al que carece de salidas, de medios o de recursos, culpando de esta forma al mismo de la situación en la cual se encuentra (Andrade, 2008). Diversos estudios señalan que los menores de familias con menos recursos son más propensos a estar involucrados en actos violentos, tanto como víctima como agresor (Due et al., 2009; Jansen et al., 2011; Tippett y Wolke, 2014; Wolke et al., 2010). Se ha constatado ampliamente la importancia de las actitudes favorables a la violencia como un factor predictivo del comportamiento violento, sobre todo en aquellas conductas no premeditadas (Brown et al., 2011; Fazio, 1990). Esta relación actitud-conducta parece especialmente relevante en el contexto educativo, donde las agresiones tienen un componente más afectivo y, por tanto, impulsivo. (Ruiz-Hernández et al., 2009). De este modo, su estudio y evaluación se ha demostrado útil para el diseño de intervenciones para la mejora de la convivencia (Ruiz-Hernández et al., 2020). En términos generales, las actitudes violentas o discriminatorias hacia otros pares basadas en diferencias socioeconómicas parecen ser un factor con especial influencia en la convivencia escolar. En este sentido, si bien se ha estudiado la pobreza como factor de riesgo en la violencia escolar, no parece haber ningún estudio que profundice en la problemática desde el punto de vista de la aporofobia en el contexto escolar. OBJETIVOS Especificar las actitudes hacia la violencia basadas en la discriminación por aporofobia mediante técnicas cualitativas, y realizar una primera aproximación teórica al concepto, dinámica y estructura de este tipo de discriminación en el contexto escolar. RESULTADOS Los menores entrevistados mostraron una amplia variedad de actitudes hacia la violencia basadas en aporofobia cuando estas estaban dirigidas a aumentar la autoestima o eran parte de su proceso de socialización. Análisis temático incidental: MÉTODO Estudio cualitativo Participantes: Muestra incidental de 96 menores escolarizados de entre 9 y 16 años, con una edad media de 11.35 años (DT=2.09). Instrumentos: Se establecieron 12 grupos focales de entre 6-12 alumnos del mismo año académico, registrados en audio. Para la exploración de la información se utilizó la técnica cualitativa de análisis temático (Braun y Clarke, 2006), mediante extracción inductiva a partir de la transcripción en bruto, sin ajustar a marcos teóricos previos. DISCUSIÓN Cultura del centro Acceso a figura de poder Lo novedoso que tengo Lo bueno/caro/o de marca que tengo 4 estatus Alto Medio alto Medio bajo Bajo Actitudes hacia la violencia escolar basada en discriminación socioeconómica o aporofoboia No es la mejor ropa Lo que solo yo tengo Material escolar peor No es nuevo Tiene menos que yo Lo que tiene es feo No es de marca Lo de marca y/o caro Lo que tiene la familia Lo nuevo/de moda te hace mejor Legítima Divertirse Autoestima REFERENCIAS Tener mejores cosas De lo que tiene De lo que no tiene Violencia por legitimación: "Los bambos Fila, las chicas que lo llevan le dicen a la otras ¿por qué no lo llevas? Si no llevas la moda no juegas." Violencia como protección de la autoestima: "Tú dices que te van a regalar algo si sacas buenas notas, pues luego la gente compara lo que tienen ellos con lo otro. Y preguntan, ¿qué te ha costado? A mi 100 y tú no le dices cuando, lo más importante es que te guste. Y dicen es mejor lo que cuesta porque eso dice lo bueno que es." Violencia como forma de diversión: "Cuando la gente me pregunta, ¿Tienes la Play 4? Y dice no. Y dice pero tienes algún juego de la Play, dice sí. Entonces claro, los que están detrás, o sea, los que están en el otro lado, ven que hablo con estos que se empiezan a reír porque no tengo la Play." Con este estudio se consiguió hacer una aproximación al concepto de aporofobia en el marco de la convivencia escolar y una exploración de las dinámicas mediante las cuales esta afecta a los menores. Los resultados son coherentes con la evidencia previa, que señala la influencia de características sociales, estructurales e individuales de los jóvenes, que pueden favorecer la exposición al acoso escolar, especialmente en el caso de características socialmente estigmatizadas (Malecki et al., 2020); entre ellas, se reafirma el factor de riesgo para la discriminación basada en el estatus o nivel socieconómico percibido (Tippett y Wolke, 2014). Nuestra interpretación de los resultados evidencia que la cultura del centro, entendida como lo que en cada uno se considera de alto estatus, será determinante para establecer la división de los alumnos en cuatro estatus sociales: alto, medio-alto, medio-bajo y bajo. De acuerdo a la exploración de la dinámica aporofóbica en el presente estudio, las divisiones en estatus parecen basarse principalmente en las posesiones del menor, en lo actuales o a la moda que sean y en el acceso a figuras de poder. La interacción de estos tres factores configurará la dinámica y estructura del centro en las interacciones basadas en el estatus socioeconómico de los menores, sirviendo de base para la potenciación de actitudes positivas hacia la violencia basada en aporofobia. Esto aporta evidencia sobre la influencia transversal de las actitudes hacia la violencia, que están basadas, al menos en parte, en un intento de aumentar la autoestima, como una forma de divertirse o divertir a los demás, o en la legitimación de las conductas violentas (Pina et al., 2021a; Pina et al., 2021b), en este caso dirigida a aquellos que son percibidos con "menos recursos" en el centro. La mediación de estas actitudes resalta la importancia de la correcta exploración y evaluación de estas en el ámbito de la convivencia escolar. Por tanto, estos resultados pueden utilizarse en futuras investigaciones para estudiar cualitativamente las actitudes hacia la violencia escolar en torno a sus tipos específicos, así como para el diseño de estudios al respecto con un enfoque de carácter longitudinal. 