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Masculinity, Shame, and Fear of Emotions as Predictors of Men's Expressions of Anger and Hostility

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Abstract

Male participants (N=204) were assessed using measures of masculine ideology, masculine gender-role stress, proneness to shame, and fear of emotions. These variables served as predictors of men’s anger expression and overt hostility. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that masculinity, proneness to shame, and men’s fear of emotions predicted 19% of the variance of overt hostility, with men’s fear of emotions emerging as a significant predictor after accounting for masculinity factors. Men’s fear of emotions predicted a small but significant portion of the variance of men’s anger, whereas factors of masculinity and shame proneness did not. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of future research directions and clinical interventions for men’s anger and hostility.

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... Additionally, these traditional masculine norms may concurrently sanction the expression of men's anger and aggression to dissipate or disguise distress (Addis, 2008;Rice et al., 2019). Within this context, anger and aggression can be viewed as an attempt to protect or disavow male vulnerabilities, which at their core may involve shame-related concerns (Jakupcak et al., 2005). ...
... The experience of shame in the context of impoverished emotion regulation abilities-such as alexithymia-may lead to increased psychological distress given the two-fold effect of a reduced capacity to respond adaptively to the shame experience as well as a potential for socialized discomfort with the emotion. This may then lead to higher risk of anger issues in men, as anger is a common response to distress that aligns with male gender role socialization (Genuchi & Mitsunaga, 2015;Rice et al., 2019); anger is thought to afford distressed men the capacity to reassert control over a situation (Jakupcak et al., 2005). However, to date, there is limited research exploring the ways in which some men's difficulty identifying and describing feelings may exacerbate the relationships between shame, distress and anger. ...
... Research has highlighted how anger potentially stems from men avoiding the expression or display of other, more vulnerable emotions (Cohn et al., 2010) owed to an underlying fear of these emotions (Jakupcak et al., 2005). Indeed, restrictive emotionality has been a key focus in the extant literature investigating men's externalizing responses (Donahue et al., 2014;Jakupcak et al., 2005). ...
Article
The psychological mechanisms connecting shame and anger among men remain underexplored. This study aimed to understand the potential roles of psychological distress and alexithymia in this pathway, both in the form of difficulty identifying and describing one’s feelings. Self-report measures were completed by 1,000 men (age mean = 49.6 years; range = 19–86 years). Conditional process analysis investigated a moderated mediation effect to determine whether men’s distress mediated the relationship between shame and anger, and whether this effect differed according to severity and type of alexithymia. Findings indicated moderated mediation, with psychological distress a significant mediator in the association between shame and anger. Furthermore, difficulties describing feelings (but not identifying feelings) moderated the relationship between shame and psychological distress. Men’s shame can be expressed via anger when experiencing psychological distress, and the inability to express one’s feelings exacerbates this pathway. Clinical and public health avenues to reduce the impact of alexithymia are discussed.
... The need to show his toughness "to the world" suggests how masculine norms define dominance and success for men. It also indicates how masculinity is involved in maintaining barriers for male survivors, who engage in toxic and hyperaggressive behaviors to mitigate nonconforming emotions (Jakupcak et al., 2005). ...
... All participants reported engaging in selfblame, a mechanism designed to rationalize the events in one's life by self-questioning and self-scrutiny (Davis et al., 1996;Janoff-Bulman, 1979). Despite being able to identify the downfalls of self-blaming and recognizing their abusers' culpability, most participants still needed to have agency over their victimization, highlighting the extent to which men internalize guilt, shame, and self-blame (Jakupcak et al., 2006(Jakupcak et al., , 2005. Additionally, to resolve and mitigate emotional distress, participants reported a variety of compensatory behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, aggressiveness, risky sexual behaviors). ...
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Research on men’s experiences of sexual victimization is limited and largely outdated. The present study seeks to remedy this issue by qualitatively examining the accounts of nine male-on-male survivors of rape and sexual abuse in the UK. It examines survivors’ experiences of psychological distress post-incident, the influence and manifestation of male rape myths, challenges in self-recognition and disclosure, and barriers to accessing therapeutic support and reporting to the Criminal Justice System (CJS). Participants took part in one-to-one, semi-structured video interviews, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was utilized to identify four superordinate themes of participants’ experiences: i) gendered narratives, ii) coping with the abuse, iii) masculinity, and iv) reporting to the police. These themes emphasized the stigma and hostility repeatedly encountered by survivors after their victimization. Participants provided an account of short and long-term psychological issues following the abuse, emphasizing the role of self-perceptions of masculinity in the development of unhealthy coping mechanisms. Findings also highlighted the prevalence of prejudice and rape mythology that characterized negative encounters within the public, voluntary agencies, and the CJS. Results are discussed in relation to current service provision in the UK, recommendations for future research, and avenues for improvements across multiple vital entry points.
... Some have suggested that aggressive responses are driven by men's inability to accept or tolerate emotional experiences, particularly stereotypically feminine emotional experiences, like anxiety (Cohn et al., 2010). Men's fear of emotions predicts a significant portion of the variance in their anger (Jakupcak et al., 2005), and anger mediates the relation between threats to men's masculinity and aggressive behavior (Cohn, Zeichner, & Seibert, 2008;Dahl et al., 2015). ...
... Similarly, the threat of being like a woman promotes public discomfort, or concerns about how one is perceived by others, and anger (Dahl et al., 2015). Men also report anger and hostility when they imagine themselves as violators of masculine gender roles (Jakupcak et al., 2005). Threats to masculinity also lead to compensatory acts of sexist dominance (e.g., subtle sexism, the sexualization of threatening women; Dahl et al., 2015); physical aggression (Bosson et al., 2009); social and economic aggression (Rudman & Fairchild, 2004;Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Phelan, & Nauts, 2012); and sexual aggression (Maass, Cadinu, Guarnieri, & Grasselli, 2003). ...
Article
The present work examined whether men's and women's gender-identities and experiences of gender threats influenced their self-images. Findings across two studies (N = 567) revealed that masculinity in men appears to be more precarious than femininity is in women, but when similarly threatened in a given situation both men's and women's anger predicted their construction of gender compensatory self-images. Specifically, in Study 1, participants' definition of the self in terms of gender ingroup (vs. outgroup) traits (a) positively predicted the gender stereotypicality of men's and women's actual photographs and women's constructed self-images, but (b) negatively predicted the gender stereotypicality of men's self-images. Men whose self definitions least strongly prioritized gender ingroup (over outgroup) traits generated the most gender stereotypic self-images, as rated by independent judges. In addition, in Study 2, after being led to believe that they performed like average members of their gender outgroup (i.e., threat condition) on a gender knowledge test, men expressed more public discomfort and were angrier than women. Gender threat (vs. assurance) also indirectly predicted the generation of more gender stereotypic self-images for men, but not women; this effect was significant via serial mediation, through public discomfort and anger. However, extending prior findings, anger (but not public discomfort) was significantly associated with and predicted the construction of feedback contradicting self-images similarly. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and research on gender-identity, self-image, and compensatory gender threat responses.
... Although the linkages between masculinity, dominance, and aggression are well established, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that motivate aggression and violence in response to threats to masculinity. In fact, there are only a handful of studies that have found that masculinity threats arouse concern about how one appears to others (e.g., anxious selfconsciousness, Bosson et al., 2009;public discomfort, Dahl et al., 2015; fear of backlash, self-esteem maintenance, Rudman & Fairchild, 2004) and subsequent anger that may, in turn, predict dominance (Dahl et al., 2015, see also Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005). However, integrated considerations of conceptualizations of masculinity and the emotional precursors to aggression and prosocial action highlight a set of self-focused and other-focused emotions that may have distinct intrapersonal, inter-personal, intra-group, and inter-group consequences. ...
... Likewise, when men imagined themselves as violators (vs. enforcers) of masculine gender roles, they expected greater feelings of anger and hostility (Jakupcak et al., 2005). ...
Article
Three experiments (N = 1083) explored whether masculinity threats (vs. assurances) led to emotions that have been linked to well-being, social connection, and the expression of aggression, including (a) increases in feelings of shame and guilt (Experiment 1) and (b) decreases in perspective-taking and empathy (Experiment 2). In addition, we explored whether masculinity assurances (vs. threats) had a positive effect on men's feelings of pride. To determine whether the affective responses to masculinity threats were unique to gender identity, we replicated the findings in comparison to a second social identity threat (Experiment 3). Consistent with predictions, and replicating prior work, men but not women expressed more public discomfort and anger following a gender threat (vs. assurance), as well as more shame and guilt when their masculinity was threatened than when their masculinity was assured (Experiment 2). Importantly, these affective responses were unique to men experiencing gender threats (Experiment 3). Interestingly, consistent with empathy avoidance predictions, when threatened, men reported lower dispositional levels of other focused empathy (Experiment 2), but these effects were not specific to gender threats (Experiment 3). Findings revealed empathy reductions, but not diminished reports of perspective taking, in threat conditions. No consistent evidence of effects of gender feedback on men's pride (authentic or hubristic) emerged. The implications of findings are discussed.
... Self-stigma represents the appraisal that seeking counseling would be threatening to one's self-worth, and MGRS captures beliefs that certain behaviors (deemed feminine in our society) may also be threatening (Eliser & Blalock, 1991). Variables conceptually related to selfstigma, such as shame-proneness (Efthim, Kenny, & Mahalik, 2001;Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005) and fear of emotions (Jakupcak, 2003;Jakupcak et al., 2005), have also been linked to MGRS, thus supporting a probable self-stigma and MGRS connection. ...
... Self-stigma represents the appraisal that seeking counseling would be threatening to one's self-worth, and MGRS captures beliefs that certain behaviors (deemed feminine in our society) may also be threatening (Eliser & Blalock, 1991). Variables conceptually related to selfstigma, such as shame-proneness (Efthim, Kenny, & Mahalik, 2001;Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005) and fear of emotions (Jakupcak, 2003;Jakupcak et al., 2005), have also been linked to MGRS, thus supporting a probable self-stigma and MGRS connection. ...
Article
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Many college men express stigma of seeking psychological help, possibly due to masculine gender role socialization proscribing help seeking. However, not every man who buys into restrictive masculine roles expresses self-stigma of seeking help, suggesting the presence of potential moderating variables. The present study examined self-compassion and self-coldness as potential moderating variables on the associations between men's masculine gender role stress and self-stigma of seeking help. College men (N = 777) were recruited via e-mail to participate in a brief online survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that masculine gender role stress was positively associated with self-stigma and self-coldness but was negatively associated with self-compassion. Both self-compassion and self-coldness were significant moderators. Men with low levels of self-compassion evidenced the strongest positive associations between masculine gender role stress and self-stigma, whereas men with low (but not high) self-coldness evidenced positive associations with self-stigma. These findings highlight differences between self-compassion and self-coldness and suggest that high levels of self-compassion may be a protective factor in reducing the associations between rigid masculinities and men's stigma of seeking help. By contrast, men with extremely negative and critical self-views may be likely to report stigma of seeking help regardless of their endorsement of rigid masculinities. Intervention and prevention implications include helping men enhance their self-compassion.
