Cutaneous Sympathetic Dysfunction in Patients with Machado–Joseph Disease
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan, .The Cerebellum (Impact Factor: 2.72). 04/2012; 11(4). DOI: 10.1007/s12311-012-0381-7
Although the clinical symptoms of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) vary widely, those involving the autonomic nervous system, such as cutaneous sympathetic dysfunction, have rarely been investigated. In addition, there are no reports on cutaneous vasomotor function in patients with MJD. To determine the effects of MJD on cutaneous sympathetic function, we evaluated cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor responses in the palms of 15 patients (mean age, 49 ± 15 years; seven men and eight women) who were genetically diagnosed with MJD as well as in the palms of 15 age-matched, healthy controls (mean age, 48 ± 16 years; nine men and six women). Sweat response was absent in 10 (67 %) patients with MJD, and the mean amplitude of sweat response was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in patients with MJD than in healthy controls following mental stress (mental arithmetic) and physiological stimuli. Although vasoconstrictive response was absent in three patients with MJD (20 %), there were no significant differences in the mean amplitude of vasoconstrictive response between patients with MJD and healthy controls. These results indicate that patients with MJD have reduced cutaneous sympathetic response, including severely impaired sudomotor functions and mildly affected vasomotor functions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autonomic dysfunction has been already described in patients with SCA3/MJD, but several important questions remain unanswered. The objectives of this study are to determine the frequency and the intensity of autonomic manifestations in SCA3/MJD, as well as to identify possible correlations between autonomic manifestations and genetic and clinical parameters. We have performed clinical and electrophysiological evaluations of 40 patients with SCA3/MJD and 38 healthy controls. We used the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease: Autonomic Questionnaire to quantify the severity of ataxia and autonomic complaints, respectively. We also studied heart rate variability at rest, during orthostatic challenge (30:15 ratio), Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva index), and deep breathing (E/I ratio). We evaluated spectral analyses of RR intervals at rest and the sympathetic skin response. Mean RR intervals at rest and the 30:15 ratio were different between patients and controls (811.8 versus 933.4 ms; p = 0.001 and 1.10 versus 1.15; p = 0.038, respectively). The Valsalva index and the E/I ratio were similar between the groups (p = 0.373 and p = 0.08). Spectral analysis presented distinct results in patients and controls, related to low- and high-frequency power (p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). We found cardiovascular and sympathetic sweat disautonomia in 30 % and 45 % of the patients with SCA3/MJD. Autonomic manifestations were related neither to genetic (CAG repeat length) nor clinical parameters (age, disease duration, SARA scores). Autonomic dysfunction is frequent and sometimes disabling in SCA3/MJD. We found evidence of both cardiovascular and sudomotor dysfunction in the disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 or Machado-Joseph disease is the most common spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide, and the high frequency of nonmotor manifestations in Machado-Joseph disease demonstrates how variable is the clinical expression of this single genetic entity. Anatomical, physiological, clinical, and functional neuroimaging data reinforce the idea of a degenerative process involving extracerebellar regions of the nervous system in Machado-Joseph disease. Brain imaging and neuropathologic studies have revealed atrophy of the pons, basal ganglia, midbrain, medulla oblongata, multiple cranial nerve nuclei, and thalamus and of the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and limbic lobes. This review provides relevant information about nonmotor manifestations and extracerebellar symptoms in Machado-Joseph disease. The main nonmotor manifestations of Machado-Joseph disease described in previous data and discussed in this article are: sleep disorders, cognitive and affective disturbances, psychiatric symptoms, olfactory dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, pain, cramps, fatigue, nutritional problems, and dysautonomia. In addition, we conducted a brief discussion of noncerebellar motor manifestations, highlighting movement disorders. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.