Gastric cancer cell supernatant causes apoptosis and fibrosis in the peritoneal tissues and results in an environment favorable to peritoneal metastases, in vitro and in vivo

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning Province, China. .
BMC Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 04/2012; 12(1):34. DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-12-34
Source: PubMed


In this study, we examined effects of soluble factors released by gastric cancer cells on peritoneal mesothelial cells in vitro and in vivo.
HMrSV5, a human peritoneal mesothelial cell line, was incubated with supernatants from gastric cancer cells. Morphological changes of HMrSV5 cells were observed. Apoptosis of HMrSV5 cells was observed under a transmission electron microscope and quantitatively determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax, bcl-2) were immunochemically evaluated.
Conspicuous morphological changes indicating apoptosis were observed in HMrSV5 cells 24 h after treatment with the supernatants of gastric cancer cells. In vivo, peritoneal tissues treated with gastric cancer cell supernatant were substantially thickened and contained extensive fibrosis.
These findings demonstrate that supernatants of gastric cancer cells can induce apoptosis and fibrosis in HMrSV5 human peritoneal mesothelial cells through supernatants in the early peritoneal metastasis, in a time-dependent manner, and indicate that soluble factors in the peritoneal cavity affect the morphology and function of mesothelial cells so that the resulting environment can become favorable to peritoneal metastases.

Download full-text


Available from: Zhi-Feng Miao, Apr 29, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dissemination (PD) is the most frequent metastatic pattern of advanced gastric cancer (GC) and the main cause of death in GC patients. Human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) injury induced by gastric cancer cells (GCCs) and GCC outgrowths supported by peritoneal milky spot macrophages (PMSMs) are the key events during gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination (GCPD). In this study, we investigated whether PMSMs remodeled by GCC can induce HPMC injury and create a favorable microenvironment for GCPD. We established a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) model using in vitro cell coculture. Normal macrophages cocultured with GCCs down-regulated expression of antigen-presenting surface molecules CD80, CD86, and MHC-II, but, notably, they up-regulated expression of phagocytic scavenger receptor CD206, which is similar to the M2 macrophage phenotype. In further experiments, various experimental methods were applied to detect the injurious effect of TAMs on HPMCs in another TAM-HPMC coculture. Our results showed that GCCs can induce HPMC apoptosis by unregulated apoptosis associated with cleaved caspase3, cleaved caspase9, and p21 proteins. HPMC growth ceased, and both early- and late-stage apoptosis were observed. Additionally, GCCs can induce HPMC fibrosis via increased expression of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and decreased expression of mesenchymal cell marker α-SMA. Our results demonstrate that, in the GCPD process, PMSMs were remodeled by GCCs, resulting in phenotypic and functional transformation. In turn, this transformation induced HPMC injury and provided a favorable microenvironment for GCC anchorage and growth. These results may provide new insight into the mechanisms of GCPD.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent metastatic pattern of advanced gastric cancer and the main cause of death in gastric cancer patients. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF- ß1), one of the most potent fibrotic stimuli for human peritoneal mesothelial cells, has been shown to play an important role in this process. In this study, we investigated the effect of TGF- ß1 signaling blockade in gastric cancer cell (GCC)-induced human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) fibrosis. HPMCs were cocultured with the high TGF- ß1 expressing GCC line SGC-7901 and various TGF- ß1 signaling inhibitors or SGC-7901 transfected with TGF-ß1-specific siRNA. HPMC fibrosis was monitored on the basis of morphology. Expression of the epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and the mesenchymal marker, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence confocal imaging. GCC adhesion to HPMC was also assayed. In nude mouse tumor model, the peritoneal fibrotic status was monitored by immunofluorescent confocal imaging and Masson's trichrome staining; formation of metastatic nodular and ascites fluid was also evaluated. Our study demonstrated that GCC expressing high levels of TGF-ß1 induced HMPC fibrosis, which is characterized by both upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of α-SMA. Furthermore, HPMC monolayers fibrosis was reversed by TGF- ß1 signaling blockade. In vivo, the TGF- ß1 receptor inhibitor SB-431542 partially attenuated early-stage gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination (GCPD). In conclusion, our study confirms the significance of TGFß1 signaling blockade in attenuating GCPD and may provide a therapeutic target for clinical therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Tumor Biology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dissemination is highly frequent in gastric cancer. Damage to human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) barriers provokes gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination (GCPD), the key events during GCPD, is characterized by fibroblastic development. In this study, we have studied the association between fibroblast activation protein (FAP) expression in peritoneum and the pathological features of the primary tumor. The clinical prognosis of gastric cancer patients was evaluated according to FAP expression. In a gastric cancer cell-HPMC co-culture system, expression of E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin, and FAP were evaluated by Western blotting. Gastric cancer cell migration and adhesion to HPMC were also assayed. Our results showed positive peritoneal staining of FAP in 36/86 cases (41.9 %), which was associated with a higher TNM stage in primary gastric cancer and higher incidence of GCPD (both p < 0.05). Survival analysis showed FAP expression was an independent prognostic factor of poor survival (p = 0.02). Peritoneum of FAP-positive expression exhibited a distinct fibrotic development and expressed higher level of the mesenchymal marker α-SMA, which was confirmed by the in vitro Western blot assay. In HPMC and gastric cancer cell adherence assay, SGC-7901 cells preferentially adhered to TA-HPMC at different cell densities (both p < 0.05). Additionally, SGC-7901 cells were more prone to chemotaxis by FAP-expressed tumor-associated-human peritoneal mesothelial cells (TA-HPMC) compared with HPMC co-cultured with normal gastric glandular epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner (both p < 0.05). Our study indicated a positive correlation between peritoneum FAP expression and GCPD. FAP-expressed TA-HPMC might be an important cellular component and instigator of GCPD.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Tumor Biology
Show more