Bone Regeneration Related to Calcium Phosphate-Coated Implants in Osteoporotic Animal Models: A Meta-Analysis
Background: Osteoporosis is a frequent human metabolic bone disorder. Prospectively, global ageing of populations will lead to a major increase of subjects being diagnosed with osteoporosis and in need for dental rehabilitation. However, as local osteoporosis of the jaws affects bone quantity and quality of edentulous regions, osseointegration of dental implants might be hampered. Consequently, calcium phosphate ceramic-coated implants have been suggested to compensate for low bone quantity/density and for impaired bone healing in osteoporosis. Nonetheless, up to now no meta-analytical assessment of the relevant preclinical literature to quantify such a possible positive effect has been undertaken. Materials and Methods: PubMed search, limited to animal models, to identify a possible positive effect of calcium phosphate-coated implants on bone regeneration, was carried out. Further, the reference lists of related review articles and publications selected for inclusion in this review were systematically screened. The primary outcome variables were bone-to-implant contact percentage as assessed histomorphometrically and mechanical stability testing. Results: The electronic search in the database of the National Library of Medicine resulted in the identification of 2704 titles. These titles were initially screened by the two independent reviewers for possible inclusion, resulting in further consideration of 51 publications. Screening the abstracts led to 22 full-text articles. From these articles, 16 reports were excluded. Finally, six of these original research reports could be selected for evaluation. Additionally, eight publications were identified by manual search. Thus, a total of 14 articles were included for analysis. Conclusions: It was concluded that (1) in osteoporotic animal models calcium phosphate ceramic-coated implants are associated with improved bone-to-implant healing as compared to noncoated implants. Moreover, (2) essentially due to quality characteristics of the analyzed original research articles a negative impact of osteoporosis on bone-to-implant healing could not be confirmed. Besides, (3) the established positive bone-to-implant healing effect of calcium phosphate ceramic coatings does not differ between osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic, healthy animal models.
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