Impact of First-Line Antifungal Agents on the Outcomes and Costs of Candidemia

Division of Infectious Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.48). 04/2012; 56(7):3950-6. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.06258-11
Source: PubMed


Candida species are the leading causes of invasive fungal infection among hospitalized patients and are responsible for major economic burdens. The goals of this study were to estimate the costs directly associated with the treatment of candidemia and factors associated with increased costs, as well as the impact of first-line antifungal agents on the outcomes and costs. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 199 patients from four university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in Korea over 1 year. Only costs attributable to the treatment of candidemia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization during treatment. Risk factors for increased costs, treatment outcome, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were analyzed. Approximately 65% of the patients were treated with fluconazole, and 28% were treated with conventional amphotericin B. The overall treatment success rate was 52.8%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 47.9%. Hematologic malignancy, need for mechanical ventilation, and treatment failure of first-line antifungal agents were independent risk factors for mortality. The mean total cost for the treatment of candidemia was $4,743 per patient. Intensive care unit stay at candidemia onset and antifungal switch to second-line agents were independent risk factors for increased costs. The LOS was also significantly longer in patients who switched antifungal agents to second-line drugs. Antifungal switch to second-line agents for any reasons was the only modifiable risk factor of increased costs and LOS. Choosing an appropriate first-line antifungal agent is crucial for better outcomes and reduced hospital costs of candidemia.

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Available from: Kyong Hwa Park, Apr 10, 2014
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    • "Although novel antifungal drugs have been developed since the last decade, 90-day mortality rates due to candidemia remain as high as 50-70% [12,18,19]. In addition, data from several studies showed that 30-day mortality rates and costs of care increased significantly when empirical therapy was delayed or inadequate (inappropriate dosage, resistant isolate) [20-24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Yeasts, mostly Candida, are important causes of bloodstream infections (BSI), responsible for significant mortality and morbidity among hospitalized patients. The epidemiology and species distribution vary from different regions. The goals of this study were to report the current epidemiology of Candida BSI in a Shanghai Teaching Hospital and estimate the impact of appropriate antifungal therapy on the outcome. Methods From January 2008 to December 2012, all consecutive patients who developed Candida BSI at Ruijin University Hospital were enrolled. Underlying diseases, clinical severity, species distribution, antifungal therapy and its impact on the outcome were analyzed. Results A total of 121 episodes of Candida BSI were identified, with an incidence of 0.32 episodes/1,000 admissions (0.21 in 2008 and 0.42 in 2012) The proportion of candidemia caused by non-albicans species (62.8%), including C. parapsilosis (19.8%), C. tropicalis (14.9%), C. glabrata (7.4%), C. guilliermondii (5.8%), C. sake (5.0%) was higher than that of candidemia caused by C. albicans (37.2%). The overall crude 28-day mortality was 28.1% and significantly reduced with appropriate empiric antifungal therapy administered within 5 days (P = 0.006). Advanced age (OR 1.04; P = 0.014), neutropenia < 500/mm3 (OR 17.44; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality, while appropriate empiric antifungal therapy (OR 0.369; P = 0.035) was protective against 28-day mortality. Conclusion The epidemiology of candidemia in Shanghai differed from that observed in Western countries. Appropriate empiric antifungal therapy influenced the short-term survival.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "by either BC or PCR may represent a useful tool to exclude the presence of candidemia and guide the antifungal treatment regimens in critically ill patients, with the advantage, among others, of costs reduction. [43] In our opinion, the limitations of the study are its retrospective design and the low number of Candida spp. BSI analysed, which reflects the low, though increasing, prevalence of Candida spp. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study is to test procalcitonin (PCT) as surrogate marker of identification of Candida spp. by blood culture (BC) and real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whether alone or in association with bacteria, in septic patients. We performed a single-centre retrospective study. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock treated at our general intensive care unit from March 2009 to March 2013. We analysed all diagnostic episodes consisting of BC, real-time PCR assay and dosage of PCT. We registered age, sex, white blood count, sequential organ failure assessment score and type of admission between medical or surgical. When inclusion criteria were met more than once, we registered the new diagnostic episode as subsequent diagnostic episode. The diagnostic performance of PCT to predict Candida spp. identification alone or in mixed infections by either BC or PCR was tested using the receiver-operative characteristic curve. Logistic regression was constructed using presence of Candida spp. as the dependent variable. A total of 260 diagnostic episodes met the inclusion criteria. According to BC results classification, a significantly lower value of PCT was observed in Candida spp. BSI (0.99 ng/ml, 0.86 - 1.34) than in BSI caused by bacteria (16.7 ng/ml, 7.65 - 50.2) or in mixed infections (4.76 ng/ml, 2.98 - 6.08). Similar findings were observed considering PCR results. A cut-off of ≤ 6.08 ng/ml for PCT yielded a sensitivity of 86.8%, a specificity of 87.4%, a positive predictive value of 63.9%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.3% and an area under the curve of 0.93 for Candida spp. identification by BC. A similar high NPV for a cut-off ≤ 6.78 ng/ml was observed considering the classification of diagnostic episodes according to PCR results, with an AUC of 0.85. A subsequent diagnostic episode was independently associated with Candida spp. detection either by BC or PCR. PCT could represent a useful diagnostic tool to exclude the detection of Candida spp. by BC and PCR in septic patients.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Anesthesiology
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    • "The importance of first-line antifungal agents has been evaluated in two important papers yielding concurrent results. In particular, Ha and colleagues found that treatment failure of first-line antifungal agents was one of the most important risk factors for mortality among ICU patients with candidaemia in four tertiary-care hospitals in Korea [42]. Indeed, an antifungal switch to second-line agents was found to be the only risk factor for longer length of stay and increased cost that could be modified, thus highlighting how the choice of an appropriate first-line antifungal agent is crucial for improved outcome. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is an ever-growing importance for critical assessment of benefits and harms of various strategies with regards to antibiotic stewardship, infection control, molecular detection of pathogens and adequate treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms in ICUs. Ongoing financial constraints globally, changing demographics with an increasing and aging population and the slow introduction of new antibiotics make the utilisation of the best available evidence and goal-directed strategies essential in the ICU setting. This review will summarise findings from some of the recent major publications in the area of infectious diseases with emphasis on the role of behaviour change strategies for infection control purposes, the role of biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, and the impact of molecular diagnostics in clinical decision-making. Furthermore, we will update readers on some recent findings in relation to invasive fungal infections, community-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICU patients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Critical care (London, England)
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