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Abstract

Basic foundational aspects of both quantum theory and relativity might induce to represent the physical vacuum as an underlying highly turbulent fluid. By explicit numerical simulations, we show that a form of statistically isotropic and homogeneous vacuum turbulence is entirely consistent with the present ether-drift experiments. In particular, after subtracting known forms of disturbances, the observed stochastic signal requires velocity fluctuations whose absolute scale is well described by the average Earth's motion with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background. We emphasize that the existence of a genuine stochastic ether drift could be crucial for the emergence of forms of self-organization in matter and thus for the whole approach to complexity.

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... By comparing with the motion of a body in a fluid, this traditional view corresponds to the form of regular ("laminar") flow in which global and local velocity fields coincide. Some general arguments (see [41,42]) suggest instead that the physical vacuum might behave as a stochastic medium that resembles a turbulent fluid in which large-scale and small-scale flows are only indirectly related. This means that the projection of the global velocity field at the site of the experiment, sayṽ µ (t), could differ non-trivially from the local field v µ (t), which determines the direction and magnitude of the drift in the plane of the interferometer. ...
... However, in principle, a definite instantaneous value ∆c θ (t) c = 0 could also coexist with a vanishing statistical average. This possibility was considered in [37][38][39][40][41][42] by assuming that the observed signal is determined by a local velocity field, say v µ (t), which does not coincide with the projection of the global Earth motion, sayṽ µ (t), at the observation site. By comparing with the motion of a body in a fluid, the equality v µ (t) =ṽ µ (t) amounts to the assumption of a form of regular, laminar flow where global and local velocity fields coincide. ...
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The dominant CMB dipole anisotropy is a Doppler effect due to a particular motion of the solar system with a velocity of 370 km/s. Since this derives from peculiar motions and local inhomogeneities, one could meaningfully consider a fundamental frame of rest Σ associated with the Universe as a whole. From the group properties of Lorentz transformations, two observers, individually moving within Σ, would still be connected by the relativistic composition rules. However, the ultimate implications could be substantial. Physical interpretation is thus traditionally demanded in order to correlate some of the dragging of light observed in the laboratory with the direct CMB observations. Today, the small residuals—from those of Michelson–Morley to present experiments with optical resonators—are just considered instrumental artifacts. However, if the velocity of light in the interferometers is not the same parameter “c” of Lorentz transformations, nothing would prevent a non-zero dragging. Furthermore, the observable effects would be much smaller than what is classically expected and would most likely be of an irregular nature. We review an alternative reading of experiments that leads to remarkable correlations with the CMB observations. Notably, we explain the irregular 10−15 fractional frequency shift presently measured with optical resonators operating in vacuum and solid dielectrics. For integration times of about 1 s and a typical Central European latitude, we also predict daily variations of the Allan variance in the range (5÷12)·10−16.
... Some have already been carried out, others are ongoing in both small and large scale physics. In small scale physics there have been experiments attempting to reveal a privileged Lorentz' reference system, as proposed by a group of the Catania INFN (Consoli et al., 2014), and studies conducted at the Flinders University of Adelaide in Australia (Cahill, 2009). Ether has been a stone-guest of science for a long time and even initial deniers were and are now forced to take it seriously (Kostro, 2001; see also the text of Einstein's lecture of 1922, dedicated to this physical entity). ...
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In the March 2019 issue of the Rendiconti Online of the SGI, a geologist continued his attack on the theory of terrestrial expansion (Sudiro, 2019), this time focusing on the implications that paleomagnetic data, particularly the paleopoles, have as evidence for the expanding Earth concept. An initial more general publication on the subject by the same author appeared in the EGU History of the Earth Sciences journal in 2014 (Sudiro, 2014). The present paper demonstrates the inadequacy of many of the criticisms formulated in the above publications, making it clear that the expanding Earth is not an out-dated idea from the historical-scientific contingencies of the past, but instead a scientific concept that is very much alive and with very interesting future prospects. The evidential value of the paleopole data and catalogues is specifically defended here, together with the TPW and its link to the opening of the Pacific Ocean. The numerous lines of research that have emerged on the basis of expanding Earth are briefly described in a non-exhaustive review. The failure to recognise the expansion of celestial bodies as a phenomenon could be a contributing factor to the current state of crisis in Physics and Cosmology.
