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Sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L. ) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily valued for its very rich vitamins A, B 1 , B 12 , C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180, P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive effect in part by blocking angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis.
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International Scholarly Research Network
ISRN Pharmacology
Volume 2012, Article ID 436857, 6pages
Review Article
Remedial Prospective of
Hippophae rhamnoides
(Sea Buckthorn)
Chirag A. Patel,1Kalyani Divakar,2Devdas Santani,3
Himanshu K. Solanki,4and Jalaram H. Thakkar1
1Department of Pharmacology, SSR College of Pharmacy, Sayli-Silvassa Road, Sayli, UT oF Dadra & Nagar Haveli 396230, India
2Department of Pharmacology, Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Chikkabanavara, Bangalore 560090, India
3Department of Pharmacology, Rofel Shri G.M. Bilakhia College of Pharmacy, Namdha Road, Vapi 396191, India
4Department of Pharmaceutics, SSR College of Pharmacy, Sayli-Silvassa Road, Sayli, UT oF Dadra & Nagar Haveli 396230, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Chirag A. Patel, patel
Received 18 November 2011; Accepted 28 December 2011
Academic Editors: K. Cimanga, J. C. Laguna, and M. Tohda
Copyright © 2012 Chirag A. Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily
valued for its very rich vitamins A, B1,B
12, C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically
important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation
inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress
lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased
myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180,
P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting
proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive eect in part by blocking
angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals
indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms
of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis,
polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis.
1. Introduction
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae)
constitutes a thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub which
cultivated various parts of the world for its nutritional and
medicinal values [1]. A Sea buckthorn fruits (Figure 1), seed
(Figure 2) and other parts is primarily valued for its very rich
vitamins A, B1, B12, C, E, K and P; flavonoids, lycopene,
carotenoids, and phytosterols. Therapeutically important
because it is rich with potent antioxidants [24]. These
compounds are of interest not only from the chemical point
of view, but also because many of them possess biolog-
ical and therapeutic activities including antioxidant, car-
diovascular, cancer therapy, healing, anti-inflammation, an-
tiradiation eect, treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, as
a liver protective agent, antioxidant, platelet aggregation,
and immunomodulator [5]. Because of these eects, H.
rhamnoides L. containing bioactive compounds is often used
in traditional medicine. See Ta ble 1 for Constituents of Sea
buckthorn Fruit.
2. Manufacture of Sea Buckthorn Products
Figure 3 is a diagram of a processing method that can be
used to separate useful components of the berries, yielding
the key products of juice, dried fruit nutrients, and oil from
the seeds and pulp; residues can be utilized as valuable ani-
mal feed. New technologies, involving supercritical carbon
dioxide extraction, are now being used in China to eciently
produce the oil products.
2ISRN Pharmacology
Tab le 1: Constituents of Sea buckthorn Fruit [2].
Sr. no. Constituents of sea buckthorn fruit (Per 100 grams fresh berries)
The main unsaturated fatty acids are oleic acid (omega-9), palmitoleic acid
(omega-7), palmitic acid and linoleic acid (omega-6), and linolenic acid
(omega-3); there are also saturated oils and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol)
6–11% (3–5% in fruit pulp, 8–18%
in seed) fatty acid composition\and
total oil content vary with subspecies
2 Vitamin C 28–310 mg (ty pical amount: 600 mg)
3Carotenoids, including beta carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin; these
contribute to the yellow-orange-red colors of the fruit 32–45 mg fatty acids (oils)
4 Vitamin E (mixed tocopherols) Up to 180 mg (equal to about 270 IU)
5 Folic acid Up to 80 mcg
6Organic acids for example, quinic acid, malic acid; ingredients similar to
those are found in cranberries
Quantity not determined expressed
juice has pH of 2.7–3.3
7 Flavonoids (e.g., mainly isorhamnetin, quercetin glycosides, and kaempferol) 50–500 mg (0.05% to 0.5%)
Figure 1: Sea buckthorn fruits.
Figure 2: Sea buckthorn seeds.
3. Pharmacological Account of Sea Buckthorn
with Recommendation Mechanism of Action
3.1. Platelet Aggregation. Cheng et al. suggest that total fla-
vonoids of H. rhamnoides L. (TFH) may suppress platelet
aggregation induced by collagen, probably due to the inhi-
bition of tyrosine kinase activity. It has been reported that
collagen receptor stimulation leads to tyrosine phosphoryla-
tion of Syk (Spleen tyrosine kinase) or Src (proto-oncogene
encoding a tyrosine kinase), followed by phospholipase C-
gamma 2 activation. Tyrosine kinase activation increases
intracellular calcium and activates phospholipids A2 (PLA2),
followed by synthesis of arachidonic acid from phospholipids
in plasma membrane [5].Therateofaggregationreaction(%
aggregation/min) was also reduced by SBT supplementation
Powdered nutrient
Oil extraction
Seed oil
air clarification
Clean seed
Sea buckthorn berries
Press cake/centrifuge reject
Solid waste
animal feed
(oil + water)
“Cream” Disk stack centrifuge
(cream separator)
Extraction Juice
pulp oil
Spray drying
Figure 3: Flow diagram of manufacturing of product from sea
3.2. Antioxidant and Antibacterial. The Sea buckthorn leaf
extract exhibited inhibitory eect on the chromium-induced
eect of plasma MDA levels. It also restored the intracel-
lular antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and also exhibited inhibition
of ROS/free radical production [7,8]. It also showed main-
tenance of mitochondrial and nuclear integrity as well as
restoring the phagocytosis by macrophages [9]. The extract
also protected animals significantly from the hepatotoxicity
by decreasing creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glu-
tamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT), and serum gluta-
mate pyruvate transferase (SGPT) level compared to the
chromium-treated animals [10].
