International Scholarly Research Network
Volume 2012, Article ID 436857, 6pages
Remedial Prospective of
Chirag A. Patel,1Kalyani Divakar,2Devdas Santani,3
Himanshu K. Solanki,4and Jalaram H. Thakkar1
1Department of Pharmacology, SSR College of Pharmacy, Sayli-Silvassa Road, Sayli, UT oF Dadra & Nagar Haveli 396230, India
2Department of Pharmacology, Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Chikkabanavara, Bangalore 560090, India
3Department of Pharmacology, Rofel Shri G.M. Bilakhia College of Pharmacy, Namdha Road, Vapi 396191, India
4Department of Pharmaceutics, SSR College of Pharmacy, Sayli-Silvassa Road, Sayli, UT oF Dadra & Nagar Haveli 396230, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Chirag A. Patel, patel email@example.com
Received 18 November 2011; Accepted 28 December 2011
Academic Editors: K. Cimanga, J. C. Laguna, and M. Tohda
Copyright © 2012 Chirag A. Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen ﬁxing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily
valued for its very rich vitamins A, B1,B
12, C, E, K, and P; ﬂavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically
important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientiﬁcally evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inﬂammation
inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inﬂamed synovium and suppress
lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased
myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180,
P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting
proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive eﬀect in part by blocking
angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals
indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to ﬁnd cellular and molecular mechanisms
of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis,
polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae)
constitutes a thorny nitrogen ﬁxing deciduous shrub which
cultivated various parts of the world for its nutritional and
medicinal values . A Sea buckthorn fruits (Figure 1), seed
(Figure 2) and other parts is primarily valued for its very rich
vitamins A, B1, B12, C, E, K and P; ﬂavonoids, lycopene,
carotenoids, and phytosterols. Therapeutically important
because it is rich with potent antioxidants [2–4]. These
compounds are of interest not only from the chemical point
of view, but also because many of them possess biolog-
ical and therapeutic activities including antioxidant, car-
diovascular, cancer therapy, healing, anti-inﬂammation, an-
tiradiation eﬀect, treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, as
a liver protective agent, antioxidant, platelet aggregation,
and immunomodulator . Because of these eﬀects, H.
rhamnoides L. containing bioactive compounds is often used
in traditional medicine. See Ta ble 1 for Constituents of Sea
2. Manufacture of Sea Buckthorn Products
Figure 3 is a diagram of a processing method that can be
used to separate useful components of the berries, yielding
the key products of juice, dried fruit nutrients, and oil from
the seeds and pulp; residues can be utilized as valuable ani-
mal feed. New technologies, involving supercritical carbon
dioxide extraction, are now being used in China to eﬃciently
produce the oil products.
Tab le 1: Constituents of Sea buckthorn Fruit .
Sr. no. Constituents of sea buckthorn fruit (Per 100 grams fresh berries)
The main unsaturated fatty acids are oleic acid (omega-9), palmitoleic acid
(omega-7), palmitic acid and linoleic acid (omega-6), and linolenic acid
(omega-3); there are also saturated oils and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol)
6–11% (3–5% in fruit pulp, 8–18%
in seed) fatty acid composition\and
total oil content vary with subspecies
2 Vitamin C 28–310 mg (ty pical amount: 600 mg)
3Carotenoids, including beta carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin; these
contribute to the yellow-orange-red colors of the fruit 32–45 mg fatty acids (oils)
4 Vitamin E (mixed tocopherols) Up to 180 mg (equal to about 270 IU)
5 Folic acid Up to 80 mcg
6Organic acids for example, quinic acid, malic acid; ingredients similar to
those are found in cranberries
Quantity not determined expressed
juice has pH of 2.7–3.3
7 Flavonoids (e.g., mainly isorhamnetin, quercetin glycosides, and kaempferol) 50–500 mg (0.05% to 0.5%)
Figure 1: Sea buckthorn fruits.
Figure 2: Sea buckthorn seeds.
