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Reply to the discussion of “Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration”

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.34). 04/2012; 37(3):520-9. DOI: 10.1139/h2012-038
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The effect of short duration exercise (EXR) on food intake (FI) and energy balance (EB) is not well understood in either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW) and obese (OB) 9-14 years old children. Our purpose was to describe the effects of activity and a glucose drink on short term FI, appetite, and EB in NW, OW, and OB boys. Each boy received in random order either a noncaloric Sucralose sweetened control or glucose (1.0 g·kg(-1) body weight) drink 5 min after either exercise (EXR) or sedentary (SED) activity. Boys exercised for 15 min at their ventilation threshold (V(T)) in experiment 1 or at 25% above their V(T) in experiment 2. FI was measured at an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min after drink consumption. FI was lower after the glucose drink (p < 0.001) but not affected by activity, even though EXR increased appetite (p < 0.001). OW/OB boys ate more total food than NW boys (p = 0.020). EB over the duration of the experiments was reduced by EXR in OW/OB boys (p = 0.013) but not in NW boys in either experiment (p > 0.05). We conclude that intake regulation in OW/OB boys in response to a glucose drink is similar to NW boys, but it may be less responsive to activity.

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Available from: Barkha P Patel
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    • "BMI, body mass index; NW, normal weight; OB, obese; OW, overweight. same age group (Bellissimo et al. 2007aBellissimo et al. , 2008b Patel et al. 2011; Tamam et al. 2012 ). However, caloric compensation for the premeal glucose drink was affected by weight and type of ads in boys only. "
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    ABSTRACT: Food advertisements (ads) in TV programs influence food choice and have been associated with higher energy intake from snacks in children; however, their effects at mealtime have not been reported. Therefore, we measured energy intake at a pizza meal consumed by normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children (aged 9-14 years) while they watched a TV program with or without food ads and following pre-meal consumption of a sweetened beverage with or without calories. NW and OW/OB boys (experiment 1, n = 27) and girls (experiment 2, n = 23) were randomly assigned to consume equally sweetened drinks containing glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (control). Food intake was measured 30 min later while children watched a program containing food or nonfood ads. Appetite was measured before (0-30 min) and after (60 min) the meal. Both boys and girls reduced energy intake at the meal in compensation for energy in the glucose beverage (p < 0.05). Food ads resulted in further compensation (51%) in boys but not in girls. Food ads increased energy intake at the meal (9%; p = 0.03) in OW/OB girls only. In conclusion, the effects of TV programs with food ads on mealtime energy intake and response to pre-meal energy consumption in children differ by sex and body mass index.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
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    • "Tamam et al. asked 9–14 year old lean and obese adolescents to complete a 15 minute treadmill exercise set at the ventilatory threshold. They did not observe a modification in energy intake in both groups after exercise compared to the resting session [10]. Although these results contradict previously published data in obese adolescents [11] [12], the use of a highly palatable buffet meal (pizza) makes interpretation difficult. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute intensive exercise has been shown to induce a decreased subsequent daily energy intake in obese adolescents without altering the subjective appetite feelings. It is however unclear whether or not those nutritional adaptations to acute exercise are affected by the adolescents' weight status. The aim of this study was to compare the energy intake and macronutrient preferences, appetite feeling and energy expenditure response to acute exercise between lean and obese adolescents. Ten obese and nine normal weight 12-15year old adolescents randomly completed a session with a 30minute cycling exercise at 75% VO2max and a sedentary session. During both sessions energy expenditure was assessed using Armband, ad libitum energy intake measured by weighing at both lunch and dinner time and appetite feelings assessed using Visual Analogue Scales. Daily, morning and afternoon energy expenditure were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight adolescents (p<0.001). Total energy expenditure was significantly higher during EX (1086±157kcal) compared to SED (853±154kcal) in lean (p<0.05) but not significantly different in obese (respectively 1865±222 and 1803±232kcal). Afternoon energy expenditure was significantly lower during EX compare to SED in obese (p<0.05) but not in normal weight adolescents. Lunch, dinner and total daily energy intake were significantly reduced after the exercise session in obese (p>0.05) but not in lean adolescents. No group or condition effects were observed on subjective appetite feelings. Post exercise spontaneous energy intake and energy expenditure are reduced in obese but not in normal weight adolescents, without appetite feelings changes. Acute exercise may have a greater impact on energy balance through the induced decreased energy intake in the absence of significant change in energy expenditure in obese youth.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Physiology & Behavior
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    • "Since the time spent to do their homework has been identified as the main after-school activity in children (with screen time) (Atkin, Gorely, Biddle, Marshall, & Cameron, 2008; Biddle, Gorely, Marshall, & Cameron, 2009), it appears necessary to question its impact on EB (both intake and expenditure), which remains unexplored so far. Although no results are reported concerning EE, it has been shown that 15 min of board games and 15 min of intensive exercise (at ventilatory threshold) similarly affect EI in both lean and obese adolescents (higher energy consumption in obese) (Tamam et al., 2012). Although those data have to be considered carefully regarding the highly palatable composition of the meals (pizza) and the very short exercise duration (15 min), it might indicate that subsequent EI is not driven by the activityinduced EE, irrespective of weight status. "
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    ABSTRACT: Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Appetite
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