3.3. Antiulcer. The antiulcer action of sea buckthorn oils
related to an increased in the hydrophobicity of the mucosal
surface, retarded the gastric emptying [11], inhibited lipid
ISRN Pharmacology 3
peroxidation in gastric mucosa, accelerated of the mucosal
repair [12], inhibited proteolytic activity in gastric liquid,
promoted the wound reparation processes of mucosa and
prevent mucosa damage [13].
3.4. Anti-Inflammatory. Lymphocyte proliferation decreased
by SBT clearly indicates inhibition of T-cell activation [14].
Due to the presence of some mitogens in SBT, it stimulated
lymphocyte proliferation [15]. SBT had reductive eect
on C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation and a
risk factor for cardiovascular diseases [16]. It was possible
that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by SBT
leaf extract could be due to inhibition of transcription
of the iNOS gene which was quite evident at translation
level on probing with Moab against iNOS. The onset of
the NO production cascade induced by lipopolysaccharides
in macrophages required a number of steps such as the
activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kh and subsequent iNOS
mRNA expression [17].
3.5. Anticancer. H. rhamnoides L., with major constituents
includes, quercetin-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, such
as HT- 29 human colon cancer cells, HL-60, and K562
human leukemia cells, baicalin-induced apoptosis in prostate
cancer cells. Sea buckthorn juice not only inhibits growth
of the human gastric carcinoma (SGC7901) and lymphatic
leukemia (L1200) but kills both S180 and P388 cancer cells
[18]. SBT juice decreased genotoxic eect of cisplatin on
somatic and germ cell of mice [19]. SBT fruit is able to
decrease carcinogen-induced stomach and skin tumorigene-
sis, which might involve upregulation of phase II and antiox-
idant enzymes as well as DNA-binding activity of IRF-1, a
known antioncogenic transcription factor causing growth
suppression and apoptosis induction for its anticancer eect
[20]. SBT can be anticipated that the antimutagenic activity
via antioxidative mechanism [21]. Sea buckthorn juice can
block the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds
more eectively than ascorbic acid and thereby prevent
tumor production [2224].
3.6. Hepatic Disease. Sea buckthorn could reduce the serum
levels of laminin, hyaluronic acid, total bile acid (TBA), and
collagen types III and IV in patients with liver cirrhosis,
demonstrating that it may restrain the synthesis of collagen
and other components of extracellular matrix [25]. SBT also
fixes vitamin A and RAR contents of hepatic stellate cells
(HSCs), so as to keep HSCs in a quiescent status and to
prevent progression of liver fibrosis [26]. SBT has appar-
ent hepatoprotective properties and alleviating liver injury
caused by carbon tetrachloride [27].
3.7. Cardiac Eect. TFH could improve the mechanocardio-
graphy and the ischemic electrocardiogram. SBT increased
the internal pressure peak of the left ventriculus and its max-
imum rate of change (dp/dtmax) distinctly, the time from
the left ventricle starting a contraction to the occurrence of a
dp/dtmax was shortened 4 distinctly, the diastolic pressure
of the left ventricle and the left ventricular pressure of
the isovolumetric relaxation phase diminished, and cardiac
output, cardiac index, heart stroke index, and left ventricular
power index of the myocardium increased [28]. Further
research showed that TFH could strengthen the contractility
of the extracorporeal papillary muscles of guinea pigs. TFH
could prolong the time of ventricular fibrillation, postpone
the atrioventricular conduction, lower the heart rate, and
attenuate the myocardial contractility [29].
3.8. Antihypertensive Eect. In view of the previous re-
searches that TFH is eective in decreasing the concentration
of intracellular-free calcium induced by angiotensin-2 in
vascular smooth muscle cells by blocking receptor-operated
calcium channels, it is possible to conclude that TFH exerts
its antihypertensive eect, in part, by blocking angiotensin-
2 receptor on cell surface and thus arrest downstream
signal pathway. In sum, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia,
dyslipidemia, and activated angiotensin-2 provoked by the
high-sucrose diet can be ameliorated or modulated by
total flavones purified from seed residues of Hippophae
rhamnoides L., and the best eect was shown at the dose of
150 mg/kg/day [30].