... In the field of psychology and men, masculinity research is focused on how, in Western cultures at least, masculine norms such as being strong, dominant, and in control can put men and others at risk for a number of psychosocial outcomes (Addis et al., 2010). Among male populations, conforming to traditional hegemonic masculinity is associated with a number of negative psychosocial outcomes, including gender role stress, shame, anger, and hostility (Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005), increased alcohol use (Lemle & Mishkind, 1989;Peralta, 2007), reduced helpseeking attitudes (Addis & Mahalik, 2003), and depression and anxiety (Good & Mintz, 1990;Sharpe & Heppner, 1991). The importance of better understanding masculinity is highlighted in a recent review (McAndrew, 2009) which found that men commit over 85% of all homicides, 91% of all same-gender homicides, and 97% of all same-gender homicides in which the victim and killer are not related to each other (Daly & Wilson, 1988;Hilton, Harris, & Rice, 2000;McAndrew, 2009). ...
... Moreover, in a cross-sectional survey of 204 men (mean age = 25.51), Jakupcak et al. (2005) found that masculinity, shame-proneness, and fear of emotions predicted overt hostility and anger in men. In addition, researchers have found that men perceive drinking alcohol to be a highly masculine activity (Lemle & Mishkind, 1989). ...
Article
Background: The period of adolescence can be a challenging time for boys, particularly in forming their own self-identity and reputation. In the school context, boys can often adopt a “tough” masculine image (e.g., alpha male) out of fear of being coined weak or being seen as inferior among their peer group. Thus, for an adolescent boy to adopt a compassionate self-identity at school is a risk to his reputation because to be compassionate can also be viewed as being weak by one’s peer group. Yet both of these views of “weak” are misconceptions of what it means to be masculine and compassionate. Method: This article examines masculinity and compassion through an evolutionary perspective, with an aim to demonstrate how compassion can help adolescent boys with hegemonic masculine identities. Results: This article focuses on the following areas in understanding masculinity and compassion in boys: (1) evolutionary and biological approaches to masculinity and compassion, (2) adolescence and reputations, (3) the role of environment, (4) interventions, and (5) a series of recommendations for future research exploring links between compassion and masculinity. Conclusion: Collectively, this article proposes that masculinity and compassion need to be understood in terms of evolutionary models to help better understand how these constructs function and what factors facilitate and inhibit them.
... To remain self-controlled, this state of mind is transformed into less painful and culturally accepted emotions such as anger and aggression (Scheff & Retzinger, 2001). Jakupcak et al. (2005) regard this relationship between masculinity, emotional fear, shame, anger, and violence as well documented within our historical and cultural context. These structuralist-oriented masculinity theories stand in contrast to theories that postulate men's ability to make conscious rational choices. ...
Article
This explorative paper aims to take a step in the direction of a realist-oriented scientific design that extends our knowledge of the requirements of a methodology that improves our ability to uncover the causal mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. Despite the great advances that have been made in individual research disciplines, our understanding of the complex causes is still insufficient and suffers from our inability to grasp the larger whole of the collaborative processes. As a first step towards the objective, an integration attempt is implemented that aims to highlight methodological issues that we have to overcome to explain men’s violence against women. The integration of psychological, social-psychological, and sociological theories aims to exemplify how contributing and counteracting factors interact with each other and form a complex mechanism that influences whether violence against women will take place or not. To leave room for the methodological dimension, the depth of each perspective has been reduced. The results of the integration attempt show both opportunities and difficulties in investigating the mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. However, there are still untapped knowledge potential in the explorative integration of theories, and the use of realist-oriented pluralistic research methodologies. Keywords: methodological pluralism, probabilism, critical realism, intimate partner violence, violence against women
... The explanation does not, however, identify what aspects of his masculine identity are most salient in relation to recommended specific health behaviors. For example, because men are socialized to feel shame for demonstrating vulnerable emotions such as fear (Jakupcak et al., 2005), they may be concerned that other people will think they are scared if they follow CDC recommendations and reject mitigation practices as a way to demonstrate that they have control over their vulnerable emotions. As another example, because men are socialized to be risk-takers (Wilson & Daly, 1985), they may engage in risky health behaviors as a way to express masculinity rejecting policies designed to keep persons safe (Gupta, 2020). ...
... Research indicates that for males, "experiencing childhood abuse was predictive of IPV perpetration within their relationships over and above simply witnessing IPV" (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 1995, as cited in MacDonell, 2012. Jakupcak et al. (2005) said that in addition to the culture of masculinity, the proneness to shame and fear of emotions predicted anger expression and overt hostility among men. In this context, our findings suggest that IPV perpetration among men is likely to result from underlying dysregulated emotions such as fear, shame, or inferiority remaining from childhood (where they were victims of violence) and triggered in their intimate adulthood relationships. ...
Article
Purpose: This study examined the effect of five types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetration and IPV victimization for male and female students (N = 3,682). Method: The data came from seven universities in the U.S. and Canada using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: For female students, peer victimization (PV), childhood maltreatment (CM), exposure to domestic violence (EDV), drug use, and depression were significantly associated with higher odds of IPV perpetration. For male students, IPV perpetration was significantly associated with PV, CM, other physical and sexual violence (PSV), and alcohol use. IPV victimization was significantly associated with CM, EDV, PSV, drug use, and depression for female students. For male students, CM, PSV, alcohol use, and depression were associated with higher odds of IPV victimization. Discussion: Because gender-specificity exists in the transmission pro- cess of ACEs and other risk factors for IPV, developing gender-specific approaches to IPV prevention and intervention on college campuses is necessary.
... Cole ing these men gain confidence from meeting masculine ideals (Reilly et al., 2014). Negative conceptions of the self, particularly as a result of shame from failing to meet masculine expectations, predict externalizing behaviors in men, such as anger and hostility (Jakupcak et al., 2005). ...
Article
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A growing body of academic literature has directed attention toward the buyers of commercial sex as calls to address the demand side of this underground industry have steadily increased. The presence of violence in the commercial sex market has been extensively documented, compelling scholars to examine how the clientele contribute to this phenomenon and in what ways they can be distinguished from the general population. Empirical evidence gives reason to believe sex buying and sexual violence are connected but also raises questions about the nature and degree of this relationship. Further, findings in this area have been inconclusive as the mechanisms underlying how commodification translates into aggression remain underdeveloped. The current inquiry contributes to the field by synthesizing existing knowledge on sex buyers with correlates of sexual violence. This article compares and contrasts the risk factors for both sex buying and sexual violence and identifies areas where findings have been inconsistent. The discussion concludes with theoretical and methodological recommendations for improving our understanding of violence against women in the modern commercial sex market.
... I have an abiding interest in critical studies on men and masculinity. Men who subscribe to currently hegemonic masculinity are shown to be less emotionally expressive, and therefore opening up (the topic of) emotions, speaking (about) fear or love, in scholarly and socially engaged work with men and boys, is a key concern in the field (e.g., on men and emotions see Holmes, 2015;Jakupcak et al., 2005;Levant, 1996;Meth, 2009). It is worth highlighting, though, that compared to an emotion like anger, love tends to be far more neglected. ...
Article
Drawing a line from Black men dehumanized by racism to radical political love, I open up about my experience of racism-induced fear of White people. The fear of Whites is tied to having grown up in a racist society. This fear of Whites is read as a fear of Black death due to racism, a fear of bodily death as much as social nonexistence. The article is used to work out how we might extirpate the fear of White people deposited by racism inside of Black people, with a focus on Black men. It draws from the work of Steve Biko, a leader in the Black Consciousness Movement that flourished in South Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Regarding Biko as an eminent psychopolitical activist, who followed in the tradition of politically conscious psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, it is contended that Black Conscious thought enables individuals to stamp out racism-induced fear.
... Of particular relevance, to be seen as masculine requires the acknowledgement of others (Kimmel, 2008); therefore, threats to masculinity lead to concern about how one is viewed (i.e., public discomfort, e.g., Dahl et al., 2015;fear of backlash, e.g., Rudman & Fairchild, 2004;anxiety, e.g., Vandello et al., 2008). To assuage emotions such as discomfort and anxiety, men experience anger (Jakupcak et al., 2005) that, in turn, predicts various compensatory forms of dominance that reestablish one's status as a "good man" (Dahl et al., 2015). Therefore, if straight men experience threats to their masculinity when they perceive themselves to be the target of a gay man's sexual advance, we predict a sequential pattern of emotions that parallels prior masculinity threat findings (Dahl et al., 2015): threats to masculinity will lead to concern about how one looks in the eyes of others, or public discomfort, and subsequent anger to assuage that discomfort. ...
Article
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Prior research highlights the relationship between anti‐gay prejudice and masculinity: straight men (1) avoid being misclassified as gay and (2) experience increased anti‐gay attitudes when their masculinity is threatened. We hypothesized that a sexual advance from a gay man would constitute a threat to straight man's masculinity. Four experiments and a cross‐cultural replication (N = 1,407) manipulated perceptions of a same‐sex sexual advance and found that straight men experienced greater public discomfort and subsequent anger. This anger predicted both non‐aggressive (e.g., avoidance) and aggressive (e.g., likelihood to use violence) compensatory acts of masculinity. These findings were not ameliorated by reasserting heterosexuality (Study 2), were unique to sexual advances by gay men, not straight women (Study 3), and were replicated in the United States (Study 4a) and the United Kingdom (Study 4b). Findings suggest that a same‐sex sexual advance threatens straight men's masculinity and implications for future research are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... This inhibited expression of emotion additionally leads to unintended communication outcomes. While anger is one of the most common emotions stoic individuals attempt to suppress, it is often expressed in extreme forms once it emerges (Davey et al., 2005;Jansz, 2000;Jakupcak et al., 2005). For stoic individuals, this often explosive release of anger has been theorized through Megargee's (1966) overcontrol model, arguing that stoic individuals resist their angry feelings until they reach their psychological capacity to resist response. ...
Article
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Impelled by a desire to control, suppress, and deny emotional response, stoic individuals may act out their pent-up emotions on relational partners by provoking conflict and/or engaging in partner-directed violent and aggressive behaviors. However, little is known regarding what factors can push stoics over the edge from remaining quiet or avoiding revealing frustrations to initiating aggressive behavior. This relationship between stoicism and aggression is important to consider in serial arguments, where the repetitive nature of a conflict may become increasingly difficult for stoics to manage internally. Here, we examined the influence of stoicism on verbal aggression in serial arguments between romantic partners. We additionally considered the effects of power, perceived resolvability, and argument frequency on the relationship between stoicism and verbal aggression. Using a survey design with a sample of 281 individuals involved in a romantic relationship, we observed that stoicism is positively associated with verbal aggression in serial arguments. While perceived power and resolvability did not moderate the relationship between stoicism and verbal aggression, argument frequency about a serial argument topic was a significant moderator. The results of this study imply that stoicism plays an important role in explaining aggressive tactics in conflict. A high argument frequency about a conflict topic may lead to a buildup of unexpressed emotions, particularly anger, in stoic individuals, resulting in an explosive release of violence and aggression toward a romantic partner. Unique results on the relationship between stoicism and power and directions for future research are discussed.