3. Pharmacological Account of Sea Buckthorn
with Recommendation Mechanism of Action
3.1. Platelet Aggregation. Cheng et al. suggest that total ﬂa-
vonoids of H. rhamnoides L. (TFH) may suppress platelet
aggregation induced by collagen, probably due to the inhi-
bition of tyrosine kinase activity. It has been reported that
collagen receptor stimulation leads to tyrosine phosphoryla-
tion of Syk (Spleen tyrosine kinase) or Src (proto-oncogene
encoding a tyrosine kinase), followed by phospholipase C-
gamma 2 activation. Tyrosine kinase activation increases
intracellular calcium and activates phospholipids A2 (PLA2),
followed by synthesis of arachidonic acid from phospholipids
in plasma membrane .Therateofaggregationreaction(%
aggregation/min) was also reduced by SBT supplementation
Sea buckthorn berries
Press cake/centrifuge reject
(oil + water)
“Cream” Disk stack centrifuge
Figure 3: Flow diagram of manufacturing of product from sea
3.2. Antioxidant and Antibacterial. The Sea buckthorn leaf
extract exhibited inhibitory eﬀect on the chromium-induced
eﬀect of plasma MDA levels. It also restored the intracel-
lular antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and also exhibited inhibition
of ROS/free radical production [7,8]. It also showed main-
tenance of mitochondrial and nuclear integrity as well as
restoring the phagocytosis by macrophages . The extract
also protected animals signiﬁcantly from the hepatotoxicity
by decreasing creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glu-
tamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT), and serum gluta-
mate pyruvate transferase (SGPT) level compared to the
chromium-treated animals .
3.3. Antiulcer. The antiulcer action of sea buckthorn oils
related to an increased in the hydrophobicity of the mucosal
surface, retarded the gastric emptying , inhibited lipid
ISRN Pharmacology 3
peroxidation in gastric mucosa, accelerated of the mucosal
repair , inhibited proteolytic activity in gastric liquid,
promoted the wound reparation processes of mucosa and
prevent mucosa damage .
3.4. Anti-Inﬂammatory. Lymphocyte proliferation decreased
by SBT clearly indicates inhibition of T-cell activation .
Due to the presence of some mitogens in SBT, it stimulated
lymphocyte proliferation . SBT had reductive eﬀect
on C-reactive protein, a marker of inﬂammation and a
risk factor for cardiovascular diseases . It was possible
that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by SBT
leaf extract could be due to inhibition of transcription
of the iNOS gene which was quite evident at translation
level on probing with Moab against iNOS. The onset of
the NO production cascade induced by lipopolysaccharides
in macrophages required a number of steps such as the
activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kh and subsequent iNOS
mRNA expression .
3.5. Anticancer. H. rhamnoides L., with major constituents
includes, quercetin-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, such
as HT- 29 human colon cancer cells, HL-60, and K562
human leukemia cells, baicalin-induced apoptosis in prostate
cancer cells. Sea buckthorn juice not only inhibits growth
of the human gastric carcinoma (SGC7901) and lymphatic
leukemia (L1200) but kills both S180 and P388 cancer cells
. SBT juice decreased genotoxic eﬀect of cisplatin on
somatic and germ cell of mice . SBT fruit is able to
decrease carcinogen-induced stomach and skin tumorigene-
sis, which might involve upregulation of phase II and antiox-
idant enzymes as well as DNA-binding activity of IRF-1, a
known antioncogenic transcription factor causing growth
suppression and apoptosis induction for its anticancer eﬀect
. SBT can be anticipated that the antimutagenic activity
via antioxidative mechanism . Sea buckthorn juice can
block the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds
more eﬀectively than ascorbic acid and thereby prevent
tumor production [22–24].
3.6. Hepatic Disease. Sea buckthorn could reduce the serum
levels of laminin, hyaluronic acid, total bile acid (TBA), and
collagen types III and IV in patients with liver cirrhosis,
demonstrating that it may restrain the synthesis of collagen
and other components of extracellular matrix . SBT also
ﬁxes vitamin A and RAR contents of hepatic stellate cells
(HSCs), so as to keep HSCs in a quiescent status and to
prevent progression of liver ﬁbrosis . SBT has appar-
ent hepatoprotective properties and alleviating liver injury
caused by carbon tetrachloride .
