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Abstract

Listening to music whilst driving is a common activity, with a number of potentially positive and negative influences on driving performance and safety: previous research suggests that music is a source of distraction and can influence driver mood, with subsequent effects on driving behaviour. However, little systematic evidence exists about the extent or type of in-vehicle listening practices in real-world contexts, and their effect on driving performance. A survey was carried out to discover the extent to which people listen to music while driving, what they are listening to and why, and whether there is any association with driving safety, measured by possession of four or more years' no-claims on motor insurance. The survey of 1780 British drivers reveals that approximately two-thirds listen to recorded music and music radio while driving, with music reported to be less distracting than conversation. The most commonly cited reasons for listening to music while driving were its benefits for relaxation and concentration. The survey indicates associations between possession of `no claims' on motor insurance and a preference for silence. However, the genre of music playing also appears to influence driving performance: there is an association between possession of no-claims, genre of music, and a difference in the frequency with which certain genres were playing at the time of the last accident, relative to the expected norm for that genre. These findings support evidence for music as a source of in-vehicle distraction, which can have both positive and negative effects on driving performance.

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... Ces travaux ont montré que par des biais divers, la musique influence la conduite. Elle peut agir sur l'humeur du conducteur, et constituer dans certains cas une source de distraction susceptible de dégrader la performance de conduite [9]. Toutefois, les effets de l'écoute de la musique sur la performance de conduite apparaissent contrastés. ...
... Les auteurs expliquent ces effets par une augmentation de l'éveil et de l'humeur. Dans le contexte des transports, écouter de la musique est désigné comme l'activité préférée lorsqu'on est au volant [2], [9]. La voiture est d'ailleurs le lieu d'écoute de musique le plus fréquent [20]. ...
... Ecouter la musique au volant permettrait au conducteur de réguler ses émotions (réduire le stress et les affects négatifs), notamment dans les situations stressantes [21] [22]. D'après une étude menée auprès de 1780 conducteurs [9], les principales raisons d'écouter de la musique, avancées par les conducteurs sont les bénéfices en termes de relaxation et de concentration. Dans une étude menée en condition réelle de conduite, Wiesenthal et al. [22] montrent que l'écoute de musique choisie par les participants réduit l'agressivité au volant en situation de conduite stressante (embouteillages), mais uniquement en condition de faible urgence temporelle. ...
Conference Paper
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A music recommendation system is intended to propose music that fits the user's tastes, based on a progressive learning. Suggested music depends on users' profiles and algorithms used. Matching between music and musical tastes of the users varies according to the systems tested [1]. The current study was realized within the framework of the development of a new embedded personalized radio system. This system aims to improve satisfaction and reduce motor interactions while driving (ie zapping). The goal of the study was to evaluate the perceived value of such a device, as well as the impacts on the drivers 'pleasure. Thirty-six participants completed a route on a driving simulator while listening to 1) experimenter-selected music (simulating a traditional car radio) and 2) self-selected music (simulating the personalized device). The results show that the number of zaps have been divided by 3 and music liking has been improved. Personalized radio also represents an added value in terms of comfort. However, driving performance was not impacted.
... Effects of music listening on driving performance can generally be classified into two types: (i) Distraction and (ii) arousal [2]. Distraction refers to the shift of the driver's attention away from the driving task, which is a complex process requiring a high level of cognitive, sensory, and locomotor skills. ...
... The anticipated (both negative and positive) impacts of music listening on driving performance can be moderated by possible confounding factors, including driver demographic and socio-economic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education level, and temperament), music type (characterized by tempo, intensity, emotion, and genre), traffic flow condition, geometric design, and road environments [1][2][3]17,18]. Therefore, variation in the anticipated changes in driving performance is considerable, and the effect of music listening on driving performance may be controversial. ...
... Regarding driver characteristics, an examination of the modification effects by driver demographics and socio-economics on the association between music listening, emotion, and driving performance is rare [1,2]. Indeed, drivers' characters, also known as temperament, could moderate the impaired driving performance while listening to music [20]. ...
Article
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This paper presents the study on the association between in-vehicle music listening, physiological and psychological response, and driving performance, using the driving simulator approach, with which personality (temperament) was considered. The performance indicators considered were the standard deviation of speed, lane crossing frequency, perceived mental workload, and mean and variability of heart rate. Additionally, effects of the presence of music and music genre (light music versus rock music) were considered. Twenty participants of different personalities (in particular five, four, seven, and four being choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholic, respectively) completed a total of 60 driving simulator tests. Results of mixed analysis of variance (M-ANOVA) indicated that the effects of music genre and driver character on driving performance were significant. The arousal level perceived mental workload, standard deviation of speed, and frequency of lane crossing were higher when driving under the influence of rock music than that when driving under the influence of light music or an absence of music. Additionally, phlegmatic drivers generally had lower arousal levels and choleric drivers had a greater mental workload and were more likely distracted by music listening. Such findings should imply the development of cost-effective driver education, training, and management measures that could mitigate driver distraction. Therefore, the safety awareness and safety performance of drivers could be enhanced.
... With the increasing national figure on road accidents and accident related deaths in Nigeria (WHO, 2016; Nigerian Pilot, 2016), the time is ripe to carry out a search outside the conventional search for factors which correlate the causes of these road harms and dialogic in-vehicular music communication could be one of them. Dialogic in-vehicular music communication refers to listening and responding (reacting) to music (organized sounds and auditory stimuli) from motor vehicle radio and playables while driving (Dibben & Williamson, 2007). It is also being influenced by music or other organized sounds from the vehicle audio or video systems in a way that the listener responds to it behaviourally either in form of sing along, sit dance and other physical gestures which show communication between the listener and the auditory stimuli (Unal, 2013). ...
... The policy has intention to unlock the "human factors" which may impact negatively on the public health. In the transport industry, such human factors may revolve around drivers' in-vehicular behaviours such as dialogic in-vehicular music communication which may constitute real dangers to lives and properties (Dibben & Williamson, 2007). ...
... First, listening to music via car radio or playable while driving is, perhaps, the most common auditory stimuli that drivers are exposed to on the road apart from the stimuli of vehicular sounds. Second, the utility of in-vehicle musical communication is the main reason for its practice; which Brodsky (2002) as reported in (Dibben & Williamson, 2007) found to be relaxation and concentration. Third, this practice (listening to music while driving) could be gratifying on the one hand and hold some implications on the other hand for driving performance and safety, according to Stutts, Reinfurt, Staplin, & Rodgman (2001); Dibben & Williamson, (2007), Unal (2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored Cognitive effects of dialogic in-vehicular music communication on driving behaviours: emerging facts among commercial motorists in SouthEast , Nigeria. The study was orchestrated by the steady rise of road traffic accidents and deaths statistics in Nigeria. 416 participants whose ages ranged from 27 to 59 years with a mean age of 39.50 years and standard deviation of 5.40 were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Anchored on Distraction theory by Mitchell and MacDonald (2006), four research questions were answered using mixed method design while Pearson correlation statistics, thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze survey, interview and observational data respectively. The result indicated that the prevalence of dialogic in-vehicular music communication is high at 68.4% whereas the awareness of the dangers posed by dialogic in-vehicular music communication is low at 45.2% among commercial motorist in SouthEast , Nigeria. Whereas dialogic in-vehicular music communication positively and significantly correlated hazard prone driving behaviours at r(1, 321) = .39, p < .01, awareness of the dangers posed by dialogic in-vehicular music communication negatively and significantly correlated hazard prone driving behaviours at r(1, 321) =-.20, p < .01. The findings were also supported by the themes which emerged from the analysis of the in-depth interview and descriptive analysis of the observational schedule. Considering the dangers of the low awareness level of dialogic in-vehicular music communication among commercial drivers, there is the need to deepen education and sensitization of the public regarding the associated hazards.