... Beyond documenting the causes of situational and chronic threats to masculinity (39), the precarious masculinity literature examines the consequences of threats to masculinity. For instance, findings show that the threat of being like women (versus men) inspires anger (40) and concerns about how one looks in the eyes of others (35,36,38) as well as compensatory dominance that reestablish one's status as a good man. These compensatory acts include physical aggression (35), sexual dominance (38), intimate partner violence (41), the sexualization and harassment of women (34,38), and interpersonal violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people (42). ...
Article
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Significance Donald J. Trump’s history-making ascension from nonpolitician to president of the United States has been attributed to the antiestablishment, antielitist, and nativist populism of Trump voters, as well as to sexism, racism, homophobia, and xenophobia. Based on the findings of seven studies involving 2,007 people, men’s and women’s endorsement of hegemonic masculinity predicted support for Trump over and beyond the aforementioned factors, even when controlling for political party affiliation. Results highlight the importance of looking beyond social identity–based conceptualizations of masculinity to fully consider how men’s and women’s endorsement of cultural ideologies about masculinity legitimate patriarchal forms of dominance and reify gender-, race-, and class-based hierarchies.
... This is a clear example of what scholarship has described as a tendency for men to express hostility and aggression to terminate vulnerable emotions such as shame (Jakupcak, Tull, and Roemer 2005). Studies among heterosexual men find that men who perceive shame and threats to their masculine reputation may respond with physical violence (Gebhard et al. 2019) Of note, some male participants considered young women's non-consensual sharing of their intimate conversations (as opposed to images), as one of the most harmful behaviours for young men. ...
Article
Although measurement and prevalence of digital dating abuse (DDA) in young people’s relationships is of growing research interest, youth perceptions of the behaviours and the impact on victims are yet to be fully understood. This study explored thirty-eight (16–24 year old) youth’s perceptions of DDA behaviours and descriptors of the emotional impact of the behaviours on victims. A predominant theme of gender differences emerged, with five subthemes: (a) men tend to engage in sexual-related behaviours, (b) men and women undertake different controlling and monitoring behaviours, (c) the role of reputation shapes the impact on men, (d) serious negative emotions characterise the impact on women, and (e) some men misconceive the severity of the impact on women. Findings move discussions beyond DDA prevalence and frequency to reveal that young people perceive DDA to have significant emotional consequences for victims and that there are gender differences in the perpetration and impact of DDA. These perspectives provide a valuable contribution to the development of gender-sensitive DDA measures, DDA prevention initiatives and support programmes for youth experiencing DDA.
... Men's difficulty in speaking openly about their feelings supports literature on hegemonic masculinity, which argue that men are culturally not accepted to show emotions (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). Men are supposed to be stoical and may experience shame for having vulnerable emotions (Jakupcak et al., 2005). Also, the unwillingness to receive help can also be related to masculinity or 'the criminal way of thinking' (Lipsey et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Building on prior work on criminal stigma, this article presents empirical findings on how criminal stigma operates within a confined environment: a transitioning house in Chicago. The study adopts an ethnographic case study approach. Empirical data consist of 116 hours of participant-observation, eight interviews and eighteen self-administered surveys. The study investigates whether or not a halfway house provides a metaphorical “safe umbrella” from criminal stigmatization for previously incarcerated individuals. This research includes attempts for and threats to the formation of this “safe umbrella”. Staff members and guest speakers provided structured opportunities (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, employment and self-concept coaching) for residents to discuss emotion, weakness and self- reliance as a response to actual or expected stigma from the outside world. However, threats to this “safe umbrella” occurred infrequently. This included the feeling of being labeled by speakers, staff or fellow residents, as well as reluctance in receiving assistance on stigma management. While occasional stigmatization operated within this confined and unique setting, this paper concludes that available services created a safe, welcoming and supportive “umbrella” for previously incarcerated clients.
... Therefore, elicitation of high Examining Disgust and Emotion Regulation 10 intensity negative emotion may increase the probability of a behavioral response that is consistent with gut-level impulses. Of particular concern to the current study, many men believe aggressive behavior is an appropriate method to relieve intolerable emotional experiences (Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005). Thus, men who adhere to masculine gender norms may be prone to succumb to aggressive impulses subsequent to negative emotion (e.g., disgust), which is supported by further empirical findings linking impulse control difficulties and aggressive behavior (Pickett, Parkhill, & Kirwan, 2016;Scott et al., 2015). ...
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Objective: Previous research suggests gay men are at increased risk to be targets of aggression. Much of antigay aggression is likely perpetrated by heterosexual men who strongly adhere to masculine gender norms and, thus, have amplified prejudicial attitudes toward gay men. The current study expands upon established models of antigay aggression by including the emotional components of disgust and emotion regulation difficulties. Method: Exclusively heterosexual men living in the United States completed an online questionnaire consisting of measurements assessing masculine gender norms, disgust, sexual prejudice, impulse control difficulties, and aggression. Results: Findings support the theoretical notion that disgust may be influential in the development of sexual prejudice and aggression, particularly among men who strongly adhere to the masculine gender norms of antifemininity and status. In addition, an inability to control impulses subsequent to experiencing disgust may produce aggressive behavior toward perceived gay men. Conclusions: Results provide empirical support for theories of antigay aggression while also expanding the scope of emotion literature. Implications call for future research and interven- tions attentive to healthy masculinity and improved emotion regulation skills in men. Such efforts may be crucial to reduce aggressive victimization among gay men.
... For example, Gilligan's (2003) formative work in prisons uncovered a magnified tendency for male inmates to frame their violent acts as tuned retaliations against a perceived slight and as a way to save face and maintain social organization. Gilligan, a psychiatrist, emphasized the very fluid intersections between self-value, stability in environmental loci, and propensity for violence (Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005). ...
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Research conducted with violent offenders demonstrates an overwhelming tendency for individuals in this population to frame their violent acts as tuned responses to perceived slights ranging from verbal insults to ostensibly nonviolent physical actions. To date, no review has characterized and categorized specific situational cues that are associated with interpersonal violence/ideation. Here, literature addressing attitudes, attributions, and triggers around reactive forms of violence and perspectives on violence deservedness was thematically and narratively reviewed using a theoretical framework focused on shame and threatened social bonds. Of the 29 articles that met the inclusion criteria, 11 statistically assessed relationships between attributions, attitudes, or triggers and subsequent violence/ideation, with 10 (90.1%) demonstrating, in subgroup analysis, statistically greater attitudes endorsing violence when shame or a threat to a social bond manifested. Overall, three primary axes of attribution, attitudes, or triggers toward interpersonal violence emerged from the review: (1) generalized intrapersonal justifications, (2) environmental and social group triggers, and (3) jealousy and triggers in the context of romantic relationships. These dynamics, both inside and outside of the United States, are reviewed, and a conceptual intervention model is presented. Findings illustrate that behavioral interventions specifically targeting individual- and community-level pathways to shame manifestation and emotion regulation represent an underutilized yet auspicious approach to curbing violence ideation and perpetration.
... A composite TMI variable was created by standardizing the CMNI and GRCS and adding the two measures together (α = .97). This approach has been used by previous studies in which there were multiple overlapping TMI constructs (see Jakupcak et al. 2005). ...
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Adherence to traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) is associated with a host of negative outcomes, including higher rates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. However, relatively less is known about the mechanisms and contexts through which TMI affects the expression of psychological distress. In the current study, men’s aversion to being diagnosed with a mental health disorder was tested as a mediator and moderator to help clarify the relationship between TMI and symptom expression. A community sample of 72 U.S. men experiencing elevated psychological distress completed self-report questionnaires during a single session. Results demonstrated that diagnostic aversion mediated the positive association between TMI and internalizing symptoms. In addition, diagnostic aversion moderated the positive association between TMI and externalizing symptoms, such that this association was stronger among men who demonstrated higher levels of diagnostic aversion. Aversion to mental health diagnosis may be important in understanding how men who adhere to TMI manifest distress across diagnostic categories.
... Men's difficulty in speaking openly about their feelings supports literature on hegemonic masculinity, which argue that men are culturally not accepted to show emotions (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). Men are supposed to be stoical and may experience shame for having vulnerable emotions (Jakupcak et al., 2005). Also, the unwillingness to receive help can also be related to masculinity or 'the criminal way of thinking' (Lipsey et al., 2007). ...
Article
In the absence of systematic data collection by the state and federal governments, efforts to collect information on officer-involved shootings (OIS) have been assumed by the public and news agencies. In a combination of journalistic reporting and what is known as crowdsourcing, media and masses of individuals volunteer their time to identify OIS incidents and enter them into online databases. These efforts are invaluable in describing interpersonal violence between citizens and law enforcement, but it is not well known to what extent the media-based datasets are comprehensive. In the present study, we compared data from three major media-based websites to official data from five police departments that made their data available—Dallas, Denver, Jacksonville, Orlando, and Knoxville. We found a higher rate of matches than discrepancies with regard to fatalities but a much lower rate with regard to non-fatal shootings. Systematically recording and reporting OIS incidents should be the function of the government. Before—and if—that happens, our findings add to the growing evidence that media-based efforts, combined with crowdsourcing, can be useful though limited alternatives.
... Multiple studies have measured both adherence to masculine norms and GRC/stress in order to explore how masculinity in general relates to sexual aggression. Jakupcak, Tull, and Roemer (2005) combined scores on a measure of adherence to masculine norms and a measure of masculine gender role stress in to one masculinity variable, which was a strong and significant predictor of hostility and anger. Similarly, in college men, both conformity to masculine norms and the experience of masculine GRC directly predicted men's self-reported perpetration of physical aggression, above and beyond non-gendered personality traits such as agreeableness (Berke, Wilson, Mouilso, Speir, & Zeichner, 2015). ...