3.9. Healing. SBT promotes cutaneous wound healing [31],
burns wound healing [32],anddermalswoundhealing[33]
by increasing antioxidant and protecting again sulfur dioxide
[34] and mustard-gas-induced injury [35]. TFH enhanced
mechanical strength of healing tendons and can thus be
credited to enhance collagen deposition and collagen mat-
uration with an altered cytokine profile in the wound. TFH
may increase TGFβ1 and fibrogenic cytokine that stimulates
collagen production in tendons and decreases COX-2 in the
healing tendons [36,37]. Sea buckthorn seed oil signifi-
cantly attenuated hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, main-
taind blood-brain barrier membrane integrity, restricted the
rise in plasma catecholamine, and significantly enhanced the
hypoxic tolerance in experimental animals [38]. SBT seed
oil also decrease the level of stress hormones and enhances
hypoxic tolerance in animals exposed to hypoxia indicating
its antistress and adaptogenic activity against hypoxia [39].
3.10. Radiation. The radio protective eect generated by SBT
at molecular level in terms of free radical scavenging as
studied through in-vitro studies could explain the cellular
survival, proliferation enhancement, immunostimulation,
and ultimately the whole body survival [40]. Maintenance
of chromatin organization, induction of hypoxia, protects
hydrogen atom donation, free radical scavenging [41], and
blocking of cell cycle at G2-M phase by interfering with
topoisomerase-I activity and mitochondrial and genomic
DNA from radiation seem to contribute towards the radio
protective ecacy of SBT [42].
3.11. Atopic Dermatitis. Sea buckthorn seed oil treatment
increased the level of a-linolenic, linoleic, and eicosapen-
taenoic acids, whereas pulp oil supplementation β-Sitosterol
4ISRN Pharmacology
Tab le 2: List of available sea buckthorn market products.
Product name Manufacturer name
Sea buckthorn oil softgel Fraken biochem co., ltd. [Shandong, China]
Fructus hippophae extract Rui heng industry co., ltd. [China]
Sea buckthorn pulp oil Inner mongolia yuhangren hi-tech industrial co., ltd. [province: Inner Mongolia,
Sea buckthorn seed oil Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn health products co., ltd. [China]
Immune-enhancing ingredients Shanghai brightol international co., ltd. [province:shanghai, China]
Fish oil softgel capsule & lecithin softgel capsule Qingdao dacon trading co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Sea buckthorn berry oil sea buckthorn seeds Beijing powdery food co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Oil capsule (y-o-04) Youchain group co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Shenxing sea buckthorn xinzhian oral liquid Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn health products co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Organic sea buckthorn fruit oil soft capsule Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn health products co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Organic sea buckthorn berry/fruit powder Hebei shenxing sea buckthorn pharmaceutical co., ltd. [province:Hebei, China]
Sea buckthorn fruit oil capsules-1 Jinan sea buckthorn trade co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Jinan sea buckthorn trade co., ltd. [province:
Shandong, China] Jinan sea buckthorn trade co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Seabuckthorm seed oil capsule Wutai mountain sea buckthorn co., ltd. [province:Shanxi, China]
Sea buckthorn berry powder Shijiazhuang yiling pharmaceutical co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Sea buckthorn powder Beijing powdery food co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Spirulina Dechen nutrachem co., ltd. [province:Shandong, China]
Sea buckthorn seed oil (flu-s003) Inner mongolia prosperous earth trade co., ltd. [province:Inner Mongolia, China]
Sea buckthorn seed oil (flu-s004) Inner mongolia prosperous earth trade co., ltd. [province:Inner Mongolia, China]
Sea buckthorn oil Guangzhou honsea sunshine bio science & technology co., ltd. [province:Guangdong,
Sea buckthorn seed oil capsule (hy-08003) Beijing huiyuan group youyu co., ltd. [province:Shanxi, China]
Sea buckthorn galic softgel (psg) Perfect (China) co., ltd. [province:Guangdong, China]
Sea buckthorn fruit oil Wutai mountain sea buckthorn co., ltd. [province:Shanxi, China]
Fruit juice concentrate Heilongjiang provincial hongri trading co., ltd. [province:Heilongjiang, China]
Sea buckthorn eervescent tablets Nanjing union biotech co., ltd. [province:Jiangsu, China]
Frozen sea buckthorn berry Conseco sea buckthorn co., ltd. [province:Beijing, China]
Digestive support herbal candy Candy manufacturer inc. [province:Guangdong, China]
Capsules of nutrient products Shanghai honghao chemicals co. Ltd. [province:Shanghai, China]
Menova heyeqianzi slimming herbs capsule panda international trade co., limited [province:Hong Kong, China]
Softgel capsule [2010-08-17] Sunrise nutrachem group [province:Shandong, China]
Skin whitening product Chifeng wedge pharmaceutical co., ltd. [province:Inner Mongolia, China]
and β-carotene in the oils may also have eected on the
symptoms of Atopic dermatitis [43].