... With the increasing national figure on road accidents and accident related deaths in Nigeria (WHO, 2016; Nigerian Pilot, 2016), the time is ripe to carry out a search outside the conventional search for factors which correlate the causes of these road harms and dialogic in-vehicular music communication could be one of them. Dialogic in-vehicular music communication refers to listening and responding (reacting) to music (organized sounds and auditory stimuli) from motor vehicle radio and playables while driving (Dibben & Williamson, 2007). It is also being influenced by music or other organized sounds from the vehicle audio or video systems in a way that the listener responds to it behaviourally either in form of sing along, sit dance and other physical gestures which show communication between the listener and the auditory stimuli (Unal, 2013). ...
... The policy has intention to unlock the "human factors" which may impact negatively on the public health. In the transport industry, such human factors may revolve around drivers' in-vehicular behaviours such as dialogic in-vehicular music communication which may constitute real dangers to lives and properties (Dibben & Williamson, 2007). ...
... First, listening to music via car radio or playable while driving is, perhaps, the most common auditory stimuli that drivers are exposed to on the road apart from the stimuli of vehicular sounds. Second, the utility of in-vehicle musical communication is the main reason for its practice; which Brodsky (2002) as reported in (Dibben & Williamson, 2007) found to be relaxation and concentration. Third, this practice (listening to music while driving) could be gratifying on the one hand and hold some implications on the other hand for driving performance and safety, according to Stutts, Reinfurt, Staplin, & Rodgman (2001); Dibben & Williamson, (2007), Unal (2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored Cognitive effects of dialogic in-vehicular music communication on driving behaviours: emerging facts among commercial motorists in SouthEast , Nigeria. The study was orchestrated by the steady rise of road traffic accidents and deaths statistics in Nigeria. 416 participants whose ages ranged from 27 to 59 years with a mean age of 39.50 years and standard deviation of 5.40 were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Anchored on Distraction theory by Mitchell and MacDonald (2006), four research questions were answered using mixed method design while Pearson correlation statistics, thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze survey, interview and observational data respectively. The result indicated that the prevalence of dialogic in-vehicular music communication is high at 68.4% whereas the awareness of the dangers posed by dialogic in-vehicular music communication is low at 45.2% among commercial motorist in SouthEast , Nigeria. Whereas dialogic in-vehicular music communication positively and significantly correlated hazard prone driving behaviours at r(1, 321) = .39, p < .01, awareness of the dangers posed by dialogic in-vehicular music communication negatively and significantly correlated hazard prone driving behaviours at r(1, 321) =-.20, p < .01. The findings were also supported by the themes which emerged from the analysis of the in-depth interview and descriptive analysis of the observational schedule. Considering the dangers of the low awareness level of dialogic in-vehicular music communication among commercial drivers, there is the need to deepen education and sensitization of the public regarding the associated hazards.
... Leaving such stereotypes aside, streaming data show that a vast array of music is used by drivers, and research data provide some insight as to how drivers make functional choices (Brodsky 2021;Dibben and Williamson 2007). For example, up-tempo tracks of a stimulative nature can engender optimal psychomotor arousal for the vigilance required during intercity drives (Navarro et al. 2019). ...
... Insurance company and police records illustrate how young drivers are at particular riskto themselves and to other road users -when their music choices are less than optimal (i.e. loud/aggressive music; Brodsky, Olivieri, and Chekaluk 2018;Dibben and Williamson 2007). Sophisticated conceptual frameworks pertaining to driving behaviour, such as Fuller's (2011) Driver Control Theory, place considerable emphasis on the mismatch between young/ inexperienced drivers' perception of their driving abilities and their actual driving abilities. ...
... upcoming vehicles; Ho and Spence 2009) and lead to speeding or reckless manoeuvring (Brodsky 2001;Dalton et al. 2007), particularly so when the music is energising and at a high sound intensity (e.g. Dibben and Williamson 2007;Ünal et al. 2013a, 2013b. It is recognised, however, that music with different psycho-acoustic properties is required for different environments (e.g. ...
Article
Underpinned by pragmatism and symbolic interactionism, an inductive content analysis was conducted to assess driving experiences under a variety of music conditions. Many quantitative studies have addressed the effects of music on drivers, but there has been a conspicuous dearth of qualitative research to provide a more nuanced understanding of music-related phenomena. Data collection took place over three simulated driving studies, each with different tasks/participants (Study 1 – n = 34, Study 2 – n = 46, and Study 3 – n = 27). The inductive content analysis was conducted by two members of the research team and a peer debriefing was conducted by a third. Findings show that music can have a range of affective, behavioural and cognitive effects (both positive and negative), that are moderated by the driving environment (i.e. urban vs. highway) and aspects of the musical stimulus (i.e. inclusion/non-inclusion of lyrics, loudness and tempo). Participants were mindful of the implications of in-vehicle music vis-à-vis the safety–performance–pleasure trade-off. The analysis suggested a perceived beneficial effect of music and consequent contribution to driving style/safety-related performance. Younger drivers’ apparent reliance on music as a means by which to regulate their emotion highlights an education need in terms of optimising selections. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/1463922X.2021.2009933 .
... Ces travaux ont montré que par des biais divers, la musique influence la conduite. Elle peut agir sur l'humeur du conducteur, et constituer dans certains cas une source de distraction susceptible de dégrader la performance de conduite [9]. Toutefois, les effets de l'écoute de la musique sur la performance de conduite apparaissent contrastés. ...
... Les auteurs expliquent ces effets par une augmentation de l'éveil et de l'humeur. Dans le contexte des transports, écouter de la musique est désigné comme l'activité préférée lorsqu'on est au volant [2], [9]. La voiture est d'ailleurs le lieu d'écoute de musique le plus fréquent [20]. ...
... Ecouter la musique au volant permettrait au conducteur de réguler ses émotions (réduire le stress et les affects négatifs), notamment dans les situations stressantes [21] [22]. D'après une étude menée auprès de 1780 conducteurs [9], les principales raisons d'écouter de la musique, avancées par les conducteurs sont les bénéfices en termes de relaxation et de concentration. Dans une étude menée en condition réelle de conduite, Wiesenthal et al. [22] montrent que l'écoute de musique choisie par les participants réduit l'agressivité au volant en situation de conduite stressante (embouteillages), mais uniquement en condition de faible urgence temporelle. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Un système de recommandation de musique est un dispositif capable, par le biais d’un apprentissage progressif, de proposer des musiques correspondant aux goûts de l’utilisateur. Les musiques proposées dépendent donc des profils des utilisateurs et des algorithmes mobilisés. Selon les systèmes testés, l’adéquation des musiques avec les goûts des utilisateurs est variable [1]. La présente étude a été réalisée dans le cadre d’un projet de conception d’un dispositif de radio personnalisé embarqué dans les véhicules. Ce type de système vise à améliorer la satisfaction et à réduire les interactions motrices pendant la conduite (i.e. zapping). L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer la plus-value perçue d’un tel dispositif, ainsi que les impacts sur le plaisir des conducteurs. Pour cela, 36 participants devaient réaliser un parcours sur simulateur de conduite en écoutant de la musique 1) sélectionnée par l’expérimentateur (simulant un autoradio traditionnel) et 2) préalablement sélectionnée par le participant lui-même (simulant le dispositif d’écoute personnalisé). Les résultats montrent que la radio personnalisée permet de diviser par 3 le nombre de zaps et d’améliorer l’appréciation des musiques diffusées. La radio personnalisée est aussi considérée comme une plus-value en termes de confort. En revanche, aucun effet du dispositif sur la conduite n’est observé.