Article
Research on Internet pornography has consistently found that men are more likely to view mainstream porn than women and that most men view pornography. Additionally, mainstream porn content has been found to portray highly stereotyped views of gender with men in positions of dominance over women and men engaging in aggression toward women. Despite the consistent finding that pornography is a gendered phenomenon, there is little research exploring the connection between masculinity and pornography use. Furthermore, research on the effects of pornography use on sexual aggression has been mixed, with some findings indicating that men who view porn are more likely to endorse attitudes supportive of and actually engage in aggression toward women. However, other studies report no such connection. Sexual Script Theory and the 3A Model (Acquisition, Activation, and Application) posit that men learn sexual scripts and behavior from sexual media and are more likely to internalize and enact the sexual behaviors depicted in pornography if certain individual and content variables are present, such as high levels of arousal and the degree of correspondence between porn and men’s existing beliefs. The current dissertation aimed to examine this theory through a mixed-methods investigation of men’s arousal to different types of porn content and experience of masculinity as important predictors of sexual aggression perpetration. Specifically, this dissertation hypothesized that adherence to masculine norms and gender role conflict/stress would moderate the relation between arousal to porn content and perpetration of sexual aggression, such that stronger adherence to masculine norms and more gender role conflict/stress would strengthen the relationship and predict more sexual aggression. A total 338 college-aged, heterosexual, cisgender men completed quantitative measures of the aforementioned constructs, and 149 participants with comparable demographic characteristics completed open-ended survey items about their subjective experiences with those same constructs. Arousal to Specialized porn content was found to be a significant predictor of sexual aggression perpetration, but adherence to masculine norms and gender role conflict/stress did not act as moderators as hypothesized. Qualitative results provide information about male pornography users’ arousal to pornography, experience of masculinity within pornography, and perceived impact of pornography on their lives. The current study’s limitation and implications for future research and psychological practice are discussed. Advisor: M. Meghan Davidson
... He discusses that men often resort to violence as a reaction to their feelings of shame, often linked to their need to be perceived as masculine and strong. Jakupcak, Tull, and Roemer (2005) empirically tested this link between shame proneness and hostility, finding that higher levels of masculinity, defined as participants' agreements with typical masculine ideology as measured by the Masculine Roles Norms Scale, and shame proneness are predictive of overt hostility. Thus, at least theoretically, shame proneness is a possible contributing factor to men's exertion of control and commission of physical violence toward their intimate partners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men’s need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men ( n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program. Findings suggest that shame plays a role in the commission of coercively controlling behavior both directly and partially through its influence on authority but not through restrictiveness. Implications for understanding IPV in a domestic violence offenders program are discussed.
... According to this explanation, when strong negative affect occurs, such as due to negative urgency, impulsivity may be invoked and preexisting hostility toward women may raise the likelihood that a man engages in physical violence toward a female partner to reduce this threat to his self-esteem (Gilligan, 1997(Gilligan, , 2003. Alternatively, if negative emotions arise such as sadness and fear, men may use aggression as a way to avoid these negative emotions in the moment (Jakupcak, 2003), or to demonstrate their masculinity by using aggression as a more socially acceptable masculine response (Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005). ...
Article
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Relationship violence in college students continues to be an important social problem. Prior research has identified several risk factors for relationship violence including trauma exposure, impulse control difficulties, and hostility toward women; however, previous research assessing these variables has mainly focused on bivariate relationships, with little work attempting to connect multiple correlates to relationship violence while utilizing a theoretical, interactive approach. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously examine several correlates of relationship violence (i.e., hostility toward women, trauma exposure, and impulse control difficulties), and to examine male perpetration of relationship violence among a sample of male college students using a cross-sectional design. It was hypothesized that among men in this sample, hostility toward women and trauma exposure would moderate the relationship between impulse control difficulties and relationship violence. The findings suggested that college-aged men, who have high impulse control difficulties, high hostility toward women, and who have multiple trauma exposures, may be more likely to perpetrate relationship violence against a female intimate partner than those who are low in impulse control difficulties, report low levels of hostility toward women, or report fewer or no trauma exposures. Thus, the current study suggests that exposure to trauma predisposes men with specific attributes to relationship violence, which may provide a treatment target for future intervention programs.
... In homes with strong patriarchal norms, boys and girls learn different adaptive behaviors to survive. For example, research indicates that boys are socialized to express a narrower emotional range than girls, emphasizing mostly anger (Garside & Klimes-Dougan, 2002;Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005;Kret & De Gelder, 2012), while girls are socialized to please other people (Gilligan, 1982;Impett, Sorsoli, Schooler, Henson, & Tolman, 2008). These early gender scripts can translate into different adaptive behaviors in childhood and adulthood and may explain why girls/women have higher rates of depression (Pratt & Brody, 2008) and victimization in adolescence (Vagi, Olsen, Basile, & Vivolo-Kantor, 2015) and adulthood (Breiding, Chen, & Black, 2014) compared to boys/men. ...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem affecting women, men, and children across the United States. Batterer intervention programs (BIPs) serve as the primary intervention for men who use violence, employing three primary modalities: psychoeducation, cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT), and other forms of group therapy such as alcohol or drug treatment. However, research indicates that program effectiveness of the primary BIP modalities is limited, due, in part, to the theoretical underpinnings guiding intervention such as learned behavior (psychoeducation), patriarchy as the root cause (Duluth model), and “dysfunctional” thinking (CBT). Considering the mental, physical, and economic toll of IPV on families and the limited effectiveness of current intervention approaches, an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current modalities and an incorporation of the latest science addressing violence prevention and cessation are paramount. This article draws upon existing theories of trauma and the etiologies of violence perpetration and proposes an alternative model of care for men with IPV histories. Experiences of childhood adversity and trauma have well-established associations with a range of negative sequelae, including neurological, cognitive, behavioral, physical, and emotional outcomes. Childhood trauma is also associated with later violence and IPV perpetration. Thus, incorporating trauma-informed care principles and trauma interventions into programming for IPV perpetrators warrants further investigation. Practice and policy implications of a trauma interventions for men with IPV histories, as well as areas for future research, are discussed.
... The second, referred to as caballerismo, is associated with aspects of chivalrous masculinity related to nurturance, leadership, wisdom, hard work, and caring for one's dependents. Whereas endorsing machismo is linked to negative outcomes including increased sexual aggression, hostility, and fear of emotions, caballerismo is linked to improved family functioning, life satisfaction, and overall wellness (Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005;Liang, Salcedo, & Miller, 2011). ...
Article
Most crimes committed by adolescents in the United States are linked to gang activity, which is disproportionally present in Latina/o communities. Although most gang-involved teenage fathers wish that their children would not join gangs, their parenting tends to foster gang involvement in their children. An improved understanding of fatherhood among gang-involved U.S. Latino youth can inform the development of parenting- and fatherhood-focused interventions. To foster such understanding, we conducted interviews and focus groups with purposive samples of young gang-involved Latino fathers, parents of gang-involved Latino youth, and individuals who provide services or supports to gang-involved youth. Guided by Marshall and Rossman’s (1995) broad qualitative approach, we analyzed transcripts of these interviews and discussions, extracting 24 themes, which we organized into 7 categories and three higher order content groupings. We discuss the manner in which these findings describe the experience of fatherhood among gang-involved Latino youth, and point to influences on their parenting- and fatherhood-related attitudes and behavior. We discuss, also, the implications of our findings for the development of parenting- and fatherhood-focused interventions for gang-involved teenage Latino fathers.
... It is stated that shame increases anger at others (see two reviews, . Many studies concerning shame as a trait (shame-proneness) found that people who more frequently experience shame or are more likely to experience shame, are more prone to anger and aggression (Harper & Arias, 2004;Harper, Austin, Cercone, & Arias, 2005;Scott et al., 2015;Tangney et al., 1996;Tangney, Wagner, Fletcher, & Gramzow, 1992, but also see some exceptions Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005;Lutwak, Panish, Ferrari, & Razzino, 2001). A few studies concerning shame as a state also found that people who are exposed to a shameful event get more angry (than who are not exposed to it), according to self-and peer-reports (Pivetti, Camodeca, & Rapino, 2016;Thomaes, Stegge, Olthof, Bushman, & Nezlek, 2011). ...
Article
Numerous studies have found that shame increases individuals' anger at others. However, according to recent theories about the social function of shame and anger at others, it is possible that shame controls individuals' anger at others in specific conditions. We replicated previous findings that shame increased individuals' anger at others' unfairness, when others were not aware of the individual's experience of shameful events. We also found for the first time that shame controlled or even decreased individuals' anger at others' unfairness, when others were aware of the individual's experience of shameful events. The results were consistent when shame was induced by either a recall paradigm or an imagination paradigm, and in either the ultimatum game or the dictator game. This suggests that shame strategically controls individuals' anger at others to demonstrate that they are willing to benefit others, when facing the risk of social exclusion. Our findings highlight the interpersonal function of shame and deepen the understanding of the relationship between shame and anger at others.
... When experienced at great intensity, chronicity or marked imbalance, guilt and shame can have a deleterious effect on men's subjective sense of emotional well-being [2]. For some men, guilt and shame may become intertwined with socialized masculine ideals regarding attitudes and behaviors [3,4]. Moreover, these affects can exert a powerful influence on men's behavioral functioning, including coping strategies, interpersonal relationships and help-seeking behavior. ...
Article
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Aim of the study Extant research points to shame and guilt as salient affective experiences for men’s mental health outcomes. As the constructs of shame and guilt gain increasing research attention in relation to at-risk men, including those with recent military combat experience, history of sexual abuse, substance misuse, and suicidality, valid and reliable assessment is needed. The present psychometric validation studies aimed to validate a short-form of the Personal Feelings Questionnaire (PFQ-2) for assessing guilt and shame. Subject or material and methods Data was collected from four independent samples of men (total N=1,042) across community and clinical populations. Results In Study 1a (n=333) the factor structure of the original 16-item PFQ-2 was rejected. In Study 1b (n=332), a seven-item PFQ-2 Brief was calibrated. This was validated using confirmatory factor analysis in Study 1c (n=335; CFI=.986, TLI=.978, RMSEA=.060, SRMR=.026). Finally, PFQ-2 Brief properties were evaluated in 42 men attending outpatient psychiatric care. Discussion The PFQ-2 Brief appears to provide a valid and reliable measure for assessing guilt- and shame-proneness in men. Conclusions Use of the PFQ-2 Brief should aid further investigations of the manner in which these two affect styles impact help-seeking, treatment engagement, treatment outcomes, and men’s overall mental health.
... It bears mentioning that the scales we used to assess gender role views (Larsen and Long 1988) and masculine gender role stress (Eisler and Skidmore 1987) may be dated; expectations for gender roles and masculinity change over time and likely look different from 30 years ago. However, recently published work has used the TESR and the MGRS to assess gender role views and masculinity stress with success (e.g., Abbas and Karadavut 2017;Bock et al. 2017;Eliason et al. 2017;Jakupcak et al. 2005;Kray et al. 2017). We take this to suggest that these scales are still useful for assessing current conceptualizations of gender role expectations for women, men, and masculinity, but acknowledge that newer, revised scales might provide additional insights. ...