... Questi esperimenti sono stati già effettuati, e continuano ad essere in corso, sia nella piccola che nella grande fisica. Nella piccola fisica ricordo gli esperimenti per tentare di rivelare un sistema di riferimento privilegiato Lorentziano progettati da un gruppo dell'INFN di Catania (Consoli et al., 2014) e quelli condotti alla Flinders University di Adelaide in Australia (Cahill, 2009). Il grande convitato di pietra della scienza, non solo contemporanea, si chiama etere e a lui ha dovuto inchinarsi anche chi inizialmente lo aveva escluso (Kostro, 2001; si veda anche il testo della conferenza di Einstein del 1922, dedicato a questa entità fisica). ...
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Una risposta ad articoli negazionisti della espansione terrestre
... It has not yet been possible to choose between the various types of ether, mainly because experimental data are lacking. The experiments of Cahill and Consoli (Cahill 2009;Consoli et al. 2014) reveal the existence of an ether background, but not its characteristics. Returning to Newton's difficulties in theorising different ethers, could it be that their multiplicity is real? ...
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This article is written in honor of my mentor Franco Selleri who has helped to consolidate my awareness of the existence of a medium subtended to ordinary matter, and from which everything comes. From my field, the Earth Sciences, come clues converging on an important role of the ether in the geological evolution of Earth and planets, as well as all the structures of the universe. Paleogeographic reconstructions allow a rough quantitative evaluation of the amount of new ordinary matter that is added to the planet in the unity of time, and the consequent statement of some cosmological consequences and on the inner energy balance of the Earth. The concept of central flow of ether defended here is different from the Lorentian stationary ether, but the two concepts could be made compatible.
... Other effects. A third option in explaining the experimental results of Dai is to consider them caused by (i) the "anisotropy of space" (as experimentally investigated over decades by Shnoll et al. [12][13][14][15][16][17]), interaction with (ii) the (quantum) vacuum (which, according to experimental findings of Graham and Lahoz, can be regarded as "something in motion" [18]), (iii) a "cosmological vector potential" [19], or (iv) a fundamental medium [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31], also regarded as a "complex tension field" [32]. In this context, a relation of the observed anisotropic diffusion to the Saganc effect [33][34][35][36] should be considered too. ...
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Anisotropic diffusion patterns of a toluidine blue colloid solution in water were recently reported by J. Dai (Nat. Sci., 2014, v. 6 (2), 54–58). According to Dai's observations the fluctuation of anisotropy showed a diurnal and annual periodicity. Since these obser-vations were only qualitatively described in the original manuscript, the data was re-assessed by performing a detailed statistical analysis. The analysis revealed that indeed (i) the diffusion patterns exhibit a non-random characteristic (i.e. the maximum diffu-sion trend is not uniformly distributed), and (ii) a diurnal as well as an annual oscillation could be extracted and modeled with a sinusoidal function. In conclusion, the present analysis supports Dai's findings about anisotropy in diffusion of colloids in water with a daily and annual periodicity. Possible explanations of the observed effect are discussed and suggestions for further experiments are given.