... Studies suggesting a detrimental effect of music-listening point to the music masking critical sounds (e.g., sirens, horns, or engine sounds) that help drivers navigate through traffic (Bellinger, Budde, Machida, Richardson, & Berg, 2009;Dibben & Williamson, 2007;Ho & Spence, 2017), and to activities related to music-listening (e.g., changing tracks, searching stations or through MP3 files, changing volume) that may lead to distraction (Harvey & Carden, 2009;Lee, Roberts, Hoffman, & Angell, 2012;Lerner, Baldwin, Higgins, Lee, & Schooler, 2015;Young, Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Rudin-Brown, & Lenné, 2012). Attending more closely to musical parameters, Brodsky (2001) found a positive correlation between music tempo and both simulated driving speed and perceived speed estimates. ...
... Selection. Drivers may use music to regulate their mood and arousal level, which in turn may enhance driving performance (Brodsky & Slor, 2013;Dibben & Williamson, 2007;Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Totten, 2000); Wiesenthal et al. (2000), for instance, found that driver-selected music limited the driver's stress when driving through irritating traffic congestion. Investigating the effect of driver-selected versus researcher-selected music would therefore offer a contextualized understanding of the effect of music on driving performance. ...
... tain alertness (Dibben & Williamson, 2007) and to decrease boredom (Hargreaves & North, 2010). A more nuanced perspective is offered by Turner et al. (1996), who investigated the effect of volume on the response to unexpected visual events and reported that music at a moderate volume (70 dBA) facilitates performance (i.e., faster reaction to signals) as compared to conditions with music at low volume (60 dBA) or high volume (80 dBA). ...
Article
Various studies offer insightful perspectives on the potential impact of music-listening on driving performance. These studies, however, present conflicting views on the effect of music as either hindering or enhancing driving performance and advance inconclusive claims regarding how and to what extent specific music parameters affect vehicular performance. In this study, therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. First, we identified experimental studies that measured the effects of music-listening on driving performance through database searches using multiple variants including “car”, “driv*”, “perf*”, and “music*”; of the 118 publications reviewed, 12 met the inclusion criteria for the current meta-analysis. Second, we coded independent variables—i.e., tempo, volume, instrumentation, familiarity, musical style, the music’s source, and whether music was selected by the researchers or the drivers—and dependent variables—i.e., vehicular longitudinal and lateral control, driver reaction time, traffic signal violations, collisions, and driving scores. Third, we ran mixed-effects and random-effects models to identify both general tendencies and more particular trends related to the effect of music-listening on driving performance—driving performance is here understood as the combination of vehicle manipulation and road navigation. Consistent with anecdotal evidence, the results of this meta-analysis show that music-listening has a statistically significant detrimental effect on driving performance, specifically for collisions and longitudinal control. In contrast with anecdotal evidence, however, the results of this meta-analysis show a detrimental effect associated with music-listening at soft volumes and no significant difference in driving performance associated with tempo. The study’s findings contributed to the development of a process model, and the concluding discussion offers suggestions for future empirical investigations related to music and driving.
... Furthermore, in a survey of online gamblers, ''doing something simultaneously,'' such as ''playing whilst listening to your own choice of music,'' was reported as an appealing feature of Internet gambling (Parke et al., 2012, p. 149). To date, self-selected music listening while gambling has not been widely acknowledged, which is somewhat surprising given the plethora of activities in everyday life that music can accompany and that have previously been remarked on: housework, running, cycling, desk work, trying to get to sleep (Sloboda, 1999), driving (Dibben & Williamson, 2007;Sloboda, 1999), travelling (Heye & Lamont, 2010), and working (Haake, 2011). ...
... As studies in these other domains indicate, self-selected music can serve a number of functions: provide enjoyment (Heye & Lamont, 2010;North, Hargreaves, & Hargreaves, J.J., 2004); pass time (Heye & Lamont, 2010;North et al., 2004); create the right atmosphere (North et al., 2004); create or accentuate an emotion (Heye & Lamont, 2010;North et al., 2004); regulate arousal and mood (Schäfer, Sedlmeier, Städtler, & Huron, 2013); aid concentration (Dibben & Williamson, 2007;North et al., 2004); and help achieve self-awareness (Schäfer et al., 2013), solace (Randall & Rickard, 2017), and relaxation (Dibben & Williamson, 2007). Such ''functional niches'' (Sloboda, Lamont, & Greasley, 2009) for music listening provide insights into how music might operate in a gambling context. ...
... As studies in these other domains indicate, self-selected music can serve a number of functions: provide enjoyment (Heye & Lamont, 2010;North, Hargreaves, & Hargreaves, J.J., 2004); pass time (Heye & Lamont, 2010;North et al., 2004); create the right atmosphere (North et al., 2004); create or accentuate an emotion (Heye & Lamont, 2010;North et al., 2004); regulate arousal and mood (Schäfer, Sedlmeier, Städtler, & Huron, 2013); aid concentration (Dibben & Williamson, 2007;North et al., 2004); and help achieve self-awareness (Schäfer et al., 2013), solace (Randall & Rickard, 2017), and relaxation (Dibben & Williamson, 2007). Such ''functional niches'' (Sloboda, Lamont, & Greasley, 2009) for music listening provide insights into how music might operate in a gambling context. ...
Article
Background music is often present in gambling environments and has been found to influence gamblers’ behaviour. However, little is known about gamblers’ perception of environmental influences, including music, and whether gamblers believe that such influences can impact upon their gambling behaviour. An online questionnaire was administered to 136 gamblers to probe the perceived effects of gambling operator-selected and self-selected music on the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of gambling. In general, few respondents believed that music influences aspects of gambling participation. However, the analysis indicated that some gamblers, particularly those classified as moderate-risk and problem gamblers, self-select music to accompany gambling, and analysis of free-text responses indicated that this was undertaken to match their musical preferences or out of habit. Some gamblers believed that self-selected music promoted positive moods and supported concentration. Furthermore, some poker players thought that music may serve unique functions such as helping them to mask outward emotions and filling time between games. This study demonstrates that self-selected music is sometimes purposefully used by gamblers to support the cognitive and emotional aspects of gambling. However, as few gamblers believed that music could influence the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of gambling, this research reveals a disparity between subjective opinions and objective evidence, as gathered in published empirical laboratory experiments. This indicates the need to improve gamblers' awareness of the potential influence of background music on the gambling experience.
... The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that around 25% of traffic accidents in the U.S. are due to a distracted driver (Dibben, & Williamson, 2007). Driving requires a high level of attention and information processing. ...
... One of the most popular activities in the vehicle is listening to music and talk radio (Dalton & Behm, 2007;Dibben & Williamson, 2007;Sloboda, O'Neill & Vivaldi, 2001). ...
... An observational study of American drivers showed that audio was playing in vehicles 72 percent of the time while on the road (Stutts, 2003). In a survey of British drivers conducted by Dibben and Williamson (2007), two-thirds of drivers claimed that they usually listen to music while driving. Evidence suggests that people play music in cars because it provides a feeling of pleasure or excitement, prevents boredom, entertains and relaxes drivers, etc. (Dibben, & Williamson, 2007). ...