1. Andrade, M. (2008). ¿Qué es la "aporofobia"? Un análisis conceptual sobre prejuicios, estereotipos y discriminación hacia los pobres.
... Tippett and Wolke (2014) conducted a systematic literature review about bullying in connection with socioeconomic status and they found 28 studies that reported the association of socioeconomic status and school bullying. 2 For example, Due et al. (2009) conducted a study that has shown that students with lower socioeconomic status are more frequently bullied than adolescents from families with higher socioeconomic status. ...
... In accordance with our findings, there is a broad agreement to date suggesting that victimization is positively related to low SES. 17,31 An explanation of this finding may reside in the fact that being different from the peer group is a main motivator for victimization. 32 In addition, low parental SES has appeared to be associated with more adverse home environments. ...
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School bullying is increasingly recognized as an important factor affecting both individual's wellbeing and social functioning. Several studies provide evidence for the potential role of contextual factors that relate to bullying victimization such as the socioeconomic status of the parents/ family, the quality of family and home environment, the school climate, structure and ethos, and also various community characteristics. The objectives of this school-based, cross-sectional study were to report the prevalence of the perception of being bullied in a sample of Greek children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age and to investigate the relations among the subjective impression of bullying victimization and several sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that influences external to individual children and adolescents play a decisive role to their perception of being victimized. Bullying victimization was measured through a simple "yes/no" question, which confirmed or rejected respectively the fact that the child or adolescent has been at some time victimized in the school environment. Also, demographic and socioeconomic data about the families of children and adolescents were collected. A total of 1,588 children (51.8% females, mean age ± SD: 12.9±2.8 years) were assessed. The overall prevalence of victimization was 10.4%. Multiple logistic regression analysis on the probability of being victimized identified that living at a main urban center (Odds Ratio[OR]: 2.63, CI: 1.78-3.87, p<0.001), presence of a person with a chronic illness at home (OR: 1.90, CI: 1.12-3.20, p=0.016), poor family economic status (OR: 1.83, CI: 1.05-3.20, p=0.032),and increased number of adults at home (OR: 2.00, CI: 1.00-3.77, p=0,041) had a positive correlation with the prevalence of reported bullying victimization. Moreover, higher parental educational level related to lower probability of victimization (OR: 0.88, CI: 0.78-0.99, p=0.05). These findings demonstrate that several demographic and socioeconomic factors play a potential role in bullying victimization among schoolchildren. Our results also highlight the need to consider the influence of contextual factors in the design of targeting efforts countering and/or preventing bullying victimization.
... Bullying discourse may sanitize students' lived reality by reframing the problems of children's peer relations away from more taboo topics that may generate controversy, concern, or emotional discomfort among students, teachers, parents, and/or the public to discussions focused on the rational definition of bullying itself. Some bullying researchers have indeed raised concerns that sensitively addressing issues of peer relations in school may sometimes require exploring more thorny and taboo issues with students, such as stigmatization (Dixon, 2011), "forms of abuse such as sexual harassment, dating aggression, workplace harassment, and marital, child, and elder abuse" (Mishna, 2012, p. 24), class inequalities (Due et al., 2009), teacher bullying or victimization of low-achieving, or low-motivated students (Delfabbro et al., 2006), the anxiety associated with social exclusion (Schott & Søndergaard, 2014b), or politically-charged bullying against nonmainstream groups (Barchay, 2018). It has also been noted that bullying programs fail to directly address feelings of shame, given the fact that expressing this emotion in public (even with therapists) is taboo, as it is associated with weakness, childishness, and social exclusion (Best, 2016). ...
