Reoperative Lymph Node Dissection for Recurrent Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Effect on Serum Thyroglobulin

ArticleinAnnals of Surgical Oncology 19(9):2951-7 · April 2012with17 Reads
DOI: 10.1245/s10434-012-2380-9 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has an excellent prognosis with current treatment methods. However, the rates of locoregional recurrence after initial surgical management remain significant. This study evaluates the effect of reoperative neck dissection for locoregional recurrence of PTC after initial total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy on the incidence of cervical recurrence and postoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a single academic medical center of patients with recurrent or persistent PTC isolated to the neck after previous total thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection and adjuvant I(131) therapy who were treated with reoperative lymph node dissection. Outcomes including operative complications, pathologic findings, and effect of surgery on Tg levels and rates of recurrent disease were analyzed. From 2001 to 2010, a total of 61 patients had reoperative neck dissections for recurrent cervical PTC with a complication rate of 5 %. Seventy-two percent of patients were clinically free of detectable disease, and 28 % of patients had recurrent, persistent, or newly metastatic disease detected during the follow-up period. All patients had significant decreases in Tg levels, with a median 98 % reduction in preoperative levels. However, only 21 % of patients had an undetectable stimulated Tg (<0.5 ng/mL) during the follow-up period of 15.5 months. Reoperative treatment of recurrent or persistent PTC can be performed with low complication rates, and Tg levels greatly decrease in most patients; however, few achieve undetectable stimulated Tg.
    • "Persistent/recurrent disease (PRD) in the neck occurs in 10% to 40% of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) [1,2]. When neck lesions are isolated without distant metastases, surgery achieves permanent remission in a significant number of patients [3,4] . Accurate imaging is therefore crucial to optimally plan surgery. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool used to evidence persistent/recurrent disease (PRD) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and iodine-refractory lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value at the cervical level of the routine whole-body (WB) acquisition and that of a complementary head and neck (HN) acquisition, performed successively during the same PET/CT study. Methods: PET/CT studies combining WB and HN acquisitions performed in 85 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians. 18F-FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes (LN) or in the thyroid bed was assessed. Among the 85 patients, the PET/CT results of the 26 who subsequently underwent neck surgery were compared with surgical and pathological reports. The size of each largest nodal metastasis was assessed by a pathologist. Results: In the 85 patients, inter-observer agreement was excellent for both WB and HN PET/CT interpretation. Of the 26 patients who underwent surgery, 25 had pathology proven PRD in the neck. Of these 25 patients, 15 displayed FDG uptake on either WB or HN PET. In these 15 patients, HN PET detected more malignant lesions than WB PET did (21/27 = 78% vs. 12/27 = 44%, P = 0.006). Node/background ratios were significantly higher on HN than on WB PET (P<0.0001). Three false-negative studies (20%) on WB PET were upstaged as true-positive on HN PET. The mean size of the largest LN metastasis was 3 mm for the LN detected neither on WB nor on HN PET, 7 mm for the metastasis detected on HN but not on WB PET, and 13 mm for those detected on both acquisitions (P = 0.0004). Receiver-Operating Characteristic analysis showed that area under the curve was higher for HN PET than for WB PET (0.97 [95%CI, 0.90-0.99] vs 0.88 [95%CI, 0.78-0.95], P = 0.009). Conclusions: HN acquisition improves the ability to detect PRD in the neck compared with WB acquisition alone. We recommend systematically adding an HN acquisition when PET/CT is performed to detect PRD in the neck.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2016
    • "It has been noted that benign LNs tend to show hilar vascularity or to appear avascular [26]. In contrast, metastatic nodes tend to have peripheral or mixed (both peripheral and hilar) vascularity2728293031323334. In our study, color Doppler US vascularity had intermediate specificity (65,8%) but low sensitivity (49,5%). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasound is considered the best diagnostic method for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). According to current guidelines, all patients undergoing thyroidectomy for malignancy should undergo preoperative neck ultrasound of the thyroid and central and lateral neck LNs, followed by fine needle aspiration of suspicious LNs. Cervical LN involvement determenes the extent of surgery. Complete surgical resection disease at the initial operation decreases likelihood of future surgery for recurrent disease and may impact survival. We use a new technique, B-flow imaging (BFI), recently used for evaluation of thyroid nodules, to estimate the presence of BFI twinkling signs (BFI-TS), within metastatic LNs in patients with PTC. Between September 2006 and December 2012, 304 patients with known PTC were examined for preoperative sonographic evaluation with gray-scale US, color Doppler US and BFI. Only 157 with at least one metastatic LN were included in our study. All patients included underwent surgery, and the final diagnosis was based on the results of histologic examination of the resected specimens. The following LN characteristics were evaluated: LN shape, abnormal echogenicity, the absent of hilum, calcifications, cystic appearance, peripheral vascularization and the presence of BFI-TS. A total of 767 LNs were analyzed. 329 out of 767 were metastatic, according to the histopathologic findings. BFI-TS, showed 99.5% specificity and 81,5% sensitivity. We detected BFI-TS in 6 metastatic LNs that were negative to the other conventional US features. Our results indicate that the BFI-TS has a diagnostic accuracy higher than the other conventional sonographic signs. Our findings suggest that BFI can be helpful in the selection of suspicious neck LNs that should be examined at cytologic examination or open biopsy for accurate preoperative staging and individual therapy selection.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013
    • "In our center the required Tg level assessed on TSH stimulation was determined to be lower than 2 ng/ml. According to Hughes et al. [1] biochemical complete response obtained in 26 % of patients may be concentrated on locoregional control of disease to prevent complications due to local invasion rather than elimination of biochemically active cancer. In our study stimulated Tg \2 mg/ml was observed in seven patients with WDTC directly after reoperative procedure (21.2 %) and in ten patients in the follow-up (30.3 %). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of secondary neck dissections (ND) in different types of thyroid cancer (TC), to evaluate the influence of ND extent on morbidity and to describe biochemical and clinical outcomes. 51 patients previously operated for TC (33-well differentiated TC-WDTC, 15 medullary TC-MTC, 3 poorly differentiated TC-PDTC) presenting detectable nodal disease. Reoperations covered I-VII neck levels. Radical neck dissection was performed in 22 patients, selective neck dissection in 29 patients. 14 central compartment (CC), 10 mediastinal and 41 level IV excisions were performed. Postoperative complications occurred in 13 patients: 4 chyle leaks, 3 massive bleedings, 8 permanent vocal cord pareses, hypoparathyroidism in 22 patients (43.1 %), 2 patients expired in perioperative period. In WDTC: in seven patients thyroglobulin level normalized directly after ND, in ten patients in the follow-up; six patients developed distant metastases. None of the patients with MTC achieved calcitonin level <10 pg/ml; nine patients developed distant metastases. None of the patients with PDTC achieved Tg <2 mg/ml; two patients died, the third developed distant metastases. Secondary ND in TC present a challenge by means of surgical approach and possibility of complications. In MTC and PDTC the long-term results were unsatisfactory. In WDTC, the secondary ND should be performed due to strong indications. Metastases localization in levels IV, VI, VII were connected with high complication rate, but these surgeries were crucial for satisfactory oncological outcomes.
    Article · Jun 2013
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