Article
Driving is a complicated task that requires the coordination of visual and sensory-motor skills. Unsafe driving behavior and accidents can happen regardless of the level of drivers’ experience. The main cause of the most of these accidents is human error. Emotions influence the way drivers process and react to internal or environmental factors. Specifically, anger elicited either from traffic or personal issues, is a serious threat on the road. Therefore, having an affective intelligent system in the car that can estimate drivers’ anger and respond to it appropriately can help drivers adapt to moment to-moment changes in driving situations. To this end, the present dissertation uses an integrated approach to monitoring drivers’ affective states in various driving contexts to address the question: “What types of music can mitigate the effects of anger on driving performance?” Three sources of information (behavioral, physiological, and subjective data) were considered in two experiments. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants were compared based on their emotional reactions and driving behaviors. Results showed that angry drivers who did not listen to music had riskier driving behavior than emotion neutral drivers. Results from heart rate, oxygenation level in prefrontal cortex, and self report questionnaires showed that music could help angry drivers react at the similar level to emotion-neutral drivers both internally and behaviorally. In Experiment 2, types of music emotion and familiarity of music were addressed to identify what kind of music an in-vehicle auditory system should play when it recognizes drivers’ anger. Results showed that different kinds of music did not effect driving performance. However, drivers experienced less frustration and effort when listening to music in general and less viii frustration when listening to self-selected music specifically. Regarding personality characteristics, drivers who had anger-expression out style had riskier driving behavior just as in Experiment 1. In conclusion, this research showed the benefits of music as a possible strategy to help angry drivers. In addition, important patterns were uncovered relating to assessing driver anger for possible affective intelligent systems in cars.
... This usually involves the use of a portable music player or a cellphone and this may present safety problems since devices may easily distract the attention of the cyclist. This matter has not received much attention (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) because most studies have concentrated on the effects of listening to music while driving a vehicle or a motorcycle, (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12) and very few studies have investigated the effects of listening to music or operating a cellphone on cycling behavior. (13)(14)(15)(16)(17) In countries such as the Netherlands, the use of a smartphone and other MP3 players while riding a bicycle is very common and not forbidden; however, listening to music while cycling is illegal in Germany and New Zealand. ...
... In cycling, loud music may decrease the reaction time of the rider to central stimuli and increase the response time to peripheral stimuli at the same time. (7,21) In the internet survey by Goldenbeld and Ehlers, 55% of music-listening cyclists reported using two earbuds or over-ear headphones, 23% used only one ear bud, and the rest reported using a loudspeaker or different options from time to time. (14) De Waard et al. found that auditory perception was negatively affected, with less traffic auditory information being processed by riders listening to music or when engaged in a phone call, particularly when earbuds were being used. ...
... For example, in a driving situation, a moving car will usually generate a certain amount of background vibration. Just as for the case of tactile feedback, auditory feedback also has the possibility of being masked by background auditory noise or by the radio [12][13][14]. Given the possibility that a driver (or other interface operator) might miss feedback that happens to be presented in just a single sensory modality, the hope is that multimodal (or multisensory) feedback using two or more modalities could provide users with confirmatory or redundant information without overload and without any loss of a person's ability to process information [12][13][14]. ...
... Just as for the case of tactile feedback, auditory feedback also has the possibility of being masked by background auditory noise or by the radio [12][13][14]. Given the possibility that a driver (or other interface operator) might miss feedback that happens to be presented in just a single sensory modality, the hope is that multimodal (or multisensory) feedback using two or more modalities could provide users with confirmatory or redundant information without overload and without any loss of a person's ability to process information [12][13][14]. In fact, several recent studies have shown that multisensory cues appear able to capture an interface operator's spatial attention no matter what else they may happen to be doing at the same time [33,38]. ...
... Music and cars go together. Listening to music while driving is a common everyday occurrence (Brodsky, 2015), with about two-thirds of drivers reporting they listen to music while driving (Dibben and Williamson, 2007). Researches on the effects of listening to music on driving safety are mixed. ...
... Researches on the effects of listening to music on driving safety are mixed. Some studies report safety benefits to driving while listening to music compared to driving without music, including the ability of music to combat boredom and fatigue and to help regulate emotions and minimize aggressive driving (Clarke et al., 2010;Dibben and Williamson, 2007). Music may also increase arousal, stimulating more focused concentration in drivers (Ünal et al., 2013; see also Ünal et al., 2012). ...
Article
Introduction Many novice drivers listen to music while driving, but the effect of music-listening on novice driver’s safety is uncertain. We explored how music tempo affects two key aspects of novice drivers' cognitive functioning, mental load and hazard perception. Method In a within-subjects experimental design study, 37 novice drivers completed a hazard perception test in simulated traffic situations under four randomly-ordered conditions: while listening to fast, medium, slow tempo music, and without listening to any music. Mental load was recorded both subjectively and through psychophysiological measures during all conditions. Results When listening to fast-tempo music, novice drivers’ subjective load value, heart rate and respiratory rate were significantly higher than that during the other two music tempo conditions and the no music condition. Skin temperature was significantly higher during fast-tempo music than during the slow music tempo and no music conditions. When listening to slow-tempo music, drivers’ R-R interval (variability in heart rate, with longer intervals reflecting lower mental load) was significantly longer than while listening to fast and mid-tempo music, and their hazard perception scores were significantly higher than the other three conditions. Conclusions Listening to fast tempo music was associated with increased mental load and reduced hazard perception ability in traffic among novice drivers. Listening to slow tempo music did not increase novice drivers’ mental load and offered some benefit to their hazard perception.
... For example, when listening to music, performance on a car following task improved slightly ( € Unal et al. 2013;€ Unal, Steg, and Epstude 2012), and response times to central and peripheral signals seemed to decrease (Beh and Hirst 1999). Furthermore, drivers report to be more relaxed and concentrated while listening to music (Dibben and Williamson 2007). These positive effects of music on driver performance are most likely caused by an increased arousal, leading to more mental effort. ...
... Whereas earlier experiments showed that peripheral stimuli and auditory signals are more likely to be missed while listening to music (de Waard et al. 2010;de Waard, Edlinger, andBrookhuis 2011, 2014;Hughes, Rudin-Brown, and Young 2013), this study showed that this does not seem to result in a worse performance on a hazard perception test (see also Miao et al. 2021). Considering that listening to music also has some positive effects on traffic safety (Beh and Hirst 1999;Dibben and Williamson 2007;€ Unal et al. 2013;Wiesenthal, Hennessy, and Totten 2003), there does not seem to be enough evidence to support a prohibition of listening to music while cycling. ...
Article
Whereas it has been shown that listening to music impairs the detection of auditory and visual signals, it is unclear to what extent music affects a cyclist’s ability to detect and interpret hazardous traffic situations. In the current experiment, thirty-seven participants carried out a hazard perception test for cyclists. Participants were divided into three groups: control, passive, or active. The control group did the test without hearing music. The passive and active group did hear music, yet the passive group was asked to ignore the music, while the active group was asked to pay attention to the lyrics. Results showed no differences in reaction rate, reaction time, or gaze behaviour between any of the groups. These findings temper the existing safety concerns about the negative effect of music on traffic safety. Nevertheless, music might still have consequences under certain conditions or in certain risk-groups such as children. Practitioner summary: It is unclear how music affects traffic safety. The current experiment tested to what extent hazard perception was affected by listening actively or passively to music. Under the current experimental conditions, listening to music was found to have no effect on hazard perception.
... Since emotional states can vary from moment to moment for different reasons, designing an in-vehicle system in cars to reduce the negative consequences of emotion via music would be helpful. Listening to music is a common and favorite activity in cars [20,55]. Music creates emotions [56] or changes emotional states in its listeners. ...
... The significant decrement in neutral drivers' HR data from practice to driving can be referred to the driving task itself. It has been shown that more than 70% of drivers listen to music more than two third of their driving time [55] and their main reasons are maintaining an optimal level of arousal and avoiding boredom. ...
