Article

Strategies for the Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction and/or Hyperprolactinemia Among Patients of the Schizophrenia Spectrum: A Review

Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (Impact Factor: 1.27). 05/2012; 38(3):281-301. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2011.606883
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

There is limited evidence for the management of sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinemia resulting from use of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and spectrum. The aim of this study was to review and describe the strategies for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunctions and/or hyperprolactinemia. The research was carried out through Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Embase, and PsycINFO, and it included open labels or randomized clinical trials. The authors found 31 studies: 25 open-label noncontrolled studies and 6 randomized controlled clinical trials. The randomized, double-blind controlled studies that were conducted with adjunctive treatment that showed improvement of sexual dysfunction and/or decrease of prolactin levels were sildenafil and aripiprazole. The medication selegiline and cyproheptadine did not improve sexual function. The switch to quetiapine was demonstrated in 2 randomized controlled studies: 1 showed improvement in the primary outcome and the other did not. This reviewed data have suggested that further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to provide evidence for the effects of different strategies to manage sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinaemia resulting from antipsychotics. These trials are necessary in order to have a better compliance and reduce the distress among patients with schizophrenia.

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    • "In a review of 31 studies of strategies to treat hyperprolactinemia, Nunes et al. [111] found that only aripiprazole appears to have efficacy. Thus, most data suggests that aripriprazole10-30 mg/day is effective at decreasing prolactin, improving prolactin related side effects and possibly improving residual psychiatric symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The altered profiles of prolactin secretion in the anterior hypophysis, generated by pathological, pharmacological or toxicological causes, have special consequences on multiple functions in both genders. Areas covered: This selective review presents the main mechanisms controlling prolactin secretion, focusing on the interplay of various neurotransmitters or xenobiotics, but also on the role of psychic or posttraumatic stress. A detailed analysis of several pharmacotherapeutic groups with hyperprolactinemic effects emphasize on the relevance of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic mechanisms and the clinical significance of the long term administration. Expert opinion: Accurate monitoring and evaluation of the hyperprolactinemia induced by xenobiotics is strongly recommended. The typical antipsychotics and some of the atypical agents (amisulpride, risperidone, paliperidone), as well as some antidepressants, antihypertensives and prokinetics, are the most important groups inducing hyperprolactinemia. The hyperprolactinemic effects are correlated with their affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, their blood-brain barrier penetration and, implicitly, the requested dose for adequate occupancy of cerebral D2 receptors. Consequently, integration of available pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data supports the idea of therapeutic switch to non-hyperprolactinemic agents (especially aripiprazole) or their association, for an optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Possible alternative strategies for counteracting the xenobiotics-induced hyperprolactinemia are also mentioned.
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