Article
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Research on feminist identification in men has often focused on men who identify as feminist or who assert agreement with feminist goals. For some men, however, choices surrounding feminist self-identification may be uncertain in ways that are meaningful indicators of their beliefs and values. We hypothesized that men who were uncertain about their feminist identity held beliefs that fell between their feminist and non-feminist peers, representing a unique ideological position. We tested this possibility by comparing feminist, “unsure”, and non-feminist U. S. college (n = 533) and community (n = 277) men’s masculinity stress and conformity, gender role values, and approaches to sexual relationships. Results showed that unsure men’s gender role values fell between feminist and non-feminist men, but unsure men were more like feminists for some components of masculinity and more like non-feminists for others; on some constructs, feminist, unsure, and non-feminist men were similar. For sexual relationships, all men were equally invested in a sexual partner’s pleasure, but unsure men and feminist men were less concerned with receiving sexual favors in exchange compared to non-feminists. We discuss how acknowledgement of men’s uncertainty about their feminist identity may be useful for how researchers assess men’s relationship to feminism, how instructors teach men about feminism in classroom settings, and how activists involve men in the feminist movement.
... Negative emotionality is a frequently cited precursor to perpetration of IPV in men and women (Brandt et al., 2012;Gratz et al., 2009). The inability to regulate intense emotions may lead partners to use violence in response to conflict (Gratz and Roemer, 2004;Jakupcak et al., 2005). Further, effective emotion regulation has been found to facilitate positive coping with conflict among partners (Maldonado et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Background: Recent evidence suggests that psychedelic use predicts reduced perpetration of intimate partner violence among men involved in the criminal justice system. However, the extent to which this association generalizes to community samples has not been examined, and potential mechanisms underlying this association have not been directly explored. Aims: The present study examined the association between lifetime psychedelic use and intimate partner violence among a community sample of men and women. The study also tested the extent to which the associations were mediated by improved emotion regulation. Methods: We surveyed 1266 community members aged 16-70 (mean age=22.78, standard deviation =7.71) using an online questionnaire that queried substance use, emotional regulation, and intimate partner violence. Respondents were coded as psychedelic users if they reported one or more instance of using lysergic acid diethylamide and/or psilocybin mushrooms in their lifetime. Results/outcomes: Males reporting any experience using lysergic acid diethylamide and/or psilocybin mushrooms had decreased odds of perpetrating physical violence against their current partner (odds ratio=0.42, p<0.05). Furthermore, our analyses revealed that male psychedelic users reported better emotion regulation when compared to males with no history of psychedelic use. Better emotion regulation mediated the relationship between psychedelic use and lower perpetration of intimate partner violence. This relationship did not extend to females within our sample. Conclusions/interpretation: These findings extend prior research showing a negative relationship between psychedelic use and intimate partner violence, and highlight the potential role of emotion regulation in this association.
... The followings are some research findings that illustrate psychological problems experienced by men related to gender role conflict, such as (1) men's involvement in drug and alcohol abuse (Pleck, et al, 1993;Mahalik, Logan & Morrison, 2006;Blazina & Watkins, 1996); (2) tolerance of aggressive behavior and sexual abuse (Jakupcak et al., 2005;Good, Heppner et al., 1995;Mahalik, Lagan & Morrison, 2006;Wade & Brittan-Powel, 2001;Cohn &Zeichner, 2006); (3) the emergence of anxiety to interact with people of the same sex and perform femininity, homophobia as well as inability to express emotion verbally (Wilkinson, 2004;Kimmel &Mahalik, 2005;Jakupcaket al., 2006); (4) tendency to self-harm (Jakupcak& Green, 2016; Whitlock et al., 2011); (5) the existence of depression, anxiety, stress and low self-esteem (Mahalik&Rochlen, 2006;Mahalik, Pierre & Wan, 2006;Blazina& Watkins, 1996); (6) anxiety (Thompkins & Rando, 2003); (7) denial to accept others' help (Mahalik, Lagan & Morrison, 2006;Blazina& Watkins, 1996) and; (8) decreased satisfaction in relationship and making love (Sharpe & Heppner, 1991). Such difficulties are serious problems and cannot be taken for granted because they often bring negative impact to individual as well as others. ...
Article
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The background of this paper comes from considering the lack of research and article about men and gender role conflict in Indonesia. As we know, the term of gender generally associated with gender injustice conditions experienced by women. Nevertheless, men also experiences gender inequality in their daily life, which led to the emergence of conflict within them that increased the possibilities of problems. Until now, research of gender role conflict experienced by men has been done in Europe and many other countries in Asia. Unfortunately in Indonesia, the research about gender role conflict experienced by men is still limited. Since the late 1970s concern for gender role conflict in men has begun to emerge. The gender role conflict in men rises many problems in man who is not only disturbing himself but also others. The conflict arose from the socialization of rigid gender roles in patriarchal society and masculine ideology. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the importance of research on gender role conflict in men in Indonesia. Author relates this paper to the Karo tribe cultural context which is one of the tribes with patrilineal kinship.
... (1) men's involvement in the use of illegal drugs and alcohol (Pleck et al., 1993;Mahalik, Logan & Morrison, 2006;Blazina & Watkins, 1996),(2) tolerance of aggressive behavior and rape/sexual harassment (Jakupcak et al., 2005;Good, Heppner et al., 1995;Mahalik, Lagan & Morrison, 2006;Wade & Brittan-Powel, 2001;Cohn & Zeichner, 2006), (3) fear in having same-sex relationship, being feminine, homophobic and unable to express emotions verbally (Wilkinson, 2004;Kimmel & Mahalik, 2005;Jakupcak et al., 2006), (4) tendency to do selfharm (Jakupcak & Green, 2016;Whitlock et al., 2011), (5) feeling depressed, anxious, stress and low self-esteem (Mahalik & Rochlen, 2006;Mahalik, Pierre & Wan, 2006;Blazina & Watkins, 1996), (6) feeling ashamed (Thompkins & Rando, 2003), (7) refusing to accept help from others (Mahalik, Lagan & Morrison, 2006;Blazina & Watkins, 1996) and (8) decreased satisfaction in having relationship and sex (Sharpe & Heppner, 1991).These are serious issues because they can negative impact an individual as well as those around him. It could limit individual potential or others' because they feel trapped in living and showing their masculinity. ...
Article
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Gender inequality often relates more to women, causing gender role conflict in men to be somewhat overlooked. This study aims to describe the dynamic of gender role conflict among pastors' husbands at the Batak Karo Protestant Church. We were encouraged to conduct this research due to the large negative effects of gender role conflicts despite the limited number of studies on the matter. There were three male participants involved, namely TA, SE and BS. These participants fulfilled the sample criteria:1)Having been married for at least one year;2) Having at least one daughter or son; 3)A native of Karo tribe; and 4) Having been a congregation at Batak Karo Protestant Church since childhood.We used a qualitative method with a phenomenology approach, in which the interview results were analyzed using the hermeneutic method. The results show that gender role conflict of pastors' husbands are caused by gender role socialization since childhood, patriarchal culture embraced by the Karo tribe, masculine ideology and gender role transition that caused husbands to practice contradictive gender roles. The need for more qualitative studies regarding this topic is highlighted.
... He discusses that men often resort to violence as a reaction to their feelings of shame, often linked to their need to be perceived as masculine and strong. Jakupcak, Tull, and Roemer (2005) empirically tested this link between shame proneness and hostility, finding that higher levels of masculinity, defined as participants' agreements with typical masculine ideology as measured by the Masculine Roles Norms Scale, and shame proneness are predictive of overt hostility. Thus, at least theoretically, shame proneness is a possible contributing factor to men's exertion of control and commission of physical violence toward their intimate partners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men's need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men (n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program. Findings suggest that shame plays a role in the commission of coercively controlling behavior both directly and partially through its influence on authority but not through restrictiveness. Implications for understanding IPV in a domestic violence offenders program are discussed.
... Thus, there is reason to believe that when experiencing victimization and fear, men transform their feelings of vulnerability and shame into anger and aggression. This link between masculinity, emotional fear, shame and anger, has been confirmed by Jakupcak et al., 53 who used a social learning perspective. Although this perspective is well-documented, it lacks a macrosociological framework that explains how childhood experiences are influenced by power relationships between classes and how different childhood experiences can be formed in a single class context. ...
Article
Full-text available
An explorative integration of factors causing men’s violence against women Despite the great progress in individual disciplines studying men’s physical violence against women, the various disciplines have developed much different approaches that by themselves are insufficient for understanding the processes that lead to men’s violence against women. Moreover, they also tend to neglect the equally important issue of understanding why some men are not violent toward women. The aim of this work is to integrate former research on socially modifiable factors and therefore does not include theories relating genetics and neurochemistry that may also play an important role. It shows how the psychological approach within criminology can be integrated with the feminist masculinity perspective. The work illustrates that it is both theoretically and methodologically possible, through an integration of previous research, to make hypotheses about under which conditions men are likely to be violent against women, as well as make hypotheses about under what conditions men are unlikely to be violent against women. This study also emphasizes methodologically important non-dichotomous forms where both enabling and reactive conditions are mixed at various levels. Despite the methodological problems, an integrated perspective on men’s violence against women is the most promising way forward today. Keywords: integration, hegemonic masculinity, marginalized men, men's violence against women, doing masculinity, figuration
... The result is surprising because hostile sexism was found to be associated with negative feminine and masculine traits for women, and benevolent sexism was found to be associated with positive masculine and feminine traits for women ( Glick & Fiske, 1996). This result is supported by some research (e.g., Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005;Sinn, 1997) that suggests masculinity predicts hostility. The link between hostile sexism and benevolent sexism is clear, as indicated above. ...
Article
The present study examined the mediating effects of ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent) in the relationship between sex role orientation (masculinity and femininity) and gender stereotypes (dominance and assertiveness) in college students. The variables were measured using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), and the Attitudes toward Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships Scale (AGSRRS). These inventories were administered to 250 undergraduate students at Istanbul University in Istanbul and Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. Results indicate that benevolent sexism mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and male dominance. Benevolent sexism also mediates femininity and male dominance, as well as femininity and male assertiveness. Hostile sexism was mediated only between the masculine personality trait and benevolent sexism. The present findings expand the literature on sex role orientation by revealing evidence that masculine and feminine individuals experience ambivalent sexism distinctively. The results are discussed in terms of the assumptions of sex role orientation, ambivalent sexism, and gender stereotypes
... Thus, there is reason to believe that when experiencing victimization and fear, men transform their feelings of vulnerability and shame into anger and aggression. This link between masculinity, emotional fear, shame and anger, has been confirmed by Jakupcak et al., 53 who used a social learning perspective. Although this perspective is well-documented, it lacks a macrosociological framework that explains how childhood experiences are influenced by power relationships between classes and how different childhood experiences can be formed in a single class context. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the great progress in individual disciplines studying men’s physical violence against women, the various disciplines have developed much different approaches that by themselves are insufficient for understanding the processes that lead to men’s violence against women. Moreover, they also tend to neglect the equally important issue of understanding why some men are not violent toward women. The aim of this work is to integrate former research on socially modifiable factors and therefore does not include theories relating genetics and neurochemistry that may also play an important role. It shows how the psychological approach within criminology can be integrated with the feminist masculinity perspective. The work illustrates that it is both theoretically and methodologically possible, through an integration of previous research, to make hypotheses about under which conditions men are likely to be violent against women, as well as make hypotheses about under what conditions men are unlikely to be violent against women. This study also emphasizes methodologically important non-dichotomous forms where both enabling and reactive conditions are mixed at various levels. Despite the methodological problems, an integrated perspective on men’s violence against women is the most promising way forward today.