Article
Emotions influence the way drivers process and react to internal or environmental factors, but relatively little research has focused on drivers’ emotions. Of many emotional states, anger is considered the most serious threat on the road. Therefore, having an affective intelligent system in the car that can estimate drivers’ anger and respond to it appropriately can help drivers adapt to moment-to-moment changes in driving situations. To this end, we integrated behavioral, physiological, and subjective data to monitor drivers’ affective states in various driving contexts to address the question: “can self-selected music mitigate the effects of anger on driving performance?” In our experiment, three groups of participants (in total 52) drove using a driving simulator: anger without music, anger with music, and neutral without music. Results showed that angry drivers who did not listen to music had riskier driving behavior than emotion-neutral drivers. Results from heart rate, oxygenation level in prefrontal cortex, and self-report questionnaires showed that music could help angry drivers react at the similar level to emotion-neutral drivers. Regarding personality characteristics, drivers who had anger-expression out style had riskier driving behavior. Divers’ workload data showed lower performance and higher effort for angry drivers without music. In conclusion, this study shows that multimodal sensing can be effectively used to holistically assess drivers’ emotional states and that music can be used as a possible multimodal strategy to mitigate the anger effects on driving performance as well as drivers’ subjective experiences.
... In the current research, we conceptualized music as type of distraction, or an aspect of the performance environment that interferes with one's attention to a focal task (Jett & George, 2003). Indeed, evidence from several research studies suggest that music can distract listeners (e.g., Dibben & Williamson, 2007;Furnham & Strbac, 2002;Kwekkeboom, 2003;Schwebel et al., 2012). Treating music as a form of distraction also allowed us to draw from theory and research on distraction-conflict and social facilitation to understand how music might affect task performance. ...
Article
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Researchers have documented various (sometimes conflicting) effects of music on cognitive task performance, and have highlighted several mechanisms through which these effects may occur (e.g., arousal, mood, attention). To further understand these effects, we consider interactions between musicbased, task-based, and performer-based characteristics. Specifically, we drew from the distractionconflict theory of social facilitation and research on boredom proneness to hypothesize that music-along with its complexity and volume-facilitates simple task performance and impairs complex task performance, and that one's preference for external stimulation (a dimension of boredom proneness) moderates these effects. We tested our hypotheses in a laboratory experiment, in which participants completed cognitive tasks either in silence or with music of varying complexity and volume. We found that (a) music generally impaired complex task performance, (b) complex music facilitated simple task performance, and (c) preference for external stimulation moderated these effects. Therefore, the data suggest that music's effects on task performance depend on the music, the task, and the performer.
... Among the ample available approaches, music has been found as one of the therapies used for the mental disability treatment because of its power to change emotions and psychological behaviour of the human being [21,22]. Listening to music is very common among the people for the mental relaxation in general [23,24]. Moreover, it also helps to get into relaxing mode during anxiety or stressful situations irrespective of age and sex [25]. is therapy works very well on human beings [26,27]. ...
Article
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Neurological imbalance sometimes resulted in stress, which is experienced by the number of people at some moment in their life. A considerable measurement scheme can quantify the stress level in an individual, in which music has always been considered as the best therapy for stress relief in healthy human being as well in severe medical conditions. In this work, the impact of four types of music interventions with the lyrics of Hindi music and varying spectral centroid has been studied for an analysis of stress relief in males and females. The self-reported data for stress using state-trait anxiety (STA) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals for 14 channels in response to music interventions have been considered. Features such as Hjorth (activity, mobility, and complexity), variance, standard deviation, skew, kurtosis, and mean have been extracted from five bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma) of each channel of the recorded EEG signals from 9 males and 9 females of the age category between 18 and 25 years. The support vector machine classifier has been used to classify three subsets: (i) male and female, (ii) baseline and female, and (iii) baseline and male. The noteworthy accuracy of 100% was found at the delta band for the first subset, beta and gamma bands for the second subset, and beta, gamma, and delta bands for the third subset. STA score has shown more deviation in the male category than in female, which gives a clear insight into the impact of music intervention with varying spectral centroid that has a higher impact to relieve stress in the male category than the female category.
... As a consequence, people are frequently listening to music in a variety of situations and locations 5 . Among those situations, listening to music while driving is extremely common with drivers reporting listening to music during about three quarters of their driving time 6 . ...
Article
Car driving is a daily activity for many individuals in modern societies. Drivers often listen to music while driving. The method presented here investigates how listening to music influences driving behaviors. A driving simulation was selected because it offers both a well-controlled environment and a good level of ecological validity. Driving behaviors were assessed through a car-following task. In practice, participants were instructed to follow a lead vehicle as they would do in real life. The lead vehicle speed changed over time requiring constant speed adjustments for the participants. The inter-vehicular time was used to assess driving behaviors. To complement the driving behaviors, the subjective mood and physiological level of arousal were also collected. As such, the results collected using this method offer insights on both the human internal state (i.e., subjective mood and physiological arousal) and driving behaviors in the car following task.
... In line with this, previous research have found driving behaviors to be related to traffic crashes (Behnood & Pakgohar [10]; Ergun & Al-Khaldi [11]). Diverse factors have been found to influence driving behavior and increase the likelihood of car crashes; for instance, driver distraction (Dibben & Williamson [12]; Klauer, Dingus et al. [13]; McEvoy et al. [14]), phone use while driving (McCarley et al. [15]; Papadakaki et al. [16]; Strayer et al. [17]; Stutts et al. [18]), struggling to identify safety hazards (Underwood et al. [19]), alcohol (Williamson et al. [20]), sleepiness (Ingre et al. [21]; James [22]) and the use of medication (Alvarez & Fierro [23]). This study will examine the effect of individual and different types of risky driving behaviors and suggests a higher risk of traffic crashes among groups of drivers with higher likelihood to commit risky driving, this link between risky driving behavior and traffic crashes is based on previous research as described above. ...
Article
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Professional drivers play a significant role within the traffic system of the State of Qatar. With developing infrastructure, the need for professional drivers is growing. However, knowledge is lacking about their perception of traffic safety. Therefore, this study investigates the personal acceptance of risky driving and suggested traffic laws among this specific group of drivers, in order to create understanding about their likelihood to commit certain risky driving behaviors and their resistance to the implementation of certain traffic laws. The aim of this study is to establish which personal attributes of professional drivers in Qatar could influence a high likelihood to commit risky driving behaviors, estimating which specific groups of professional drivers impose the highest risk to violate certain traffic laws. Results indicate that transportation mode, origin and years of driving experience are all personal attributes that have a significant impact on the professional driver's risk to commit risky driving behaviors and their opposition to the implementation of related traffic laws. Distressing results have been found for the high likelihood to violate speed in school zones and the high risk to be distracted by any type of phone use while driving, suggesting the need to put emphasize on these safety hazards during the training programs of professional drivers at professional driving schools in the State of Qatar. Keywords: Professional drivers, State of Qatar, Traffic safety culture, Traffic law, Traffic violation, Crash risk
... Müzik, alan yazında tempo (Brodsky, 2001), aşinalık (Jimison, 2014), ses şiddeti (Beh ve Hirst, 1999), tercih (Wiesenthal, Hennessy ve Totten, 2000) ve janr (Dibben ve Williamson, 2007) olmak üzere farklı çeşitlerde çalışılmıştır. Müziğin trafik ortamındaki değişkenlerle ilişkisi incelendiğinde, müzik temposu ile hız, algılanan hız ve trafik ihlalleri arasında pozitif bir ilişki olduğu; sürücülerin araç kullanırken dinledikleri müziğin temposu hızlandıkça, sürüş hızlarının, algıladıkları sürüş hızının, kırmızı ışık ihlalinin ve çarpışmaların arttığı ortaya konmuştur (Brodsky, 2001). ...
