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Is it possible to re-socialize abused primates? A 5-year longitudinal study on the social behaviour of chimpanzees from the Mona Foundation

Authors:

Abstract

The use of primates in the world of entertainment, circus, advertising, film and as pets is still a reality. Most of these animals have lived a situation of social isolation from their peers and not only have behavioural problems but also a lack of life skills in a group environment. Thus one of the main challenges facing Primate Rescue Centres is not only to form groups but also socially rehabilitate the individuals and integrate them into established groups. Those animals re-socialized will in turn submit a lower rate of abnormal behaviour and a greater range of typical species behaviour. For 5 years I have been monitoring a group of 15 chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) divided into 3 groups. The aim has not only been to monitor the process of rehabilitation but to establish what factors may influence the social rehabilitation potential of each individual. We analyzed a total of 68,248 episodes of conduct in which we assessed the following indicators: percentage and rate of social behaviour and twice weight association index. The results show that the average social behaviour increases over the years, but its evolution is not gradual and there are differences between individuals. In conclusion, we can say that chimpanzees housed at the Mona Foundation generally show signs of rehabilitation while the pace of recovery is different depending on factors such as age, sex, life history and the degree of humanization.
Is it possible to resocialize abused primates?
Is it possible to resocialize abused primates?
A 5-year longitudinal study on the social behaviour
f hi f h M F d i
o
f
c
hi
mpanzees
f
rom
t
h
e
M
ona
F
oun
d
at
i
on
Miquel Llorente1,2,3, David Riba1,2, Aina Campi1, Jessica Ferretti1,4, Almudena Armelles1, Maria Ribas3,
Carles Rostán3& Olga Feliu1
1Unitat de Recerca i Laboratori d’Etologia, Fundació Mona, Girona (Spain)
2 Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social – IPHES, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)
3Facultat d’Educació i Psicologia, Universitat de Girona, Girona (Spain)
4Facoltà di Biologia, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma (Italy)
III Iberian Primatological Conference and IV Congress of the EFP
Primates:
Primates:
social beings
Primates:
Primates:
social beings
Unfavourable rearing conditions
Impact on SOCIABILITY and Ps
y
cholo
g
ical WELFAREImpact on SOCIABILITY and Ps
y
cholo
g
ical WELFARE
Unfavourable rearing conditions
(Bellanca & Crockett 2002; Bradshaw Capaldo Lindner & Grow 2008; Ferretti Llorente Yajeya & Campi 2011; Novak 2003;
1.
Premature separation
(Bellanca
&
Crockett
,
2002;
Bradshaw
,
Capaldo
,
Lindner
,
&
Grow
,
2008;
Ferretti
,
Llorente
,
Yajeya
,
&
Campi
,
2011;
Novak
,
2003;
Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Llorente, Feijoo, & Feliu, 2010).
1.
Premature
separation
2. Social isolation
3. Prolonged captivity
4. Sensory deprivation / poor sensory stimulation
5. Laboratory experimentation
6
Hiti
6
.
H
uman
i
za
ti
on
7. Training through negative reinforcement
8.
8.
9. Poor nutrition
Impact on SOCIABILITY and Ps
y
cholo
g
ical WELFAREImpact on SOCIABILITY and Ps
y
cholo
g
ical WELFARE
Behavioural consequences of abuse and social
Behavioural consequences of abuse and social
isolation are effecting:
Individual
domain Social
domain
Abnormal
behaviours
Lack of social
skills
behaviours
Stereotypes, self-
injury, pacing,
skills
Social phobia, social
avoiding, hiper
-
injury, pacing,
chewing, etc.
avoiding, hiper
agression, etc.
Behavioural consequences of abuse and social
Behavioural consequences of abuse and social
isolation are effecting:
Individual
domain Social
domain
Abnormal
behaviours
Lack of social
skills
behaviours
Stereotypes, self-
injury, pacing,
skills
Abnormal??
injury, pacing,
chewing, etc.
WELFARE Well- being Good mental, physical
and emotional health
and emotional health
(Bekoff, 1998; Spedding, 2000;
Nordenfelt, 2006)
PRIMATES
Chimpanzees
Social
Health
Health
Abnormal
Abnormal
Individual
behaviours
Normalit
y
Sociabilit
y
y
SociabilitySociability Abnormal
behaviours
Abnormal
behaviours
behavioursbehaviours
SOCIALIZATION
SOCIALIZATION
The question is
The question is
Is it
p
ossible to resocialize abused
p
chimpanzees?
Monitor the process of rehabilitation and socialization and determine what
factors ma
y
influence the social rehabilitation potential of each individual
Individual behaviours Social behaviours
Enclosures
Enclosures
Study Sample – 10 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
26/02/2001 23/08/2001