3.7. Cardiac Eﬀect. TFH could improve the mechanocardio-
graphy and the ischemic electrocardiogram. SBT increased
the internal pressure peak of the left ventriculus and its max-
imum rate of change (dp/dtmax) distinctly, the time from
the left ventricle starting a contraction to the occurrence of a
dp/dtmax was shortened 4 distinctly, the diastolic pressure
of the left ventricle and the left ventricular pressure of
the isovolumetric relaxation phase diminished, and cardiac
output, cardiac index, heart stroke index, and left ventricular
power index of the myocardium increased . Further
research showed that TFH could strengthen the contractility
of the extracorporeal papillary muscles of guinea pigs. TFH
could prolong the time of ventricular ﬁbrillation, postpone
the atrioventricular conduction, lower the heart rate, and
attenuate the myocardial contractility .
3.8. Antihypertensive Eﬀect. In view of the previous re-
searches that TFH is eﬀective in decreasing the concentration
of intracellular-free calcium induced by angiotensin-2 in
vascular smooth muscle cells by blocking receptor-operated
calcium channels, it is possible to conclude that TFH exerts
its antihypertensive eﬀect, in part, by blocking angiotensin-
2 receptor on cell surface and thus arrest downstream
signal pathway. In sum, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia,
dyslipidemia, and activated angiotensin-2 provoked by the
high-sucrose diet can be ameliorated or modulated by
total ﬂavones puriﬁed from seed residues of Hippophae
rhamnoides L., and the best eﬀect was shown at the dose of
150 mg/kg/day .
3.9. Healing. SBT promotes cutaneous wound healing ,
burns wound healing ,anddermalswoundhealing
by increasing antioxidant and protecting again sulfur dioxide
 and mustard-gas-induced injury . TFH enhanced
mechanical strength of healing tendons and can thus be
credited to enhance collagen deposition and collagen mat-
uration with an altered cytokine proﬁle in the wound. TFH
may increase TGFβ1 and ﬁbrogenic cytokine that stimulates
collagen production in tendons and decreases COX-2 in the
healing tendons [36,37]. Sea buckthorn seed oil signiﬁ-
cantly attenuated hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, main-
taind blood-brain barrier membrane integrity, restricted the
rise in plasma catecholamine, and signiﬁcantly enhanced the
hypoxic tolerance in experimental animals . SBT seed
oil also decrease the level of stress hormones and enhances
hypoxic tolerance in animals exposed to hypoxia indicating
its antistress and adaptogenic activity against hypoxia .
3.10. Radiation. The radio protective eﬀect generated by SBT
at molecular level in terms of free radical scavenging as
studied through in-vitro studies could explain the cellular
survival, proliferation enhancement, immunostimulation,
and ultimately the whole body survival . Maintenance
of chromatin organization, induction of hypoxia, protects
hydrogen atom donation, free radical scavenging , and
blocking of cell cycle at G2-M phase by interfering with
topoisomerase-I activity and mitochondrial and genomic
DNA from radiation seem to contribute towards the radio
protective eﬃcacy of SBT .
3.11. Atopic Dermatitis. Sea buckthorn seed oil treatment
increased the level of a-linolenic, linoleic, and eicosapen-
taenoic acids, whereas pulp oil supplementation β-Sitosterol
Tab le 2: List of available sea buckthorn market products.