Article
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Through discussions in class meetings of “concrete situations” experienced by students in their lived experience in and out of the classroom, educators have been encouraged to guide students to understand how bullying applies to their lives, and to learn the degree to which bullying is present or absent in their relationships with their peers (Olweus, 1993). In observations of and interviews about the class meetings at a private, progressive U.S. middle school, student and teacher discourses in response to students’ interpersonal dynamics are found to exist within separate, parallel universes. The teachers’ discourse universe presumes that the lived experience of students can be understood through and guided by abstract, Kantian-like moral universal imperatives – specifically, the imperative to “feel good” and the imperative not to bully. These imperatives supplant dialogue on the events of students’ experiences toward a focus on who the students are becoming rather than who they are now. This discourse of “half-being” maps the students’ experiences upon what is known, predictable, universal, unsurprising and imagined, and assumes that students are not fully responsible for their own or each other’s well-being. By contrast, the students’ discourse on their interpersonal dynamics is characterized by Bakhtin’s (1993) notion of “being-as-event” discourse, which is highly contextualized, unpredictable, and focuses upon everyone’s responsibility to ongoing dramatic and ontologically charged events (either immediate or recursive in nature). The students’ discursive universe is conducive to dialogue, whereas the teachers’ discursive universe supplants the students’ messy, unpredictable and dialogically responsible discourse, thus arresting the possibility for teachers and peers to provide meaningful and authoritative guidance to dialogic events. The reasons for teachers’ attraction to Kantian-like abstract moral universals as well as the consequences of the supplanting of students’ event-filled discourse with the discourse of bullying are discussed
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In this study, it was aimed at investigating peer bullying seen in preschool period on the basis of emotional intelligence and family variables. A total of 286 children aged between 5 and 6 participated in the study. “Storied Hypothetical Situations Form”, “Sullivan Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Brief Empathy Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Teacher Rating Scale of Emotional Intelligence in Children”, “Parents Attitude Scale” and Demographical Information Form have been used as data collection tools. The findings indicated that variables such as emotional intelligence, gender, maternal education level, socio-economic level, father's profession, child's level of interest in violent games and television programs, and democratic and authoritarian parent attitudes were directly related to peer bullying. In addition, the results showed that peer bullying seen in preschool period could be a worth-stressing problem. The findings were discussed in the context of the related literature.
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The school students, particularly girl students are facing lot of pressure not only from the parents and teachers with respect to their academic performance. The peer pressure adds to their woos in various forms, particularly, the bullying by classmates and poor sociability affects their mental health status thereby impacting their academic performance as well as overall personality development. The present study is undertaken to assess the level of mental health status of the government school girl students, particularly adolescent girls, in the backdrop of their experiences as victims of school bullying against their level of sociability. About 160 adolescent girl students studying 8 th-10 th grade in government schools in Coimbatore District were chosen as respondents on random basis. The study was conducted during January-February 2019. The study result shows that about 72% of girl students are normal whereas 28% were poor with respect to their mental health well being. On the contrary, nearly 67% of the girl students had expressed their bitter experiences as victims of School Bullying in the forms of physical / psychological / social bullying. The third part of the study explores the sociability levels of the students, with an extended research on what latent variables /or factors that are accounted for sociability.
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Bullying in every school is one of the biggest challenges and it is the common issue found in ever country around the world. From the ages this issue was present in schools around the world and in Indian context its age-old concept too with different names. In every socioeconomic section in the societies, it is widely prevalent and is having adverse effects on schoolchildren. The aim of this study is to understand the prevalence of bullying in war torn Kashmir: Northern state of India. In addition, the research will try to understand the gender difference in bullying and the relationship of bullying with socioeconomic status of their families. The study used Quantitative method for data collection. The study was conducted among students of higher secondary schools in Kashmir valley. The research was conducted among 1003 adolescents (Boys n=501, & Girls n=502). The survey scale of English Translated version of Peer Bullying Survey Questionnaire was used to assess the bullying. The results show that the prevalence rates of peer victimization among male and female secondary school students were 25.8% are Victims, 14.0% are Bully, 15.7 % are Bully-Victim and 44.6 % are neutral and it was found that there is no significant difference among different socioeconomic groups and bullying. In short, conclusion the data shows that Kashmir is not different in matter of bullying issues.
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