Linguistic validation of translation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire from English.

MAPI Values, 133 Portland St, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes (Impact Factor: 2.12). 04/2012; 10(1):40. DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-40
Source: PubMed


A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population.
Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the SAGA questionnaire, which was harmonized among 12 languages: Danish, Dutch, English (UK), Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. During a cognitive debriefing interview, participants were asked to identify any words that were difficult to understand and explain in their own words the meaning of each sentence in the questionnaire. The qualitative analysis was conducted by local linguistic validation teams (original translators, back translator, project manager, interviewer, and survey research expert).
Translations of the SAGA questionnaire from English to 12 European languages were well understood by the participants with an overall comprehension rate across language of 98.9%. In addition, the translations retained the original meaning of the SAGA items and instructions. Comprehension difficulties were identified, and after review by the translation team, minor changes were made to 7 of the 12 translations to improve clarity and comprehension.
Conceptual, semantic, and cultural equivalence of each translation of the SAGA questionnaire was achieved thus confirming linguistic validation.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and hypothesis: The Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire is a patient-completed instrument designed to assess goal attainment in the behavioral or pharmacologic treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including overactive bladder (OAB). The SAGA questionnaire allows patients to identify and rank the importance of treatment goals before treatment is initiated; the follow-up SAGA questionnaire quantifies the achievement of these patient-identified goals. The objective of this qualitative research was to confirm the content validity of the German, Spanish, Swedish, and English (UK) language versions of the SAGA questionnaire in patients with OAB with or without other LUTS. Methods: The SAGA questionnaire was translated to each language in accordance with a well-established forward and backward harmonization method. Patient interviews were then conducted according to a cognitive debriefing methodology. Qualitative analysis of patients' input allowed assessment of content validity of each linguistically adapted SAGA questionnaire. Results: All patients (n = 29; six to eight per targeted country) found the SAGA questionnaire easy to understand and to complete. Most patients completed the nine prespecified (fixed) treatment goals and were able to add up to five personal goals in the open-ended portion and rate each goal by importance. Differences were identified in how the various languages communicated some of the concepts assessed with the SAGA questionnaire. Rewording of the translated versions of the questionnaire was necessary in some cases. Conclusions: This linguistic content validation study in four European languages indicates that SAGA is a comprehensive, easy-to-understand, and relevant questionnaire for patient-completed evaluation of LUTS/OAB symptoms and treatment goal attainment.
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