Strategies for the Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction and/or Hyperprolactinemia Among Patients of the Schizophrenia Spectrum: A Review

Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (Impact Factor: 1.27). 05/2012; 38(3):281-301. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2011.606883
Source: PubMed


There is limited evidence for the management of sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinemia resulting from use of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and spectrum. The aim of this study was to review and describe the strategies for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunctions and/or hyperprolactinemia. The research was carried out through Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Embase, and PsycINFO, and it included open labels or randomized clinical trials. The authors found 31 studies: 25 open-label noncontrolled studies and 6 randomized controlled clinical trials. The randomized, double-blind controlled studies that were conducted with adjunctive treatment that showed improvement of sexual dysfunction and/or decrease of prolactin levels were sildenafil and aripiprazole. The medication selegiline and cyproheptadine did not improve sexual function. The switch to quetiapine was demonstrated in 2 randomized controlled studies: 1 showed improvement in the primary outcome and the other did not. This reviewed data have suggested that further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to provide evidence for the effects of different strategies to manage sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinaemia resulting from antipsychotics. These trials are necessary in order to have a better compliance and reduce the distress among patients with schizophrenia.

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    • "In a review of 31 studies of strategies to treat hyperprolactinemia, Nunes et al. [111] found that only aripiprazole appears to have efficacy. Thus, most data suggests that aripriprazole10-30 mg/day is effective at decreasing prolactin, improving prolactin related side effects and possibly improving residual psychiatric symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prolactin elevations occur in people treated with antipsychotic medications and are often much higher in women than in men. Hyperprolactinemia is known to cause amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, galactorrhea and gynecomastia in females and is also associated with sexual dysfunction and bone loss. These side effects increase risk of antipsychotic nonadherence and suicide and pose significant problems in the long term management of women with schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we review the literature on prolactin; its physiology, plasma levels, side effects and strategies for treatment. We also present the rationale and protocol for an ongoing clinical trial to treat symptomatic hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women with schizophrenia. More attention and focus are needed to address these significant side effects and help the field better personalize the treatment of women with schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · BMC Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence is accumulating to support the presence of erectile dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. This dysregulation may be amenable to therapeutic intervention to improve adherence and quality of life of patients who suffer from schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. We aimed to evaluate the use of adjunctive medication lodenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in outpatients with schizophrenia and spectrum. The design was a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial with lodenafil and it was carried at the Schizophrenia Outpatients Program. The measures used to assess sexual dysfunction were Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) were also used. The measures included the levels of prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, and total testosterone at baseline and end point. Lodenafil and placebo pills were used by the patients for 16 weeks. Fifty male outpatients fulfilled the criteria and 94% of the participants completed the study. Lodenafil and placebo produced improvement in ASEX, IIEF scale, PANSS, and QLS, and there was no statistical difference between lodenafil and placebo groups in all sexual domains in the results of PANSS and QLS and in the results of hormone levels. These results indicate that both lodenafil and placebo were effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction for schizophrenia. Placebo effect is very important in patients with schizophrenia and this study showed the importance of discussing sexuality and trying to treat these patients. Further studies designed to test treatments of erectile dysfunction in patients who suffer from schizophrenia are necessary.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The altered profiles of prolactin secretion in the anterior hypophysis, generated by pathological, pharmacological or toxicological causes, have special consequences on multiple functions in both genders. Areas covered: This selective review presents the main mechanisms controlling prolactin secretion, focusing on the interplay of various neurotransmitters or xenobiotics, but also on the role of psychic or posttraumatic stress. A detailed analysis of several pharmacotherapeutic groups with hyperprolactinemic effects emphasize on the relevance of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic mechanisms and the clinical significance of the long term administration. Expert opinion: Accurate monitoring and evaluation of the hyperprolactinemia induced by xenobiotics is strongly recommended. The typical antipsychotics and some of the atypical agents (amisulpride, risperidone, paliperidone), as well as some antidepressants, antihypertensives and prokinetics, are the most important groups inducing hyperprolactinemia. The hyperprolactinemic effects are correlated with their affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, their blood-brain barrier penetration and, implicitly, the requested dose for adequate occupancy of cerebral D2 receptors. Consequently, integration of available pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data supports the idea of therapeutic switch to non-hyperprolactinemic agents (especially aripiprazole) or their association, for an optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Possible alternative strategies for counteracting the xenobiotics-induced hyperprolactinemia are also mentioned.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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