Article
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Müzik dinlemek, çoğu yol kullanıcısının sergilediği davranışlardan biridir. Ayrıca, dürtüsellik gibi insan faktörü ile ilgili değişkenler ve trafik ortamını etkileyen fiziksel faktörler sürücülerin riskli sürücü davranışlarını etkilemektedir. Bu çalışma kapsamında, araç kullanırken müzik dinlemek, sürücü dürtüselliği ve trafik ortamının risk seviyesi ile sürücülerin risk algısı ve davranışları arasındaki ilişki araştırılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda, 50 sürücüden (37 erkek, 13 kadın) veri toplanmıştır. Katılımcılar, çalışma öncesinde, sürüş sırasında müzik dinleyecekleri deney grubu ve kontrol grubu olmak üzere iki gruba rasgele atanmıştır. Katılımcılar iki farklı (düşük ve yüksek riskli) simülasyon senaryosu, demografik bilgi formu, sürüş senaryolarına ilişkin risk algısı sorusu ve Dürtüsel Sürücü Ölçeği’nden oluşan bataryayı tamamlamıştır. Müzik dinlemenin sürüş simülatöründeki sürücü davranışları için bir etkisi olmazken, işlevsiz dürtüselliğin, farklı risk seviyesine sahip iki trafik ortamında da sürücü davranışı ile anlamlı bir ilişkiye sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Yüksek işlevsiz dürtüselliğe sahip bireyler, yüksek ve düşük riskli senaryolarda daha hızlı araç kullanmış ve yüksek riskli senaryoda hızlarını daha fazla değiştirmiş, şeridin daha solunda araç kullanmış ve bulunduğu şeridi daha fazla değiştirmiştir. Bulgular, işlevsiz dürtüselliğin farklı trafik ortamlarında sürücü davranışlarını etkileyen faktörlerden biri olduğunu ve yol güvenliği açısından daha fazla araştırma yapılması gerekliliğini sunmaktadır. [Listening to music is one of the behaviors that most road users exhibit. Moreover, factors like impulsivity as variables affecting human factors and physical factors affecting traffic environment influence risky behaviors of driver. Within the scope of the present study, the effects of listening to music while driving, driver impulsivity and the risk level of traffic environment on risk perception and driver behaviors were investigated. Data were collected from 50 drivers (37 males, 13 females). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups before the study, one with experimental condition and one with control condition. Participants completed a battery consisting of two different (low and high risk) simulation scenarios, the demographic information form, the risk perception question, and the Impulsive Driver Scale. Unlike music, dysfunctional impulsivity had a significant relationship with driver behaviors in two traffic environments with different risk levels. Individuals with high dysfunctional impulsivity showed higher speed in high-risk and low-risk scenarios and showed higher speed variance, used the vehicle to the left of the lane, and showed more lane deviation in high-risk scenarios. Findings showed that dysfunctional impulsivity is one of the factors affecting driver behaviors in different traffic environments and needed to be investigated more with respect to road safety]
... Distractions like the use of mobile phone, listening to music can be fatal while driving a vehicle. 1,2 To avoid such accidents, the promptness with which the individual reacts to any danger while driving should be considered. This primarily depends on how efficiently the individual reacts to the stimulus by the motor response; which in turn is based on stimulus processing, decision making and response programming in the CNS. ...
... Radios, CDs, smartphones and other mobile devices, such as the iPod, provide very convenient ways of listening to music while driving (Bedinger, 2016). In a survey of 1,780 British adults (Dibben & Williamson, 2007), approximately 68% of them reported listening to music or radios when driving, nearly half of them reported singing along with the music, 62% of them reported that music makes them feel relaxed and more comfortable and 25% of them reported that music helps them to be vigilant behind the wheel. Long-term driving on a monotonous road often induces boredom, fatigue, drowsiness and inattention. ...
Article
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This study investigated how music tempo impacted drivers’ fatigue and quality of attention in a long-distance monotonous highway environment. Sixteen drivers were enrolled in four sessions of real-road driving tests under the following four music conditions: no music, slow tempo, medium tempo and fast tempo. Specifically, the drivers’ electroencephalogram parameters and eye movement parameters were recorded to measure their extent of fatigue and quality of attention, respectively. Of the three tempos, medium-tempo music is the best choice to reduce fatigue and maintain attention for a long-distance driving. Slow-tempo music can temporarily boost the quality of attention, but after a long period of driving, it significantly deteriorates the driver’s levels of fatigue and attention. Fast-tempo music helps relieve driver fatigue but significantly deteriorates drivers’ attention after an extended driving time. This study offered practical references for drivers regarding the use of music to avoid fatigue, maintain attention and improve their driving safety. Based on previous theories of music and driving, we have explored the underlying mechanism of how music tempo maintains the alertness of drivers.
... The positive effect of CG on vigilance tasks may also be due to either (1) CG restoring arousal after a vigilance task reduces arousal to a suboptimal level or (2) CG reducing arousal after a vigilance task heightens arousal to an excessive level [206]. Correspondingly, the improvement of music on simple vigilance tasks is in line with a study that used music to regulate people's mood and arousal level [226]. Literature has reported listening to preferred music reduces stress during driving and lowers emotional arousal under frustrating circumstances, such as heavy road congestion [126,143]. ...
Article
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This paper presents the first comprehensive review on vigilance enhancement using both conventional and unconventional means, and further discusses the resulting contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences observed between the research findings and argues that variations of the experimental protocol could be a significant contributing factor towards such contradictory results. Furthermore, the paper reveals the effectiveness of unconventional means of enhancement in significant reduction of vigilance decrement compared to conventional means. Meanwhile, a discussion on the challenges of enhancement techniques is presented, with several suggested recommendations and alternative strategies to maintain an adequate level of vigilance for the task at hand. Additionally, this review provides evidence in support of the use of unconventional means of enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their practical challenges.
... Since the first in-car radios were introduced back in the 1930s, 6 music listening has been the favorite activity for most people while driving their cars. According to [93], roughly 70% of car drivers do it habitually. Various psychological studies report relations between background music and concentration, comfort or driving performance, providing evidence that music behaves as a stimulator that can have both positive and negative effects on mood and driving [94,95]. ...
Preprint
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Sentiment polarity of tweets, blog posts or product reviews has become highly attractive and is utilized in recommender systems, market predictions, business intelligence and more. Deep learning techniques are becoming top performers on analyzing such texts. There are however several problems that need to be solved for efficient use of deep neural networks on text mining and text polarity analysis. First, deep neural networks need to be fed with data sets that are big in size as well as properly labeled. Second, there are various uncertainties regarding the use of word embedding vectors: should they be generated from the same data set that is used to train the model or it is better to source them from big and popular collections? Third, to simplify model creation it is convenient to have generic neural network architectures that are effective and can adapt to various texts, encapsulating much of design complexity. This thesis addresses the above problems to provide methodological and practical insights for utilizing neural networks on sentiment analysis of texts and achieving state of the art results. Regarding the first problem, the effectiveness of various crowdsourcing alternatives is explored and two medium-sized and emotion-labeled song data sets are created utilizing social tags. To address the second problem, a series of experiments with large text collections of various contents and domains were conducted, trying word embeddings of various parameters. Regarding the third problem, a series of experiments involving convolution and max-pooling neural layers were conducted. Combining convolutions of words, bigrams, and trigrams with regional max-pooling layers in a couple of stacks produced the best results. The derived architecture achieves competitive performance on sentiment polarity analysis of movie, business and product reviews.