Product name Manufacturer name
Sea buckthorn oil softgel Fraken biochem co., ltd. [Shandong, China]
Fructus hippophae extract Rui heng industry co., ltd. [China]
Sea buckthorn pulp oil Inner mongolia yuhangren hi-tech industrial co., ltd. [province: Inner Mongolia,
Sea buckthorn seed oil Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn health products co., ltd. [China]
Immune-enhancing ingredients Shanghai brightol international co., ltd. [province:shanghai, China]
Fish oil softgel capsule & lecithin softgel capsule Qingdao dacon trading co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Sea buckthorn berry oil sea buckthorn seeds Beijing powdery food co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Oil capsule (y-o-04) Youchain group co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Shenxing sea buckthorn xinzhian oral liquid Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn health products co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Organic sea buckthorn fruit oil soft capsule Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn health products co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Organic sea buckthorn berry/fruit powder Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn pharmaceutical co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Sea buckthorn fruit oil capsules-1 Jinan sea buckthorn trade co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Jinan sea buckthorn trade co., ltd. [province:
Shandong, China] Jinan sea buckthorn trade co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Seabuckthorm seed oil capsule Wutai mountain sea buckthorn co., ltd. [province:Shanxi, China]
Sea buckthorn berry powder Shijiazhuang yiling pharmaceutical co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Sea buckthorn powder Beijing powdery food co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Spirulina Dechen nutrachem co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Sea buckthorn seed oil (ﬂu-s003) Inner mongolia prosperous earth trade co., ltd. [province:Inner Mongolia, China]
Sea buckthorn seed oil (ﬂu-s004) Inner mongolia prosperous earth trade co., ltd. [province:Inner Mongolia, China]
Sea buckthorn oil Guangzhou honsea sunshine bio science & technology co., ltd. [province:Guangdong,
Sea buckthorn seed oil capsule (hy-08003) Beijing huiyuan group youyu co., ltd. [province:Shanxi, China]
Sea buckthorn galic softgel (psg) Perfect (China) co., ltd. [province:Guangdong, China]
Sea buckthorn fruit oil Wutai mountain sea buckthorn co., ltd. [province:Shanxi, China]
Fruit juice concentrate Heilongjiang provincial hongri trading co., ltd. [province:Heilongjiang, China]
Sea buckthorn eﬀervescent tablets Nanjing union biotech co., ltd. [province:Jiangsu, China]
Frozen sea buckthorn berry Conseco sea buckthorn co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Digestive support herbal candy Candy manufacturer inc. [province:Guangdong, China]
Capsules of nutrient products Shanghai honghao chemicals co. Ltd. [province:Shanghai, China]
Menova heyeqianzi slimming herbs capsule panda international trade co., limited [province:Hong Kong, China]
Softgel capsule [2010-08-17] Sunrise nutrachem group [province:Shandong, China]
Skin whitening product Chifeng wedge pharmaceutical co., ltd. [province:Inner Mongolia, China]
and β-carotene in the oils may also have eﬀected on the
symptoms of Atopic dermatitis .
3.12. Anti-Atherogenic and Hypoglycemic Activity. Athero-
genic index (AI) was signiﬁcantly reduced and acetylcholine-
induced vasorelaxation was markedly impaired which could
be restored to control values in SBT seed oil treated normally
and hypercholesterolemic animals . SBT decreases blood
glucose and lipid in normal mice, and eﬀect of SBT on
glycometabolism may be related to the control of gluconeo-
4. Pharmacological Effects of
Sea Buckthorn yet to Be Explored in
Relation with Other Diseases
SBT is a traditional herbal medicine, which has long
used many condition like relieving cough, diarrhea, aiding
digestion, invigorating blood circulation alleviating pain,
treating colitis and enterocolitis since ancient time because
it is rich of antioxidant. Juice, syrup, and oil of the fruits have
been used in disantheria, osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract,
urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, sterility, polyneuritis, cheilosis,
ISRN Pharmacology 5
glossitis, baldness, analgesic, benign prostatic hypertrophy,
antiobesity, gout, and chronic prostitisas a metabolism reg-
ulator in traditional medicine .
5. Sea Buckthorn Market Products 
See Tabl e 2.
SBT has high-nutritional and medicinal values due to its
very rich antioxidant property. It is a widely used plant
in traditional medicine for various clinical conditions.
Scientiﬁcally evaluated pharmacological eﬀects of it are
like antiulcerogenic eﬀect, in vitro and in vivo antioxi-
dant eﬀects, cardiac disease, antiatherogenic eﬀect, radio
protective eﬀects, beneﬁcial eﬀects on experimental injury
and clinical diseases of the liver, nad inhibition of platelet
aggregation. Lot of research work is still needed to ﬁnd
cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities.
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