30/06/200228/04/2003
17/12/200331/03/2004
08/07/2005 28/03/2006 28/05/2009 13/06/2011
SCAN SAMPLING
Behavioural Catalogue (n=19)
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Sessions
H
321 281 203 203 105
H
ours 53,50 46,83 33,83 33,83 88,55
256,55
Feeding
Inactivity
Behavioural catalogue
Individual
Feeding
Self-directed
Inactivity
Locomotion Others Ind
A
bnormal Manipulation
Di
Piit
Social
D
om
i
nance
Grooming
P
rox
i
m
ity
Sexual Others Soc
Play Submission
Others Humans + Humans -
Non visible Non visible
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOURS
0,7
0,8
Friedman= 20.978; p= 0.000**
0,5
0,6
0
,
3
0,4
0
,
1
0,2
,
P=0,010
0
,
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
P=0,160 P=0,00
8
P=0,164 P=0,064
%Individual Lineal(%Individual)
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOURS
0,9
1
Friedman= 20.978; p= 0.000**
0,7
0,8
CHARLY
BONGO
TOTO
04
0,5
0,6
TOTO
JUAN
WATY
TONI
0,2
0,3
0
,
4
TONI
ROMIE
MARCO
NICO
0
0,1
0,2
NICO
SARA
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOURS
0,600
0,500
INACTIVITY
0,300
0,400
LOCOMOTION
0,200
FEEDING
SELFDIRECTED
MANIPULATION
0 000
0,100
ABNORMAL
0
,
000
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOURS
90%
100%
70%
80%
MANIPULATION
40%
50%
60%
MANIPULATION
LOCOMOTION
INACTIVITY
ABNORMAL
20%
30%
40%
ABNORMAL
SELFDIRECTED
FEEDING
0%
10%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
SOCIAL BEHAVIOURS
0,4
0,45
Friedman= 25.156; p= 0.000**
0,3
0,35
015
0,2
0,25
005
0,1
0
,
15
P=0,006
0
0
,
05
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
P=0,004 P=0,570 P=0,01
2
P=0,020
%Social Lineal(%Social)
SOCIAL BEHAVIOURS
07
0,8
Friedman= 25.156; p= 0.000**
0,6
0
,
7
CHARL
Y
BONGO
0,4
0,5 TOTO
JUAN
WAT
Y
0,2
0,3 TONI
ROMIE
MARCO
0
0,1
NICO
SARA
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
SOCIAL BEHAVIOURS
0,400
AFILIATIVE AGONISTIC GROOMING SEXUAL
0,300
0,350
*
0,200
0,250
*
0
,
100
0,150
*
0 000
0,050
,
0
,
000
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
SOCIAL AND INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVIOURS
0
,
7
0,8
R Spearman = -0.900; p= 0.037**
0
,
5
0,6
,
0,3
0,4
,
01
0,2
0,3
0
0
,
1
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
%Individual %Social
1. Globally we have detected a significantly
decrease on individual behaviours.
2. The decline of the INACTIVITY is the one most
significant in this decrease. This happen in most
of
the
subjects
of
the
sample
of
the
subjects
of
the
sample
.
3. The sociability has a increasing tendency
over
the
years
.
Although
there
are
individual
over
the
years
.
Although
there
are
individual
differences and yearly differences.
4. The behavioural categories that explain the
positive socialization o
f
the individuals are
AFILIATION and GROOMING.
We have found a high correlation between of positive behaviours (afiliation and
grooming)
and
of
negative
behaviours
(inactivity)
grooming)
and
of
negative
behaviours
(inactivity)
.
It is possible to resocialize abused chimpanzees but we need to have on mind that
it is a long process .Alot of time is needed to see changes among the subjects.
Consistent with other studies of socialization with chimpanzees (Fritz, 1986; Fritz &
Fritz, 1979; Seres,Aureli, & de Waal, 2001).
It is a long process but feasible. With this overall results we like to encourage
other primate sanctuaries to work on the same direction.
Contact:
recerca@fundacionmona.org
(
00 34
)
972 477 618
()
Acknowled
g
ment
g
- IPHES predoctoral grant to ML
- Fundación Atapuerta predoctoral grant to DR
- Universitat Rovira i Vir
g
ili: ACCESS2005 · 2009AIRE-05
- Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación: HAR2009-07223/HIST
- Mona Foundation keepers and volunteers
Article
Full-text available
Simple Summary: Hunting is well documented in wild chimpanzees, but has rarely been documented in captive chimpanzees. At Fundació Mona Primate Rescue we have obtained evidence of five episodes of hunting in rehabilitated chimpanzees who had no previous experience of these types of behaviors. This demonstrated that they were able to perform this species-typical behavior in a naturalistic environment without learning it in the wild. Abstract: Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. In this paper, we present five instances providing evidence of predatory behavior: four performed by isolated individuals and one carried out in cooperation. The evidence of group predation involved the chimpanzees adopting different roles as pursuers and ambushers. Prey was partially eaten in some cases, but not in the social episode. This study confirms that naturalistic environments allow chimpanzees to enhance species-typical behavioral patterns.
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