... Since the first in-car radios were introduced back in the 1930s, 6 music listening has been the favorite activity for most people while driving their cars. According to [93], roughly 70% of car drivers do it habitually. Various psychological studies report relations between background music and concentration, comfort or driving performance, providing evidence that music behaves as a stimulator that can have both positive and negative effects on mood and driving [94,95]. ...
Thesis
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Nowadays, with the expansion of social media, large amounts of user-generated texts like tweets, blog posts or product reviews are shared online. Sentiment polarity analysis of such texts has become highly attractive and is utilized in recommender systems, market predictions, business intelligence and more. We also witness deep learning techniques becoming top performers on those types of tasks. There are however several problems that need to be solved for efficient use of deep neural networks on text mining and text polarity analysis. First of all, deep neural networks are data hungry. They need to be fed with datasets that are big in size, cleaned and preprocessed as well as properly labeled. Second, the modern natural language processing concept of word embeddings as a dense and distributed text feature representation solves sparsity and dimensionality problems of the traditional bag-of-words model. Still, there are various uncertainties regarding the use of word vectors: should they be generated from the same dataset that is used to train the model or it is better to source them from big and popular collections that work as generic text feature representations? Third, it is not easy for practitioners to find a simple and highly effective deep learning setup for various document lengths and types. Recurrent neural networks are weak with longer texts and optimal convolution-pooling combinations are not easily conceived. It is thus convenient to have generic neural network architectures that are effective and can adapt to various texts, encapsulating much of design complexity. This thesis addresses the above problems to provide methodological and practical insights for utilizing neural networks on sentiment analysis of texts and achieving state of the art results. Regarding the first problem, the effectiveness of various crowdsourcing alternatives is explored and two medium-sized and emotion-labeled song datasets are created utilizing social tags. One of the research interests of Telecom Italia was the exploration of relations between music emotional stimulation and driving style. Consequently, a context-aware music recommender system that aims to enhance driving comfort and safety was also designed. To address the second problem, a series of experiments with large text collections of various contents and domains were conducted. Word embeddings of different parameters were exercised and results revealed that their quality is influenced (mostly but not only) by the size of texts they were created from. When working with small text datasets, it is thus important to source word features from popular and generic word embedding collections. Regarding the third problem, a series of experiments involving convolutional and max-pooling neural layers were conducted. Various patterns relating text properties and network parameters with optimal classification accuracy were observed. Combining convolutions of words, bigrams, and trigrams with regional max-pooling layers in a couple of stacks produced the best results. The derived architecture achieves competitive performance on sentiment polarity analysis of movie, business and product reviews. Given that labeled data are becoming the bottleneck of the current deep learning systems, a future research direction could be the exploration of various data programming possibilities for constructing even bigger labeled datasets. Investigation of feature-level or decision-level ensemble techniques in the context of deep neural networks could also be fruitful. Different feature types do usually represent complementary characteristics of data. Combining word embedding and traditional text features or utilizing recurrent networks on document splits and then aggregating the predictions could further increase prediction accuracy of such models.
... First, listening to pleasant pieces of music (compared to dissonant, unpleasant versions of the same pieces) activates brain areas associated with the formation of premotor representations of vocal sound production (Koelsch et al., 2006). Second, listening to music can elicit a pleasant motivation to mimic some aspect of it, such as moving along to rhythmic music (Janata et al., 2012;Labbé & Grandjean, 2014;Witek et al., 2014); singing along (DeNora, 2000;Dibben & Williamson, 2007); and mimicking singers' facial expressions (Chan et al., 2013). And finally, people's movements while listening to music affect their preferences (Sedlmeier et al., 2011), and their perception of music-expressed emotions (Maes & Leman, 2013). ...
Article
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Emotional contagion has been explained as arising from embodied simulation. The two most accepted theories of music-induced emotions presume a mechanism of internal mimicry: the BRECVEMA framework proposes that the melodic aspect of music elicits internal mimicry leading to the induction of basic emotions in the listener, and the Multifactorial Process Model proposes that the observation or imagination of motor expressions of the musicians elicits muscular and neural mimicry, and emotional contagion. Two behavioral studies investigated whether, and to what extent, mimicry is responsible for emotion contagion, and second, to what extent context for affective responses in the form of visual imagery moderates emotional responses. Experiment 1 tested whether emotional contagion is influenced by mimicry by manipulating explicit vocal and motor mimicry. In one condition, participants engaged in mimicry of the melodic aspects of the music by singing along with the music, and in another, participants engaged in mimicry of the musician’s gestures when producing the music, by playing along (“air guitar”-style). The experiment did not find confirmatory evidence for either hypothesized simulation mechanism, but it did provide evidence of spontaneous visual imagery consistent with the induced and perceived emotions. Experiment 2 used imagined rather than performed mimicry, but found no association between imagined motor simulation and emotional intensity. Emotional descriptions read prior to hearing the music influenced the type of perceived and induced emotions and support the prediction that visual imagery and associated semantic knowledge shape listeners’ affective experiences with music. The lack of evidence for the causal role of embodied simulation suggests that current theorization of emotion contagion by music needs refinement to reduce the role of simulation relative to other mechanisms. Evidence for induction of affective states that can be modulated by contextual and semantic associations suggests a model of emotion induction consistent with constructionist accounts.
... These effects may be less dependent on the music listening experience itself, as we would expect control over our external world to decrease when traveling through different environments, regardless of music-related variables. Previous studies have looked into the motivations and outcomes of listening to music in situations where there is little or no control over our surroundings, such as traveling (Heye and Lamont, 2010;Skånland, 2013), driving (Dibben and Williamson, 2007), and working in an office environment (Haake, 2011). It has been found that listeners envelop themselves in their personal music, with high levels of attention to the music itself, but also increased awareness of their external environment (cf. ...
Article
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Sense of agency refers to the ability to influence one's functioning and environment, relating to self-efficacy, and wellbeing. In youth, agency may be challenged by external demands or redefinition of self-image. Music, having heightened relevance for the young, has been argued to provide feelings of self-agency for them. Yet, there is little empirical research on how music impacts adolescents' daily sense of agency. The current study investigated whether music listening influences adolescents' perceived agency in everyday life and which contextual determinants would explain such an influence. Participants were 44 adolescents (48% female, 36% with training in music, mean age 14), recruited through local schools. The mobile Experience Sampling app MuPsych was used to collect brief self-reports of personal music listening experiences during daily life. This method assessed the change in the listener's perceived control over both their emotional states (internal agency), and their external environment (external agency), over 5 min of music listening. Also measured were changes in mood states, and contextual variables (social situation, concurrent activity, and reason for listening). The impact of music on the sense of agency was analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. There was no general increase of agency across all music episodes, but agency fluctuations were determined by specific contextual factors. External agency change was predicted negatively by changing environments, while internal agency change was predicted by initial mood and various reasons for listening, including for enjoyment, coping, and enhancing current mood state. Our findings confirmed the plasticity and situational embeddedness of the sense of agency. Music indeed can support agency, but the impact is dependent on a range of situational factors. Sense of agency can be seen as a health resource and significant part of youth development, and current findings provide new insight into when and by which conditions such affordance is likely to be employed.
... Since the advent of the first car radios, listening to music has always been one of the favorite activities carried out by people while driving their cars: as reported in [4], about 70% of the drivers do so. Driven by their tastes, attitudes and moods and by the nature of the trips, people have always selected the most adequate songs from their libraries creating their own customized playlists. ...