... Social messages directed toward boys and men, beginning in childhood and persisting into old age, emphasize aggression as a viable way to resolve conflicts and an acceptable form of emotional expression (Brody, 2000;Cohn, Seibert, & Zeichner, 2009;Cohn, Jakupcak, Seibert, Hildebrandt, & Zeichner, 2010;Mahalik, Good, & Englar-Carlson, 2003). These social messages appear to be internalized by many men, who may view aggressive reactions as a viable means by which to regain control in situations that make salient feelings of vulnerability or negative affect (Cohn et al., 2010;Cohn, Zeichner, & Seibert, 2008;Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005). As such, aggression may be particularly salient to men during times when masculinity is threatened. ...
Article
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Research on precarious manhood suggests that, in response to perceived threats to their masculinity, men may act to reassert their masculinity through potentially harmful behaviors. In the present study, we sought to apply the precarious manhood paradigm to a public health and safety area relevant to men: driving behaviors. In Study 1, we used a false feedback manipulation to induce threatened masculinity. Men in the threat condition reported greater anger in response to hypothetical driving scenarios compared to men in the no-threat condition. Risk-taking, violence, and winning subscales of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 did not moderate the effect of condition. In Study 2, we used the same manipulation to induce threatened masculinity and assessed the driving behaviors of men performing an overtaking task in a driving simulator. There was no effect of the manipulation for men in Study 2. Implications of the present study for men's health and safety research, as well as the precarious manhood paradigm, are presented. It may be useful for research to continue to explore the effects of threats to masculinity using more complex tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Conformity to masculine norms have been associated with lower levels of engagement in healthful behaviors among men (Levant & Wimer, 2014a;Mahalik et al., 2007;Miller, 2008;Sloan, Conner, & Gough, 2015). Indeed, conformity to masculine norms has been associated with unhealthful dietary practices (Rothgerber, 2013); alcohol, tobacco, and drug use (Iwamoto & Smiler, 2013;Liu & Iwamoto, 2007); risky sexual practices (Parent, Torrey, & Michaels, 2012); suicide risk ; violent behaviors (Jakupcak, Tull, & Roemer, 2005); psychological distress (Green & Addis, 2012;Morrison, 2012;Wong, Owen, & Shea, 2012); decreased preventive medical screening (Christy, Mosher, & Rawl, 2014); negative attitudes toward help-seeking (J. L. Berger, Addis, Green, Mackowiak, & Goldberg, 2013); and missing health care appointments (Levant, Wimer, & Williams, 2011). ...
Article
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Conformity to masculine norms has been found to be associated negatively with men’s engagement in healthful behaviors. However, some men still engage in healthful behaviors despite the potential violation of masculine norms. Future orientation, which is the ability to consider the potential distal outcomes of immediate behaviors, is associated positively with engagement in healthful behaviors and may mediate the relationship between masculine norms and healthful behaviors. Furthermore, family income may influence the relationship between future orientation and healthful behaviors, as enacting future orientation may require access to resources. The present study examined a moderated mediation model of associations among conformity to masculine norms, future orientation, family income, and engagement in healthful behaviors. Using a sample of 288 college men, results indicated that future orientation mediated the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and engagement in healthful behaviors, while family income moderated the aforementioned mediated relationship. These results can help to inform clinical work, research, and advocacy for men's health behaviors.
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The purpose of this study was the causal model of emotion of shame and guilt on the basis of parenting style: mediating role of attachment styles. The sample consisted of 394 students (205 boys and 189 girls) from second grade high school students in Tehran and their parents selected by multistage cluster sampling. In this study, students completed attachment styles questionnaires, scale of shame and guilt emotions. Their parents also completed the parenting style questionnaire. The analyzes were based on the structural equation model. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the proposed model is grateful for data. The direct paths of authoritarian style, avoidant attachment, and anxiety attachment were positive and significant. The direct paths of authoritative parenting style, safe attachment to negative feelings of sin were positive and significant. The direct path of easy parenting style was negatively related to guilt feelings. Regarding indirect routes, the results showed that the indirect effect of child-rearing on feelings of guilt was negatively affected by the secure attachment. The indirect effect of effective parenting on guilty feelings through safe and positive attachment, the indirect effect of childbirth on feelings of shame through attachment, anxiety and avoidance, positive and significant, and the indirect effect of authoritarian parenting on shameful feelings through anxiety and avoidance attachment Positive and meaningful
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often accompanied by elevated aggression. PTSD and combat exposure alone do not fully explain the reliable finding of heightened aggression among trauma-exposed veterans. Shame may be an important affective feature in this relationship. The present study examined the role of shame from a social hierarchy theoretical perspective in a sample of 52 combat veterans from the post-9/11 era. Correlational analyses indicated moderately strong positive relationships among PTSD, shame, and aggression. Trait shame was found to significantly mediate the relationship between total PTSD severity and physical aggression, but not other forms of aggression. For veterans within the context of a hierarchical military culture, separation from the military and PTSD diagnosis may be very salient markers of social loss and social exclusion. Aggression may operate to reduce the negative affective experience associated with shame and to regain social standing. Findings implicate shame as an important emotional component in the relationship between PTSD and aggression.
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Chapter 3 focuses on the problematics of (non) belonging in Miano’s Tels, Afropean, and her essays, Devi’s Les Hommes and Mokkedem’s Mes Hommes. Drawing on Nancy’s notion of community I examine the in-between positionality of Miano’s male protagonists as immigrants’ children in France, through a reading of Critical Race theory, and Miano’s own theories of community. The notion of myth, which Nancy discusses as undergirding the notion of community is explored through the ‘Fils de Kemet’ group in Tels, while the concept of being in-between France and Africa is explored with ‘Afropean Soul’. I then discuss Mokeddem’s text as a singular voice fighting against Islamic patriarchal masculinity, through the lens of Ahmed’s (Willful Subjects. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014a; Living a Feminist Life. Durham: Duke University Press, 2017) notion of willfulness. The protagonist’s relationship with her father and her subsequent relationships with a range of men are analyzed. Similarly, Devi’s text creates a new community of men with whom she can dialogue and exchange ideas, a writing community, as outlined by Nancy, which allows her to recover her own individuality. Ultimately, the different forms which community takes in this chapter enable the writers to reconfigure masculinities as loving and vulnerable and equally affected by patriarchy as women.
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The present study examined whether the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) could be replicated in online, text-based communication, and whether both online and in-person social stress impacted emotion identification. Participants were college students (n = 58) who experienced stress elicitation either face-to-face (TSST) or online (e-Trier). They then identified angry, fearful, happy, and ambiguous angry-fearful facial expressions. The effectiveness of the TSST was replicated, while the e-Trier was only successful in eliciting stress at the mid-point of the task. In the less stressful conditions (e-Trier and control) men identified ambiguous expressions as significantly more angry than women, while this gender difference was not evident in the stressful condition (TSST). Men were also more likely to misidentify true fearful faces as angry. These results indicate that men tend towards over-interpreting angry expressions, but this gender difference is diminished with experienced stress.
Article
Expressive suppression reflects one's tendency to inhibit the behavioral expression of emotion. Despite voluminous research on expressive suppression, we are aware of no study examining its relation to anger as a discrete emotion. Participants (N = 97) completed measures of expressive suppression and trait anger, and they viewed two anger-inducing and two non-anger film clips. During each film clip, participants’ faces were video recorded and later coded for the behavioral expression of anger. After each film clip, participants rated their subjective experience of anger, and they wrote about their experiences; computerized text analyses measured the verbal disclosure of anger. ANOVAs revealed that film type interacted with expressive suppression for subjective experience of anger and behavioral expression of anger even while controlling for trait anger; expressive suppression was negatively associated with subjective experience and behavioral expression of anger with respect to the anger-inducing films but not the non-anger films. Verbal disclosure of anger was not associated with expressive suppression. This lab study confirmed that general expressive suppression has implications for the experience and behavioral expression of anger, and it suggests value in extending this general individual-difference variable to the realm of discrete emotions.
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The effect of proximate emotions on risk perceptions is of central importance to criminal decision‐making theory, but has been understudied. We investigate the role of two integral (situational specific) emotional responses, anger and fear, in a decision‐making context regarding the choice to commit assault. We draw on dual‐process models of information processing and appraisal theory to propose a theoretical model in which integral emotions influence decisions and behavior. Using data from an experiment embedded in a survey to a nationwide sample of adults (N = 804), we test the interrelated roles of anger, fear, and traditional rational choice considerations on the intention to commit assault. We find a strong direct association between emotions and intentions to commit assault. Additionally, anger and fear moderate the effect of cognitive deliberations on behavioral intentions and provide a lens through which to evaluate a criminogenic opportunity.
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Fantasy genre fiction has increasingly received academic attention for its representations of gender and sexuality, and scholars have acknowledged that the genre has the potential to challenge accepted ideas about femininity and heterosexuality. However, few studies have questioned how men and masculinity are constructed within the fantasy genre, despite the prevalence of masculine characters and readers and the influence that popular cultural texts exert over young audiences. This paper uses Raewyn Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and Judith Butler's poststructuralist gender theories to reveal how dominant ideas about masculine stoicism are negotiated and (re)imagined within Christopher Paolini's young adult fantasy series The Inheritance Cycle (2005-2011). I argue that while unemotional masculine discourses are present within the narrative, fantasy genre conventions such as magic and magical creatures invite readers to question their desirability and recognize how they are socially constructed and compelled. By analysing magical telepathic bonds, crying, magical races, and magic, I find that young readers are presented with complex but often progressive ideas about how masculine subjects may experience and express their emotions. The article demonstrates that fantasy genre fiction is a crucial site for analysis in masculinities studies because it provides a means of reflecting and recreating masculine discourses without the constraints of realism.
Article
Gothic monsters have recently experienced a period of focused scholarly analysis, although few studies have engaged with the werewolf in terms of its overt alignment with masculinity. Yet the werewolves of young adult fantasy fiction both support and subvert dominant masculine discourses through their complex negotiation with emotional repression and violence. These performative masculine practices are the focus of this article, which analyses how hegemonic masculine ideals are reinforced or rejected in a corpus of young adult fantasy texts, including Cassandra Clare's young adult series The Mortal Instruments (2007–2014) and Stephenie Meyer's Twilight Saga (2005–2010). Both texts feature masculine characters whose lycanthropic experiences implicitly comment upon gender norms, which may shape young adult audiences' understanding of their own and others' gender identities.