3.12. Anti-Atherogenic and Hypoglycemic Activity. Athero-
genic index (AI) was significantly reduced and acetylcholine-
induced vasorelaxation was markedly impaired which could
be restored to control values in SBT seed oil treated normally
and hypercholesterolemic animals [44]. SBT decreases blood
glucose and lipid in normal mice, and eect of SBT on
glycometabolism may be related to the control of gluconeo-
genesis [45].
4. Pharmacological Effects of
Sea Buckthorn yet to Be Explored in
Relation with Other Diseases
SBT is a traditional herbal medicine, which has long
used many condition like relieving cough, diarrhea, aiding
digestion, invigorating blood circulation alleviating pain,
treating colitis and enterocolitis since ancient time because
it is rich of antioxidant. Juice, syrup, and oil of the fruits have
been used in disantheria, osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract,
urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, sterility, polyneuritis, cheilosis,
ISRN Pharmacology 5
glossitis, baldness, analgesic, benign prostatic hypertrophy,
antiobesity, gout, and chronic prostitisas a metabolism reg-
ulator in traditional medicine [46].
5. Sea Buckthorn Market Products [47]
See Tabl e 2.
6. Conclusion
SBT has high-nutritional and medicinal values due to its
very rich antioxidant property. It is a widely used plant
in traditional medicine for various clinical conditions.
Scientifically evaluated pharmacological eects of it are
like antiulcerogenic eect, in vitro and in vivo antioxi-
dant eects, cardiac disease, antiatherogenic eect, radio
protective eects, beneficial eects on experimental injury
and clinical diseases of the liver, nad inhibition of platelet
aggregation. Lot of research work is still needed to find
cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities.
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... The traditional medicinal systems incorporate the fruits and leaves of HR in the treatment of various ailments of digestive, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems, as well as skin diseases [3,4]. In vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-stress, hepatoprotective, radioprotective, tissue repair, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, which are determined by the multichemical origin compounds [4,[9][10][11][12][13]. Fruits and leaves contain rich profiles of carotenoids, tocopherols, amino acids, triterpenic compounds, and phenolic compounds [3,5,7,8,10,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
... On the other hand, the multitude of different chemical origin substances acting in different modes provide synergistic or additive effects [11,25]; therefore, the comprehensive determination of phytochemical profiles could provide information necessary for the standardization of extracts. The variable phytochemical characteristics can occur depending on the genotype, female or male plant, the climatic zone of the growing area, cultivation conditions, harvesting time, post-harvest management, and extraction methodology [3,12,[20][21][22]. Growing promising genotypes in plantations could ensure greater homogeneity of raw materials with defined markers for standardization [26]. ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HR)) leaf powders are the underutilized, promising resource of valuable compounds. Genotype and processing methods are key factors in the preparation of homogenous, stable, and quantified ingredients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic, triterpenic, antioxidant profiles, carotenoid and chlorophyll content, and chromatic characteristics of convection-dried and freeze-dried HR leaf powders obtained from ten different female cultivars, namely ‘Avgustinka’, ‘Botaniceskaja Liubitelskaja’, ‘Botaniceskaja’, ‘Hibrid Percika’, ‘Julia’, ‘Nivelena’, ‘Otradnaja’, ‘Podarok Sadu’, ‘Trofimovskaja’, and ‘Vorobjovskaja’. The chromatic characteristics were determined using the CIELAB scale. The phytochemical profiles were determined using HPLC-PDA (high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector) analysis; spectrophotometric assays and antioxidant activities were investigated using ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assays. The sea buckthorn leaf powders had a yellowish-green appearance. The drying mode had a significant impact on the total antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, and chromatic characteristics of the samples; the freeze-dried samples were superior in antioxidant activity, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, and chromatic profile, compared to convection-dried leaf powder samples. The determined triterpenic and phenolic profiles strongly depend on the cultivar, and the drying technique had no impact on qualitative and quantitative composition. Catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidin B3, ursolic acid, α-amyrin, and β-sitosterol could be used as quantitative markers in the phenolic and triterpenic profiles. The cultivars ‘Avgustinka’, ‘Nivelena’, and ‘Botaniceskaja’ were superior to other tested cultivars, with the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity.
... SBT is therapeutically important because it is rich in potent antioxidant substances. These molecules possess antioxidant, anticoagulant, anticancer, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and radioprotective properties (Suryakumar and Gupta, 2011;Patel et al., 2012). Among them, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects inhibit or alleviate PMOP. ...
