Article

Androgen Receptor Splice Variants Activate Androgen Receptor Target Genes and Support Aberrant Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Independent of Canonical Androgen Receptor Nuclear Localization Signal

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/2012; 287(23):19736-49. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.352930
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Synthesis of truncated androgen receptor (AR) splice variants has emerged as an important mechanism of prostate cancer (PCa) resistance to AR-targeted therapy and progression to a lethal castration-resistant phenotype. However, the precise role of these factors at this stage of the disease is not clear due to loss of multiple COOH-terminal AR protein domains, including the canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the AR hinge region. Despite loss of this NLS, we show that diverse truncated AR variant species have a basal level of nuclear localization sufficient for ligand-independent transcriptional activity. Whereas full-length AR requires Hsp90 and importin-β for active nuclear translocation, basal nuclear localization of truncated AR variants is independent of these classical signals. For a subset of truncated AR variants, this basal level of nuclear import can be augmented by unique COOH-terminal sequences that reconstitute classical AR NLS activity. However, this property is separable from ligand-independent transcriptional activity. Therefore, the AR splice variant core consisting of the AR NH(2)-terminal domain and DNA binding domain is sufficient for nuclear localization and androgen-independent transcriptional activation of endogenous AR target genes. Indeed, we show that truncated AR variants with nuclear as well as nuclear/cytoplasmic localization patterns can drive androgen-independent growth of PCa cells. Together, our data demonstrate that diverse truncated AR species with varying efficiencies of nuclear localization can contribute to castration-resistant PCa pathology by driving persistent ligand-independent AR transcriptional activity.

Full-text preview

Available from: jbc.org
  • Source
    • "While in vivo both, the AR and ARΔLBD are expressed in CRPC cells, it was suggested that ARΔLBD- receptors must act in concert with full length AR to activate AR-dependent genes in CRPC [41]. Although there is experimental evidence that ARΔLBDs like ARv567es and Q640X form heterodimers [30], [31] with full length AR in vitro, the functional relationships between the AR and ARΔLBD remain largely unknown [41], [42]. However, based on clinical and experimental observations there is no doubt that ARΔLBDs are involved in the progression of CRPC [3], [10]–[12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often characterized by an increase of C-terminally truncated, constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) variants. Due to the absence of a ligand binding domain located in the AR-C-terminus, these receptor variants (also termed ARΔLBD) are unable to respond to all classical forms of endocrine treatments like surgical/chemical castration and/or application of anti-androgens. Methodology In this study we tested the effects of the naturally occurring stilbene resveratrol (RSV) and (E)-4-(2, 6-Difluorostyryl)-N, N-dimethylaniline, a fluorinated dialkylaminostilbene (FIDAS) on AR- and ARΔLBD in prostate cancer cells. The ability of the compounds to modulate transcriptional activity of AR and the ARΔLBD-variant Q640X was shown by reporter gene assays. Expression of endogenous AR and ARΔLBD mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Nuclear translocation of AR-molecules was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. AR and ARΔLBD/Q640X homo-/heterodimer formation was assessed by mammalian two hybrid assays. Biological activity of both compounds in vivo was demonstrated using a chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay. Results The stilbenes RSV and FIDAS were able to significantly diminish AR and Q640X-signalling. Successful inhibition of the Q640X suggests that RSV and FIDAS are not interfering with the AR-ligand binding domain like all currently available anti-hormonal drugs. Repression of AR and Q640X-signalling by RSV and FIDAS in prostate cancer cells was caused by an inhibition of the AR and/or Q640X-dimerization. Although systemic bioavailability of both stilbenes is very low, both compounds were also able to downregulate tumor growth and AR-signalling in vivo. Conclusion RSV and FIDAS are able to inhibit the dimerization of AR and ARΔLBD molecules suggesting that stilbenes might serve as lead compounds for a novel generation of AR-inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Moreover, it was recently shown that truncated forms of AR with intact NH 2 -terminal and DNA binding domains are constitutively active and able to maintain androgen-independent transcriptional activation of endogenous AR target genes, thus supporting androgen-independent growth of PCa cells (Chan et al., 2012). The expression of these forms is associated with a poor prognosis and they have been recognized Fig. 2 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality have decreased in recent years. Nonetheless, it remains one of the most prevalent cancers in men, being a disquieting cause of men's death worldwide. Changes in many cell signaling pathways have a predominant role in the onset, development, and progression of the disease. These include prominent pathways involved in the growth, apoptosis, and angiogenesis of the normal prostate gland, such as androgen and estrogen signaling, and other growth factor signaling pathways. Understanding the foundations of PCa is leading to the discovery of key molecules that could be used to improve patient management. The ideal scenario would be to have a panel of molecules, preferably detectable in body fluids, that are specific and sensitive biomarkers for PCa. In the early stages, androgen deprivation is the gold standard therapy. However, as the cancer progresses, it eventually becomes independent of androgens, and hormonal therapy fails. For this reason, androgen-independent PCa is still a major therapeutic challenge. By disrupting specific protein interactions or manipulating the expression of some key molecules, it might be possible to regulate tumor growth and metastasis formation, avoiding the systemic side effects of current therapies. Clinical trials are already underway to assess the efficacy of molecules specially designed to target key proteins or protein interactions. In this review, we address that recent progress made towards understanding PCa development and the molecular pathways underlying this pathology. We also discuss relevant molecular markers for the management of PCa and new therapeutic challenges.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
  • Source
    • "Expression vectors for the AR variants including 1/2/3, 1/2/3/2b, CE1, CE2, and CE3 (the later three variants are also named as AR-V1, AR-V5, and AR- V7, respectively [12]) and deletion mutants of the AR AF-1 domain were generated as described [11,12,24,25]. The AF-1 domain of the deletion mutants was amplified by PCR and ligated with the pGEX-4T-1 vector (GE Healthcare Life Sciences) to generate GST-AF-1 constructs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Aberrant activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is a major factor highly relevant to castration-resistant progression of prostate cancer (PCa). FOXO1, a key downstream effector of PTEN, inhibits androgen-independent activation of the AR. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Methods: The inhibitory effect of FOXO1 on full-length and constitutively active splice variants of the AR was examined by luciferase reporter assays and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In vitro protein binding assays and western blot analyses were used to determine the regions in FOXO1 and AR responsible for their interaction. Results: We found that a putative transcription repression domain in the NH2-terminus of FOXO1 is dispensable for FOXO1 inhibition of the AR. In vitro protein binding assays showed that FOXO1 binds to the transcription activation unit 5 (TAU5) motif in the AR NH2-terminal domain (NTD), a region required for recruitment of p160 activators including SRC-1. Ectopic expression of SRC-1 augmented transcriptional activity of some, but not all AR splice variants examined. Forced expression of FOXO1 blocked the effect of SRC-1 on AR variants' transcriptional activity by decreasing the binding of SRC-1 to the AR NTD. Ectopic expression of FOXO1 inhibited expression of endogenous genes activated primarily by alternatively spliced AR variants in human castration-resistant PCa 22Rv1 cells. Conclusions: FOXO1 binds to the TAU5 motif in the AR NTD and inhibits ligand-independent activation of AR splice variants, suggesting the PTEN/FOXO1 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for inhibition of aberrant AR activation and castration-resistant PCa growth.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Prostate
Show more

Similar Publications