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The possibility to correlate ether-drift measurements in laboratory and direct CMB observations with satellites in space would definitely confirm the existence of a fundamental preferred frame for relativity. Today, the small residuals observed so far (from Michelson-Morley onward) are just considered typical instrumental effects in experiments with better and better sensitivity. Though, if the velocity of light propagating in the various interferometers is not exactly the same parameter c of Lorentz transformations, nothing would really prevent to observe an ether drift. Thus, for the Earth cosmic velocity v = 370 km/s, we argue that a fundamental 10-15 light anisotropy, as presently observed in vacuum and in solid dielectrics, is revealing a 10-9 difference in the vacuum effective refractivity between an apparatus in an ideal freely falling frame and an apparatus on the Earth surface. In this perspective, the stochastic nature of the physical vacuum could also explain the irregular character of the signal and the observed substantial reduction from its instantaneous 10-15 value to its statistical average 10-18 (or smaller). For the same v = 370 km/s the different refractivities, respectively, O(10-4) and O(10-5) for air or helium at atmospheric pressure, could also explain the observed light anisotropy, respectively O(10-10) and O(10-11) . However, for consistency, one should also understand the physical mechanism which enhances the signal in weakly bound gaseous matter but remains ineffective in solid dielectrics where the refractivity is O(1) . This mechanism is naturally identified in a non-local, tiny temperature gradient of a fraction of millikelvin which is found in all classical experiments and might ultimately be related to the CMB temperature dipole of ±3 mK or reflect the fundamental energy flow associated with a Lorentz-non-invariant vacuum state. The importance of the issue would deserve more stringent tests with dedicated experiments and significant improvements in the data analysis.-1
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This this article is written in honor of my mentor Franco Selleri who has helped to consolidate my awareness of the existence of a medium subtended to ordinary matter, and from which everything comes. From my field, the Earth Sciences, come clues converging on an important role of the ether in the geological evolution of Earth and planets, as well as all the structures of the universe. Paleogeographic reconstructions allow a rough quantitative evaluation of the amount of new ordinary matter that is added to the planet in the unity of time, and the consequent statement of some co-smological consequences and on the inner energy balance of the Earth. The concept of central flow of ether defended here is different from the Lorentian stationary ether, but the two concepts could be made compatible.
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We prove that, when linearized, the governing equations of an incompressible viscoelastic continuum can be rendered into a form identical to that of Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics. The divergence of deviator stress tensor is analogous to the electric field, while the vorticity (the curl of velocity field) is interpreted as the magnetic field. The elastic part of constitutive relation explains Maxwell’s displacement current, and is responsible for the propagation of gradient (shear) waves. In turn, the viscous part is associated with the Ampere’s and Ohm’s laws for the current. This analogy is extended further and the nonlinearity of the material time derivative (the advective part of acceleration) is interpreted as the Lorentz force. The classical wave equations of electrodynamics are also derived as corollaries. Thus an interesting and far reaching analogy between the viscoelastic continuum and the electrodynamics is established.
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Modern ether-drift experiments look for a preferred frame by measuring the difference Δν in the relative frequencies of two cavity-stabilized lasers, upon local rotations of the apparatus or under the Earth's rotation. If the small deviations observed in the classical ether-drift experiments were not mere instrumental artifacts, by replacing the high vacuum in the resonating cavities with a dielectric gaseous medium (e.g., air), the typical measured Δν∼1 Hz should increase by orders of magnitude. This prediction is consistent with the characteristic modulation of a few kHz observed in the original experiment with He–Ne masers. However, if such enhancement would not be confirmed by new and more precise data, the existence of a preferred frame can be definitely ruled out.
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We consider nonequilibrium systems with complex dynamics in stationary states with large fluctuations of intensive quantities (e.g. the temperature, chemical potential or energy dissipation) on long time scales. Depending on the statistical properties of the fluctuations, we obtain different effective statistical mechanical descriptions. Tsallis statistics follows from a χ2-distribution of an intensive variable, but other classes of generalized statistics are obtained as well. We show that for small variance of the fluctuations all these different statistics behave in a universal way.
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(1) A wave equation is derived from the kinetic equations governing media with rotational as well as translational degrees of freedom. In this wave the fluctuating quantity is a vector, the bulk spin. The transmission is similar to compressive waves but propagation is possible even in the limit of incompressibility, where such disturbances could become dominant. (2) In this context a kinetic theory of space–time is introduced, in which hypothetical constituents of the space–time manifold possess such a rotational degree of freedom (spin). Physical fields (i.e., electromagnetic or gravitational) in such a theory are represented as moments of a statistical distribution of these constituents, as in the techniques of fluid mechanics. The spin wave equation from (1) is treated as a candidate for governing light and metric. Such a theory duplicates to first order Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, Schrödinger's equation for the electron, and the Lorentz transformations of special relativity. Slight deviations from the classical approach are predicted and should be experimentally verifiable.