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Background: Sea buckthorn (SBT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), rich in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins, which can potentially prevent and treat osteoporosis. However, no research has been conducted to confirm these hypotheses. QiangGuYin (QGY) is a TCM compound used to treat osteoporosis. There is a need to investigate whether SBT enhances QGY efficacy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore whether SBT enhances QGY efficacy by inhibiting CKIP-1 and Notum expression through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The study also aimed to explore the active components of SBT. Methods: Experimental animals were divided into control, model, QGY, SBT, SBT + Eucommia ulmoides (EU), and SBT + QGY groups. After treatment, bone morphometric parameters, such as estrogen, PINP, and S-CTX levels, and Notum, CKIP-1, and β-catenin expression were examined. Screening of SBT active components was conducted by molecular docking to obtain small molecules that bind Notum and CKIP-1. Results: The results showed that all the drug groups could elevate the estrogen, PINP, and S-CTX levels, improve femoral bone morphometric parameters, inhibit Notum and CKIP-1 expression, and promote β-catenin expression. The effect of SBT + EU and SBT + QGY was superior to the others. Molecular docking identified that SBT contains seven small molecules (folic acid, rhein, quercetin, kaempferol, mandenol, isorhamnetin, and ent-epicatechin) with potential effects on CKIP-1 and Notum. Conclusion: SBT improves bone morphometric performance in PMOP rats by inhibiting CKIP-1 and Notum expression, increasing estrogen levels, and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, SBT enhances the properties of QGY. Folic acid, rhein, quercetin, kaempferol, mandenol, isorhamnetin, and ent-epicatechin are the most likely active ingredients of SBT. These results provide insight into the pharmacological mechanisms of SBT in treating osteoporosis.
... Plody, listy, olej a ďalšie produkty z rakytníka sú zdrojom mnohých bioaktívnych látok vrátane fenolických zlúčenín, ako sú flavonoidy, t. j. rutín, kvercetín, kaempferol, či myricetín (Christaki, 2012), vitamíny (tokoferoly, karotenoidy, kyselina askorbová, folát, vitamíny B1, B2 a K), proteíny, aminokyseliny a minerály (Fe, Ca, P a K) (Bekker and Glushenkova, 2001;Gao et al., 2001;Zeb, 2004;Malinowska and Olas, 2016). Okrem toho rastlina obsahuje organické kyseliny (kyselina chinová, kyselina jablčná, kyselina šťaveľová a kyselina vínna) (Chong et al., 2010;Kumar et al., 2011), mastné kyseliny, najmä nenasýtené mastné kyseliny (kyselina olejová, kyselina linolová, kyselina linolénová) a fytosteroly (Chong et al., 2010;Patel et al., 2012). Hlavnou skupinou fenolových zlúčenín sú flavonoly, skupina flavonoidov, ktorá bola identifikovaná v ovocí, s priemerným obsahom 311,5 mg/100 g čerstvej hmotnosti (Teleszko et al., 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Scientific articles deal with hygiene and food technology
... al (2014) targeting at acute gingivitis which implied that sea buckthorn maybe used for treating gingivitis through increased immune response and improved gingival tissue. A few presences of mitogens in sea buckthorn activate lymphocyte-proliferation (Patel et al, 2012). ...
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Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea Buckthorn) is a valuable multifunction plant largely distributed in Europe and Asia. In particular, the berries of sea buckthorn have been widely used as a food source like jam, juices, etc. The berry and seed of this plant are the main sources for its therapeutic and nutritional values. Thus, the plant has been extensively investigated for both of its nutritional and bioactive constituents. In general, the berries of this plant are rich in vitamins (C, E and K); while the ascorbic acid has been reported to be the primary vitamin, contributing to the acidic nature of the berries. Sea buckthorn berries also contain good amount of minerals like calcium and iron. On the other hand, the seed of sea buckthorn offers an excellent source of polyunsaturated fatty acids like palmitic acid, oleic acid and palmitoleic acid. Significant bioactive constituents in sea buckthorn including sitosterol, salicylic acid, tritepenoid, catechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and carotenoids help in combating many diseases like cardiovascular diseases (angina), inflammation, cancer, gastric ulcer and epidermis issues. This review compiled the applications of sea buckthorn including a database of its nutritional and bioactive compounds which ultimately contribute towards the health promoting properties.
... Numerous bio -active compounds have already been found in its berries, leaves, oil, as well as other products, which would include flavonoids (like quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin which was investigated by Christaki, 2012), vitamin supplements (vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin b9, B1, B2, and vitamin K), proteins, amino acids, and mineral deposits (iron, calcium, phosphorus etc.) noted by Bekker and Glushenkova, 2001;Gao et al., 2001. Furthermore, this shrub includes organic acids such as malic acid, quinic acid, tartaric acid & oxalic acid which has been analyzed by & Chong et al., 2010, and fatty acids like, linoleic, linolenic acid, and oleic acid and phytosterols (Patel et al., 2012 ;Chong et al., 2010). Teleszko et al.2015 discovered that phospholipid portion separated from of the fruits contains 14 phytonutrients and 11 fatty acids in such a study conducted. ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) has numerous health benefits. It has substantial cardioprotective activity and has a variety of beneficial a variety of impacts here on heart and lungs, notably reducing platelets stimulation in the bloodstream, decreasing total cholesterolas well as systolic and diastolic pressure, and acting as an antioxidants. The plant's leaves and fruits, as well as its oils, contain a variety of bioactive components, such as vitamin like A, E and C monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phenolic substances, particularly phytosterols & flavonoid all of which have beneficial consequences on the cardio-vascular physiology. Gathering research proposes that Hippophae rhamnoides is a potential plant that might be utilized as a natural medicine to reduce risk of cardiac disease and significant medical issues like diabetes mellitus, inflammation, and cancer. This review article highlights current information about sea buckthorn's biological roles in cardiovascular disorders.