Book
Religion, Spirituality, and Masculinity provides concrete, practical suggestions for mental health professionals. Drawing from decades of clinical experience working with men and interdisciplinary insights from psychology, sociology, religion, and more, the authors explore some of the most salient aspects of men’s mental and spiritual health. Chapters focus on topics such as men’s relationships to religion and to masculinity, shame, and forgiveness, and concerns such as pornography use and drifting between religious affiliations. In addition to relevant theory and research, each chapter includes a case study and clear, science-informed strategies that can be incorporated into everyday practice in ways that improve men’s health and wellbeing.
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. En este artículo se presenta una revisión sobre el bullying y el cyberbullying y la relación entre ellos, desde una perspectiva psico-socio-educativa. Con el objetivo de estudiar la continuidad de los procesos de cyberbullying, presentamos los resultados iniciales de tres estudios descriptivos. En el primero, se analiza el origen del cyberbullying desde la Educación Primaria, proporcionando datos comparativos de 2197 alumnos de entre 10 y 18 años, estudiantes de Educación Primaria y de Educación Secundaria. El estudio segundo, se centra en la continuidad del cyberbullying desde la escuela a la universidad, presentando los
Chapter
When shame becomes guilt, individuals change their focus from blaming others to acknowledging personal responsibility. This piece reports on findings that show how aspects of shame are correlated with bullying behaviors and how reducing those behaviors can be achieved by remediating shame through the promotion of guilt or by using interconnected harmony strategies. Though this study primarily tested US (individualistic) participants, these findings are compared with extant studies carried out in collectivistic cultures because it is important to focus on remediating shame to reduce bullying in multiple contexts. Shame prompts the desire to amend the threatened social self and improve self-esteem. A common maladaptive method of amending the threatened social self and improving self-esteem is bullying, because bullying gives the perpetrator an illusion of power and importance. Addressing and remediating shame could have a positive effect on reducing bullying by establishing an ethical climate within bullying environments that encourages mutual respect, shared responsibility, and social inclusion. Results of this study support the notion that correlates of shame established in previous research on convicts, extends to individuals with a propensity to bully others. Analysis of cross-cultural literature and US findings illuminates how shame leads to a resource-orientation through the desire for harmonious mediation and the acceptance of responsibility through guilt.
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In this book, Joseph Pleck examines and analyzes the full body of research literature on the male role that has appeared since the 1930s and subjects it to a devastating critique. He identifies the components of the "male sex role paradigm" which has been the basis of research for the past forty years, and notes numerous instances of blatant misrepresentation of data, twisted reinterpretations of disconfirming results, misogyny, homophobia, and class bias. He proposes a new theory, the "sex role strain paradigm," offers a reinterpretation of sex role stereotyping, and a critique of research by sociobiologists that allegedly demonstrates a biological basis for male aggression.
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Among the many topics considered by meta-analysts, one that has received relatively little attention is the statistical integration of multivariate outcome data. This article focuses on a procedure proposed by Kaiser that has been used to integrate the results from different factor analyses. After giving a geometrical description of Kaiser's procedure, the authors illustrate its use with factor analytic studies of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The results show that the seven subscales of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory measure two dimensions of aggressiveness, one that can be called covert. The need for further development and application of multivariate data synthesis procedures is also discussed.
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Studied the structure of norms governing the traditional male sex role, as reflected in the attitudes held by a collegiate sample of 233 males. Ss were asked to agree or disagree with 57 belief statements about men's expected behavior. Traditional attitudes toward sex roles for women were assessed by asking Ss to agree/disagree with a statement advocating the addition of the Equal Rights Amendment to the constitution and a statement on the desirability of marrying a virgin. Results indicate that the sample as a group did not fully endorse traditional male role norms. The toughness norm was only slightly supported; the status norm was, on the average, neither supported nor rejected; and the antifemininity norm was slightly rejected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study examined the role that unwanted identities play in accounting for extant findings concerning gender differences in shame-proneness. The construct of unwanted identities was also used to explain why powerful associations have been found between shame and anger. College students (48 men, 84 women) rated their feelings of shame, guilt, anger, and unwanted identities in response to the TOSCA-2 scenarios, known to yield robust gender differences in shame, and to new scenarios, meant to be more threatening to men''s than women''s identities. Even after accounting for shared variance between shame and guilt, evidence supported the conclusion that women''s greater shame-proneness than men''s could be an artifact, reflecting the more threatening nature of previous situations to women''s identities. Mediational analyses also confirmed that unwanted identities elicit shame, which, in turn, is a powerful instigator of anger. Discussion focuses on inconsistencies between the present results and expectations based on previous theory and research.
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In feminist sociocultural models of rape, extreme adherence to the masculine gender role is implicated in the perpetuation of sexual assault against women in that it encourages men to be dominant and aggressive, and it teaches that women are inferior to men and are sometimes worthy of victimization. Many researchers have linked components of masculine ideology to self-reports of past sexual aggression or future likelihood to rape. Thirty-nine effect sizes were examined in this meta-analysis across 11 different measures of masculine ideology to determine how strongly each index of masculine ideology was associated with sexual aggression. Although 10 of the 11 effect sizes were statistically significant, the 2 largest effects were for Malamuth's construct of hostile masculinity (e.g., Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991) and Mosher's construct of hypermasculinity (e.g., Mosher & Sirkin, 1984), both of which measure multiple components of masculine ideology including acceptance of aggression against women and negative, hostile beliefs about women. The next strongest relationships concerned measures of agreement that men are dominant over women and measures of hostility toward women. Scores on general measures of gender-role adherence, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974), were not strong predictors of sexual aggression. Sociocultural models that link patriarchal masculine id eology and situational factors to sexual aggression should prove most predictive in future research.
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In this study, we examined the emotional content of parents’ conversations about past events with their 40-month-old children. Subjects were 24 white middle-class children and their mothers and fathers. At separate home visits, each parent independently engaged the child in conversation about three events that parent and child had experienced together only once before. Mothers and fathers talked about emotional aspects of events in similar ways, but they both used a greater number and variety of emotion words with daughters than with sons. Parents also mentioned sad aspects of events more with daughters than with sons. Implications of the differential socialization of emotion for boys and girls are discussed.
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This review evaluates 11 masculinity ideology measures that examine attitudes toward men and masculinities and 6 instruments for other masculinity-related constructs. Four conclusions regarding the available measures and the future development of instrumentation in the area are drawn from the review. First, there is evidence that measures of gender orientation and measures of gender ideologies are independent, and have differential correlates. Instruments that attempt to determine gender orientation and masculinity ideology concurrently will have limited utility by virtue of not distinguishing between these two constructs. Second, there is also evidence that gender ideologies about men are distinct from, and have differential correlates than, gender ideologies about women and gender relations in general. Thus, measures intending to index attitudes toward masculinities should not include gender-comparative items. Third, measures of the gender-related conflicts or stresses of manhood are likely to predict males’ behavior more directly than measures of masculinity ideology. Finally, a number of the existing instruments measuring either masculinity ideology or personal experiences with masculinity standards direct attention too narrowly toward a single definition of masculinity.
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Individual differences in proneness to shame and proneness to guilt are thought to play an important role in the development of both adaptive and maladaptive interpersonal and intrapersonal processes. But little empirical research has addressed these issues, largely because no reliable, valid measure has been available to researchers interested in differentiating proneness to shame from proneness to guilt. The Self-Conscious Affect and Attribution Inventory (SCAAI) was developed to assess characteristic affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses associated with shame and guilt among a young adult population. The SCAAI also includes indices of externalization of cause or blame, detachment/unconcern, pride in self, and pride in behavior. Data from 3 independent studies of college students and 1 study of noncollege adults provide support for the reliability of the main SCAAI subscales. Moreover, the pattern of relations among the SCAAI subscales and the relation of SCAAI subscales to 2 extant measures of shame and guilt support the validity of this new measure. The SCAAI appears to provide related but functionally distinct indices of proneness to shame and guilt in a way that these previous measures have not.
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This study explored the relation of shame proneness and guilt proneness to constructive versus destructive responses to anger among 302 children (Grades 4-6), adolescents (Grades 7-11), 176 college students, and 194 adults. Across all ages, shame proneness was clearly related to maladaptive response to anger, including malevolent intentions; direct, indirect, and displaced aggression; self-directed hostility; and negative long-term consequences. In contrast, guilt proneness was associated with constructive means of handling anger, including constructive intentions, corrective action and non-hostile discussion with the target of the anger, cognitive reappraisals of the target's role, and positive long-term consequences. Escapist-diffusing responses showed some interesting developmental trends. Among children, these dimensions were positively correlated with guilt and largely unrelated to shame; among older participants, the results were mixed.
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This study examined factors that may influence children's decisions to control or express their emotions including type of emotion (anger, sadness, physical pain), type of audience (mother, father, peer, alone), age, and sex. Children's reported use of display rules, reasons for their decisions, and reported method of expression were examined. Subjects were 32 boys and 32 girls in each of the first (M = 7.25 years old), third (M = 9.33 years old), and fifth grades (M = 11.75 years old). Regardless of the type of emotion experienced, children reported controlling their expression of emotion significantly more in the presence of peers than when they were with either their mother or father or when they were alone. Younger children reported expressing sadness and anger significantly more often than did older children, and girls were more likely than boys to report expressing sadness and pain. Children's primary reason for controlling their emotional expressions was the expectation of a negative interpersonal interaction following disclosure.
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This article discusses how the product development cycle is being transformed with “Artificial Intelligence” (AI) for the first time in zSeries history. This new era of AI, under the project name IBM Z Development Transformation (zDT), has allowed the team to grow and learn new skills in data science. This transformation forces change structurally in how data is prepared and stored. In z14, there were incremental productivity gains with enhancements to automation with eServer Automation Test Solution and a technology data analysis engine called zDataAssist. However, in z15, AI will significantly accelerate our efficiency. This article explains how Design Thinking and Agile principles were used to identify areas that are of high impact and feasible to implement: 1) what and how data is collected via System Test Event Logging and Analysis engine, Problem ticket management system (Jupitr), and Processor data analysis engine (Xrings); 2) problem identification, analysis, and management (AutoJup) along with Intelligent Recovery Verification Assistant; 3) product design documentation search engine (AskTheMachine); and 4) prototype microprocessor allocation processes Intelligent Commodity Fulfillment System using Machine Learning. This article details the approach of these areas for z15, the implementation of these solutions under the zDT project, as well as the results and future work.