... addition, it contains organic acids like malic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, quinic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid(Chong et al., 2010;Patel et al., 2012).Li et al. (2020) observed palmitoleic acid (17.93À57.75%), oleic acid (1.44À23.43%), ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is an underutilized ecologically and economically important wind-pollinated, low-demanding, dioecious, thorny, and winter hardy tree or shrub native to Europe and Asia. Since ancient times, people living in the cold deserts used it as folk medicine, nutritional supplement, fuel, fence, and fodder. Hence, popularly known as the ‘Gold Mine’ of cold deserts. Sea buckthorn fruits are nutritionally rich with a high amount of vitamins. It also contains bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids, sterols, carotenoids, tocopherols, and lipids, therefore, implying as an excellent source for discovering new drugs and improving the food quality of humans. Unfortunately, aside from excellent traits still very limited progress has been made in the improvement of sea buckthorn through conventional breeding programs therefore, the application of modern biotechnological and high-throughput sequencing tools for the bio-prospection of agronomically important traits is needed to speed up the breeding programs. Highlighting several uses of sea buckthorn, it made a case for its status as an underutilized crop with the potential to contribute to our food and nutritional base. It is an interesting subject of future research and scientific publications, as highlights the scientific insights into the existing know-how i.e. historical perspective, taxonomical and botanical description, genetic diversity and distribution; medicinal and nutritional importance, market potential and key players, breeding constraints, biotechnological advancements, omics-based interventions, and a path forward for adoption and large-scale cultivation of sea buckthorn to provide a clear concept for future research.
... The bioactive molecules derived from sea buckthorn like flavonoids, lycopene, phytosterols etc. have shown high range of antioxidant and anticancer potential [29,30]. Sea Buckthorn extracts have reportedly shown to reduce breast cancer [31], hepatic cancer [32], leukemia and glioma cells [33], and increase apoptotic effects in prostate cancer [34]. In a recent study conducted in our [35]. ...
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Background Sea buckthorn (Hippophae) is in the focus of interest mainly for its positive effects on health of both human and animal organisms. Due to the similarities in vegetative morphology, Hippophae species are often misidentified. Therefore, current study was focused on ITS based sequence characterization of sea buckthorn species and comparative biochemical evaluation for its antioxidant properties.Methods and resultsDNA was extracted from leaf samples. Primer pairs K-Lab-SeaBukRhm-ITS1F1- K-Lab-SeaBukRhm-ITS1R1 and K-LabSeaBukTib- ITSF1- K-LabSeaBukTib-ITSR1 were used for PCR amplification. The purified PCR products were outsourced for sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Moreover, comparison of antioxidant potential of leaves of two sea buckthorn species (Hippophae rhamnoides and Hippophae tibetana) collected from different regions of Ladakh viz., Stakna, Nubra, DRDO Leh and Zanskar was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by phosphomolybdenum assays. The present investigation led to the differentiation of two sea buckthorn species viz., H. rhamnoides and H. tibetana based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Moreover, significant variation was observed in antioxidant potential of leaf extracts collected from different regions.Conclusions Primary ITS sequence analysis was found to be powerful tool for identification and genetic diversity studies in sea buckthorn. Leaves of sea buckthorn have pronounced antioxidant properties and can be used in food, neutraceuticals and pharmaceutical industries etc. The current study will pave the way to discover small bioactive molecules responsible for antioxidant and anticancer properties in sea buckthorn.
... Previous studies have shown that the fruits, leaves, and stem bark of sea buckthorn contain more than 190 natural active substances such as vitamins, flavonoids, lycopene, and carotenoids, which are all beneficial for human health. 2 Flavonoid is one of the most important secondary metabolites in sea buckthorn, which has a range of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. 3 In addition, some flavonoids also show antiviral and anticancer properties. 1 Isorhamnetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin are the four major flavonoids in sea buckthorn ( Figure 1). ...
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Isorhamnetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin are four kinds of secondary metabolites in sea buckthorn, which have a wide range of biological activities. Investigating their interactions with tyrosinase at the atomic level can improve the bioavailability of sea buckthorn. Both molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation methods were employed to study the interactions of these ligands with tyrosinase. The results of molecular docking indicated that these four small molecules such as isorhamnetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin can all dock into the active center of tyrosinase, and by occupying the active site, they can prevent substrate binding, thereby reducing the catalytic activity of tyrosinase. Molecular dynamics simulation trajectory analysis showed that all tyrosinase–ligand complexes reach an equilibrium within 100 ns. In addition, quercetin has the lowest binding energy among these four ligands, and the complex with tyrosinase is the most stable. This study not only provides valuable information for improving the bioavailability of sea buckthorn but also contributes to the discovery of effective natural inhibitors of tyrosinase.
Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the overproduction of free radicals and the radical-scavenging anti-oxidative defense system, which results in the accumulation of detrimental reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a precious plant resource that has been reported useful in foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and drugs for a long time. The medicinal value of seabuckthorn is attracting considerable attention mainly for its antioxidant properties. However, there is no systematic literature review focused on the antioxidant capacity and underlying mechanisms of the seabuckthorn extracts. This review summarizes the antioxidant property of the leaf, berry, and oil extracts of seabuckthorn. We also pay much attention to the anti-oxidative properties of the polyphenols, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and other fractions in seabuckthorn extracts. It is noteworthy that the underlying mechanisms of the antioxidant activity of seabuckthorn have been discussed as follows: modulating the NRf-2/ARE antioxidant system, inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB, STAT3 signaling pathway, suppressing the apoptotic signaling pathway, modulating the metabolic pathway, and impacting the gut microbiota. Major challenges related to the uncertainty problems in the research on seabuckthorn and the key research directions are suggested in this review.
Among conventional treatment methodologies, surgery, hyperthermia, radiation, and chemotherapy have become integral components of treatment for most cancers. Radiation therapy in the treatment of many malignancies is always the better choice over surgery and chemotherapy. Ionizing radiation produced as a consequent of using these radiations have always been a concern in these treatment methods. Synthetic radio-protectors with their inherent limitations are being used till date to reduce the mortality of these radiations; still, it compromises the clinical efficacy of these administrations. Hence, investigations for alternative methods, including natural resources such as plant and fruit extracts are being explored to treat radiation-mediated ailments. The present review article endeavors to provide a comprehensive, updated, and chronological account of these most promising plants and fruit extracts and their bioactive principles as radio-protectors. We present the merits and demerits of radiation therapy; cell stress generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with radiation need and availability of radio-protectors. Finally, we discuss green-based bioactive compounds which have radioprotective properties.
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Sea buckthorn is a deciduous species, widely distributed all over the world, including Pakistan. It contains different kinds of nutrients and bioactive substances such as vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, free amino acids and elemental components etc. These components vary substantially among populations, origins or subspecies, however their presence is more important for the health of individual. The clinical trials and scientific studies during the 20th century confirm medicinal and nutritional value of sea buckthorn. The present study describe some areas of research that have been important points, for example in cancer therapy, cardiovascular diseases, treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, skin disorder and as a liver protective agent. A lot of research work is still need to clarify the mechanism of curing these conditions in molecular and cellular levels.
According to historical records, China was the first to country to use seabuckthorn as a drug. In 1977, this plant was formally listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. Seabuckthorn contains biologically active substances with pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular and the immune system, and anti-senility, anti-inflammation and anti-radiation effect, etc. During the last ten years, research on seabuckthorn medicinal and health products has greatly advanced and many economic benefits have been gained from it in China. The fruits of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) have been used as a drug by traditional Tibetan and Mongolian medicine since ancient times. It has pharmacological effects on the lungs, the stomach, the spleen, the blood circulation, which were recorded in some medicinal classics, such as Sibu Yidian [1] from the Tang Dynasty and Jing Zhu Ben Cao [2] from the Qing Dynasty. In 1977, seabuckthorn was officially for the first time listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by the Ministry of Public Health [3]. Since 1985, meanwhile, medicinal research on seabuckthorn has received much attention in China. The great advances and demonstrations of its medicinal values have been seen in recent years [4, 5].
Immunomodulatory activity of Seabuckthorn (SBT) leaf extract was evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model. Inflammation was induced by injecting Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of rats. SBT extract was administered intraperitoneally to treat the inflammation. The extent of inflammation and treatment response was evaluated by clinical analysis, scintigraphic visualization using technitium-99m-glutathione (Tc99m-GSH) and lymphocyte proliferation. Serial evaluation was carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after creation of inflammation. The Tc99m-GSH uptake in the inflamed leg was compared with the normal contralateral leg of the same animal. The measurements were done by obtaining scintigraphic images using gamma camera and an online computer. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of radiotracer accumulation was considered to evaluate the anti-inflammatory response. The lymphocyte proliferation study revealed cellular immunosuppression during the early phase of the disease. Administration of SBT extract on the same day or 5 days prior to inflammatory insult into the joint, significantly reduced the inflammation as compared to the untreated animals in a dose dependent manner. These observations suggest that the SBT leaf extract has a significant anti-inflammatory activity and has the potential for the treatment of arthritis.
Seabuckthorn (SBT) seed oil is a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, carotenoids and flavonoids, which are known to have significant anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity. The anti-atherogenic activity of supercritical CO2 extracted SBT seed oil was evaluated in white albino rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet for 60 days. The study was performed on 20 male healthy rabbits divided into four groups of 5 animals each. Group I – control, group II – SBT seed oil, group III – cholesterol (1%) for 60 days, group IV – cholesterol+SBT seed oil. After 30 days of high cholesterol diet, group IV rabbits received 1ml of SBT seed oil daily for 30 days. Blood total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured before and after the administration of SBT seed oil. The vasorelaxant activity of the seed oil was studied in vitro using aortic ring model technique and changes in isometric force were recorded using a polygraphic recording system. Accumulation of cholesterol in the aorta was studied using Sudan-IV staining technique.SBT seed oil feeding to normal rabbits for 18 days caused a significant decline in plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index (AI) and LDL/HDL ratio. The HDL-C levels, HDL-C/TC ratio (HTR) and vasorelaxant activity of the aorta were significantly increased. In cholesterol-fed animals the TC, TG, LDL-C and AI were significantly increased and showed a decline following seed oil administration. The increase in HDL-C was more marked in seed oil treated hypercholesterolemic animals. The acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxant activity was significantly decreased in cholesterol-fed animals and could be restored to that of normal values by seed oil administration. These observations suggest that supercritical CO2 extracted SBT seed oil has significant anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity.
2 in HRe-1, 20.5+0.72 mm 2 in omeprazole, 7.0+0.93 mm 2 in melatonin and 29.3+1.32 mm 2 in ethanol groups (p< 0.001: ethanol group vs other groups). Gastric tissue GSH levels of HRe-1 and melatonin groups were fairly close to the normal values. Additionally, this level was significantly reduced in omeprazole and ethanol groups. While there was no difference in terms of mean ulcer area and number of ulcer foci, between melatonin and HRe-1 groups, gastric tissue GSH levels were found significantly higher in HRe-1 than in melatonin groups. Conclusion: HRe-1 has some benefical effects, even more potent than melatonin, on gastric tissue GSH levels and on the prevention of ethanol-induced ulcer formation in rats. SUMMARY
In this paper, we briefly described the contents, types, extraction methods and medical
The present investigation was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of supercritical CO2-extracted Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) (SBT) seed oil on burn wound model. SBT seed oil was co-administered by two routes at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg body weight (p.o.) and 200 μl (topical) for 7 days on experimental burn wounds in rats. The SBT seed oil augmented the wound healing process as indicated by significant increase in wound contraction, hydroxyproline, hexosamine, DNA and total protein contents in comparison to control and reference control treated with silver sulfadiazine (SS) ointment. Histopathological findings further confirmed the healing potential of SBT seed oil. SBT seed oil treatment up-regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9), collagen type-III and VEGF in granulation tissue. It was observed that SBT seed oil also possesses antioxidant properties as evidenced by significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wound granulation tissue. In acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies, no adverse effects were observed in any of the groups administered with SBT seed oil. These results suggest that the supercritical CO2-extracted Sea buckthorn seed oil possesses significant wound healing activity and have no associated toxicity or side effects.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach and its possible mechanism. The sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) were extracted with 60% alcohol/H2O from sea buckthorn bark and purified by macropore adsorption resin column, with a purity of >96%. The chemical character of SBPC was analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Chronic gastric ulceration was induced by injecting acetic acid into the subserosa of stomach. Different concentrations of SBPC were orally administrated to gastric ulcers rats. After treatment 7d and 14d, rats were sacrificed respectively. The healing of the acetic acid induced ulcerations was measured by ulcer index (UI). The level of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in plasma was determined; the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) around ulcer was detected by immunohistochemical method. SBPC was found to reduce the size of the ulcers at day 7 and 14 in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control, the UI of SBPC group was significantly lower (p< 0.01) and the level of EGF in the plasma of SBPC group increased significantly (p< 0.01), meanwhile the expression of EGFR and PCNA around ulcer in high-dose SBPC stomach were enhanced (p< 0.05). The results implied that SBPC plays an important role in healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions possibly by the acceleration of the mucosal repair.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to investigate the effects of seed and pulp oils of sea buckthorn (Hipphophae rhamnoides) on atopic dermatitis. Linoleic (34%), alpha-linolenic (25%), and oleic (19%) acids were the major fatty acids in the seed oil, whereas palmitic (33%), oleic (26%), and palmitoleic (25%) acids were the major fatty acids in the pulp oil. The study group included 49 atopic dermatitis patients who took 5 g (10 capsules) of seed oil, pulp oil, or paraffin oil daily for 4 months. During follow-up dermatitis improved significantly in the pulp oil (P < 0.01) and paraffin oil (P < 0.001) groups, but improvement in the seed oil group was not significant (P = 0.11). Supplementation of seed oil increased the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma neutral lipids (P < 0.01), and increases of linoleic, alpha-linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids in plasma phospholipids were close to significant (0.05 < P < 0.1). Pulp oil treatment increased the proportion of palmitoleic acid (P < 0.05) and lowered the percentage of pentadecanoic acid (P < 0.01) in both plasma phospholipids and neutral lipids. In the seed oil group, after 1 month of supplementation, positive correlations were found between symptom improvement and the increase in proportions of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma phospholipids (Rs = 0.84; P = 0.001) and neutral lipids (Rs = 0.68; P = 0.02). No changes in the levels of triacylglycerols, serum total, or specific immunoglobulin E were detected. In the pulp oil group, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, from 1.38 to 1.53 mmol/L was observed.