Article
We examined the relationship among gender roles (i.e., hypermasculinity and hyperfemininity), psychological maltreatment, verbal and physical aggression, and alcohol use in dating couples. Fifty‐six couples completed questionnaires on adherence to gender‐role identity, psychological maltreatment, verbal and physical abuse, and average alcohol consumption in their current dating relationship. We found that the interaction of hypermasculinity and hyperfemininity in a dating relationship contributes to a man's perception of being verbally abused, a woman's perception of having her self‐esteem attacked, and a man's consumption of liquor. These findings suggest that couples high in the characteristics of hypermasculinity and hyperfemininity may be more at risk for establishing and maintaining abusive relationships.
Article
Examines the male process of relational dread. It is suggested a man's dread is the result of negative learning about the process of relationship, repeated over the years. The experience of relational dread includes: inevitability of disaster, timelessness, damage, closeness, precariousness, process, guilt, denial of and fear of aggression, incompetence and shame, and paralysis. The focus for men in therapy should be the forces of connection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study investigated the attributions and affective responses of high Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) men when their female partner's behavior served as a threat to their masculinity in situations that were MG relevant or irrelevant. College men who scored high or low on the MGRS scale listened to audiotaped vignettes of hypothetical situations involving dating partners. The vignettes depicted MG relevant or irrelevant situations in which the female partner's behavior served to threaten or not threaten the man's masculinity in the relationship. After each vignette, measures were obtained on negative attributions, negative affect, and the endorsement of verbal and physical aggression toward the woman. Results showed that threatening female partner behavior yielded significantly more negative attributions, negative affect, and endorsement of verbal aggression from men in MG relevant situations than irrelevant situations. Relative to low MGRS men, high MGRS men reported more negative attributions and negative affect and endorsed more verbal aggression toward threatening than toward nonthreatening partner behavior. Results suggest a model that relates MG role ideology, stress, and situational variables to the cognitive and affective precursors of abusive male behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article proposes an approach to understanding men's abuse of their intimate partners. The authors suggest that the concept of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) might be useful in identifying men who are predisposed to become abusive with their intimate partners. College men who scored either high or low on an MGRS scale were assessed, and their attributions, affect, and conflict resolution behavior toward their intimate female partners were examined. Participants were presented with masculine-gender-relevant and masculine-gender-irrelevant vignettes involving disputes with their intimate female partners. Results indicated that men high in MGRS attributed greater negative intent; expressed more irritation, anger, and jealousy; and endorsed aggressive responding more often than did men low in MGRS. Implications of MGRS and masculine relevance of conflicts for understanding mate abusive behavior are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a unified conceptual system for understanding both individual and collective violence. The learning of aggression, the processes which trigger violence, and the rewards and punishments of aggression are discussed. Guidelines for reducing societal levels of aggression are presented. (42 p. ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Masculine gender role stress and masculine ideology were investigated to better understand each factor's role in men's aggressive and violent behaviors perpetrated within their romantic relationships. Participants were 165 men attending an urban university campus. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze each factor's contribution to predicting aggression and violence. Results indicated that masculine gender role stress accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression and violence scores. In addition, the interaction effect of Ideology × Gender Role Stress emerged as a significant predictor of aggression and violence. Results are discussed in terms of clinical implications and future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this study, the ways in which mothers and their 30–35-month-old children discussed the emotional aspects of past experiences was explored. Although previous research has established that children this age talk about emotions, and some studies have found sex differences between mother-daughter and mother-son dyads in these conversations, no study has examined explicitly the way in which emotions about the past are discussed. This is an important research question because emotional aspects of events may help provide an evaluative framework for thinking about and talking about the past. The results suggest that, with daughters, mothers focus more on positive emotions and tend not to attribute negative emotions to the child. With sons, positive and negative emotions are discussed equally. Moreover, mothers never discuss anger with their daughters but they do with their sons. Finally, mother-daughter conversations emphasize the emotional state itself, whereas mother-son conversations often discuss the causes and consequences of emotions. The way in which these patterns might contribute to children's developing understanding of gender-appropriate emotional reactions are discussed.
Article
This study clarifies and adds to our understanding of how gender and gender orientation affect physical aggression in dating relationships. The stereotype of male violence assumes that men exclusively or nearly exclusively use abusive and violent behavior to manage conflict situations with an intimate partner, and that the more violent men will be more masculine. Data from a sample of 336 undergraduates indicate that the expected sex differences were not observed; among college students, physical aggression in dating relationships is not gender-specific. However, gender orientation was significantly related to courtship aggression. A more masculine and/or less feminine gender orientation and variations in relationship seriousness proved to be the two strongest predictors of both men's and women's involvement in courtship violence. Findings are discussed in terms of the masculine mystique and the male role norms in our culture's superstructure.
Article
The relation of shame and guilt to anger and aggression has been the focus of considerable theoretical discussion, but empirical findings have been inconsistent. Two recently developed measures of affective style were used to examine whether shame-proneness and guilt-proneness are differentially related to anger, hostility, and aggression. In 2 studies, 243 and 252 undergraduates completed the Self-Conscious Affect and Attribution Inventory, the Symptom Checklist 90, and the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale. Study 2 also included the Test of Self-Conscious Affect and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. Shame-proneness was consistently correlated with anger arousal, suspiciousness, resentment, irritability, a tendency to blame others for negative events, and indirect (but not direct) expressions of hostility. Proneness to "shame-free" guilt was inversely related to externalization of blame and some indices of anger, hostility, and resentment.
Article
Previous research has shown that excessive cardiovascular reactivity may be important in the development of coronary heart disease. The present study examined the role of masculine cognitive appraisal of stress as a mediator of cardiovascular reactivity in men. The reactivity of men who differed on a measure of individual differences in men's cognitive appraisal of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) were compared on the cold-pressor test under conditions of high and low masculine performance challenge. Under conditions of minimal challenge, it was predicted that high- and low-MGRS men would not differ on reactivity. Under high challenge, high-MGRS men were expected to show greater reactivity than were low-MGRS men. Analysis of results for systolic blood pressure confirmed the major predictions. High-MGRS men showed greater systolic blood pressure reactivity than did low-MGRS men under high but not low masculine challenge. The implications of MGRS appraisal for men's health are discussed.
Article
Examines the Dollard et al. (1939) frustration-aggression hypothesis. The original formulation's main proposition is limited to interference with an expected attainment of a desired goal on hostile (emotional) aggression. Although some studies have yielded negative results, others support the core proposition. Frustrations can create aggressive inclinations even when they are not arbitrary or aimed at the subject personally. Interpretations and attributions can be understood partly in terms of the original analysis but they can also influence the unpleasantness of the thwarting. A proposed revision of the 1939 model holds that frustrations generate aggressive inclinations to the degree that they arouse negative affect. Evidence regarding the aggressive consequences of aversive events is reviewed, and Berkowitz's cognitive-neoassociationistic model is summarized.
Article
This study explored several factors associated with expected outcome of emotional expression and likelihood of expression among children. These variables were posited to be a reflection of children's affective display rules. Differences in outcome expectancies and likelihood of expression were assessed as a function of sex of parent, sex of subject, grade, and type of affect. 125 first-, fourth-, and sixth-grade children (mean ages, 6-9, 9-2, and 11-7, respectively) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental conditions involving either sad or angry affect inductions. Older boys reported less positive expectancies and lower likelihood of expression than younger boys; and boys had less positive expectancies and lower likelihood of expression for sadness than girls. A high correlation was obtained between outcome expectancy and likelihood of expression; the correlation was higher for sadness than anger, and higher among males than females. These results suggest that socialization practices tend to be directed toward the suppression of sadness among males.
Article
We suggest that male gender-role identification affects whether specific situations are appraised as stressful. A questionnaire was developed to measure masculine gender-role stress (MGRS). Correlational data and multiple regression were used to validate the MGRS scale as a measure of gender-related stress in men, and compare its predictive utility with Spence's commonly-used measure of masculinity. Findings indicate that stress appraisal is gender related, that is, men experience more masculine-role stress than women. Further, the construct of MGRS was distinguished from the concept of masculinity. Finally, MGRS predicted increased anger, increased anxiety, and poorer health behaviors.
Article
It is proposed that masculine gender role socialization affects whether men appraise specific situations as stressful. Behavioral research on stress and coping has remained relatively blind to the possibility of significant gender role differences in appraising events as stressful. Therefore, a new scale was developed to measure masculine gender role stress (MGRS). Data were presented to substantiate hypotheses that MGRS scores significantly distinguish men from women, are unrelated to global measures of sex-typed masculinity, and are significantly associated with at least two measures of self-reported stress (i.e., anger and anxiety). Stressful situations represented on the MGRS scale included cognitive, behavioral, and environmental events associated with the male gender role. Factor analysis demonstrates that these concerns cluster in five particular domains reflecting physical inadequacy, emotional inexpressiveness, subordination to women, intellectual inferiority, and performance failures involving work and sex. The findings are discussed in terms of cognitive-behavioral concepts of stress and coping.
Article
PIP Violence against women by men is considered one of the most serious threats to the health and welfare of women in the US. Little is known about why male violence occurs against the female gender. Previous theory and conceptualizations explaining male violence have narrowly focused on individual factors and topologies. In order to shed light on this gender issue, this paper presents a multivariate model explaining the violence of men towards women using 4 content areas and 13 hypotheses. The content areas include 1) macrosocietal explanation; 2) biological, neuroanatomical, hormonal explanation; 3) gender role socialization or gender role conflict explanation; and 4) intergender, relational explanation. Implications of the model for educational interventions, research, and training are discussed.
Article
This paper described the construction of an inventory consisting of the following scales: Assault, Indirect Hostility, Irritability, Negativism, Resentment, Suspicion, Verbal Hostility, and Guilt. The first and second versions of the scale were item analyzed, and the final revision consists of 75 items. The hostility items were scaled for social desirability, and social desirability was correlated with probability of endorsement. The r's of .27 and .30 for college men and women, respectively, were considerably smaller than those of previous studies. Factor analyses of college men's and women's inventories revealed two factors: An attitudinal component of hostility (Resentment and Suspicion) and a "motor' component (Assault, Indirect Hostility, Irritability, and Verbal Hostility).
Article
To test the hypothesis that relationship violence may be related to men's fear of emotions, a secondary data analysis examined a sample of 155 male students attending an Eastern urban university. The men had been assessed using measures of masculine gender role stress, fear of emotions, and self-reported perpetration of relationship violence. Men's fear of emotion predicted relationship violence beyond what was accounted for masculine gender role stress. In addition, men's fear of emotions was found to partially mediate the relationship between masculine gender role stress and relationship violence. Results are discussed in terms of implications for future research and clinical interventions.
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Long, D. (1987). Working with men who batter. In M. Scher & M. Stevens (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with men (pp. 305-320). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Tangney, J. P., Ferguson, T. J., Wagner, P. E., Crowley, S. L., & Gramzow, R. (1996). The Test of Self-Conscious Affect, Version 2 (TOSCA-2). Unpublished instrument, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.
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Are emotions frightening? An extension of the fear of fear construct. Behavior and Research Therapy
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