Preprint
Driving and music listening are two inseparable everyday activities for millions of people today in the world. Considering the high correlation between music, mood and driving comfort and safety, it makes sense to use appropriate and intelligent music recommendations based on the mood of drivers and songs in the context of car driving. The objective of this paper is to present the project of a contextual mood-based music recommender system capable of regulating the driver's mood and trying to have a positive influence on her driving behaviour. Here we present the proof of concept of the system and describe the techniques and technologies that are part of it. Further possible future improvements on each of the building blocks are also presented.
... The finding for Mental Demand is somewhat unexpected and possibly hints at the degree to which the habitual behaviour of listening to music while driving could have impacted the present results (i.e. driving without music is perceived to be somewhat 'harder'; Dibben and Williamson 2007). 'Habitual behaviour' can be understood with reference to Fuller's (2011) notion of 'poorly calibrated drivers' (p. ...
Article
We examined the interactive effects of task load and music tempo on cognition, affect, cardiac response and safety-relevant behaviour during simulated driving. Using a counterbalanced, within-subjects design, participants (N = 46) were exposed to fast-, slow- and no-music conditions at high and low loads in a high-grade simulator. Task load had the most salient effect across a broad swath of variables. For core affect, the Load × Music Condition interaction showed that, under high load, affective arousal scores were higher in the fast-tempo condition vs. slow. A main effect of tempo emerged for the HRV index of SDNN, with fast-tempo music eliciting lower scores than both slow- and no-music conditions. Behavioural data showed a main effect of tempo for risk ratings with fast-tempo music eliciting the highest scores for a traffic-light trigger. Our findings indicate that drivers in high-load, urban environments should exercise caution in their use of fast-tempo music.
... The choices of devices and formats for music listening are expanding (Krause et al., 2015), offering more flexible styles and opportunities for doing so. We listen to music for many different purposes in our everyday life, including moderating mood and emotion (Thoma et al., 2012), boosting concentration (Shih et al., 2009;Huang and Shih, 2011), driving (Dibben and Williamson, 2007), and sleeping (Lai and Good, 2006;Harmat et al., 2008), to name a few. We also listen to music as a background for various daily tasks, such as running, exercising, housework, commuting, studying, and working (Lesiuk, 2005;Kämpfe et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Music is not only the art of organized sound but also a compound of social interaction among people, built upon social and environmental foundations. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, containment measures such as shelter-in-place, lockdown, social distancing, and self-quarantine have severely impacted the foundation of human society, resulting in a drastic change in our everyday experience. In this paper, the relationships between musical behavior, lifestyle, and psychological states during the shelter-in-place period of the COVID-19 pandemic are investigated. An online survey on musical experience, lifestyle changes, stress level, musical behaviors, media usage, and environmental sound perception was conducted. The survey was conducted in early June 2020. Responses from 620 people in 24 countries were collected, with the large proportion of the responses coming from the U.S. (55.5%) and India (21.4%). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis revealed causal relationships between lifestyle, stress, and music behaviors. Elements such as stress-level change, work risk, and staying home contribute to changes in musical experiences, such as moderating emotion with music, feeling emotional with music, and being more attentive to music. Stress-level change was correlated with work risk and income change, and people who started living with others due to the outbreak, especially with their children, indicated less change in stress level. People with more stress-level change tended to use music more purposefully for their mental well-being, such as to moderate emotions, to influence mood, and to relax. In addition, people with more stress-level change tend to be more annoyed by neighbors' noise. Housing type was not directly associated with annoyance; however, attention to environmental sounds decreased when the housing type was smaller. Attention to environmental and musical sounds and the emotional responses to them are highly inter-correlated. Multi-group SEM based on musicians showed that the causal relationship structure for professional musicians differs from that of less-experienced musicians. For professional musicians, staying at home was the only component that caused all musical behavior changes; stress did not cause musical behavior changes. Regarding Internet use, listening to music via YouTube and streaming was preferred over TV and radio, especially among less-experienced musicians, while participation in the online music community was preferred by more advanced musicians. This work suggests that social, environmental, and personal factors and limitations influence the changes in our musical behavior, perception of sonic experience, and emotional recognition, and that people actively accommodated the unusual pandemic situations using music and Internet technologies.
... would not be possible with traditional face-to-face personal interviews, without necessarily aiming to achieve a representative sample (see e.g. Elvik and Bjørnskau, 2005;Dibben and Williamson, 2007). ...
Article
Smart, digital platform mobility solutions such as internet-based ride-hailing are becoming common in Global South cities. Empirical research on their wider societal impacts is however, limited. This study explores a critical dimension of societal impact, which is passenger safety and security. The paper uses a large sample qualitative survey data (n = 548) on the perceptions and experiences of users and non-users of internet-based ride-hailing services in Ghana. Through an inductive analysis, seven factors are identified that reflect heterogeneous safety and security perceptions and experiences in ride-hailing. Some individuals perceived a high sense of security and safety from ride-hailing platforms' inbuilt features, including 'driver and vehicle identification' and real-time journey 'trackability and traceability'. Additionally, they derived a sense of safety and security from the 'privacy and lone travel' in ride-hailing, as well as ride-hailing use in 'emergency' situations when other emergency services are not readily available. Others, however, expressed 'distrust' in the platforms' inbuilt security features and believed that they enable exposure to 'malicious and criminal activities' that compromise their safety when using ride-hailing services. Moreover, safety risks were experienced through 'driver behaviours', such as reckless driving, distractions by smartphone usage while driving as well as fare pricing practices that are considered intransparent by passengers, leading to clashes between them and ride-hailing drivers. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of their fundamental conceptual and empirical value to research on smart mobility, transport safety and travel-related well-being, as well as practical relevance for transport policy and governance in the age of smart mobility transitions.
... This study aims to evaluate the effect of voice intervention on mental workload and driver performance. Voice intervention was chosen because most of the drivers listen to music or radio while driving [9]. Previous research has evaluated some types of voice intervention during driving, e.g., music [10], [11], [12], radio [4] and audiobooks [8]. ...
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Both mental overload and mental underload can affect driver performance and lead to traffic accidents. This study examined the effect of Quran recitation, one of the alternative voices often heard during driving, against the mental workload. The frontal lobe EEG, i.e., AF3 and AF4, was used as an indicator of the mental workload. Experiments were carried out in four scenarios, i.e., simple road with Quran recitation, simple road without Quran recitation, complex road with Quran recitation and complex road without Quran recitation. EEGLAB toolbox was used to process raw EEG and to perform statistical parametric test. Paired t-test statistics (p-value 0.05) were applied to compare the scenarios. The statistical test showed that there was statistically significant difference in the alpha and beta wave when the driver was given the Quran recitation both in simple and complex road. An increase in alpha wave was an indication of the increased in focus and relaxation, which can lead to improved driver performance. This finding can be used as an alternative of secondary task that is save for drivers. quality of dried Bilih fish can be determined on the basis of its water and protein content.
... Listening to music or the radio has been found to be the most common activity drivers engage in as they drive, with many drivers reporting listening to music habitually (Dibben and Williamson, 2007;North et al., 2004). The effect of radio and music listening on driving performance has been the subject of mixed findings, but in general little or no driving impairment has been found (Cassidy and MacDonald, 2010;u €nal et al., 2013). ...
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An inability to recall details from an otherwise uneventful drive on a familiar route is a common experience to many. Whether this amnesia for everyday driving is because we don't actually form strong memories when we are driving on autopilot or whether this is because we simply can't find those memories when we try to later is an interesting question, not only for driving, but for memory and skilled performance more generally. The present study sought to determine whether recall could be aided by reinstating an auditory cue that was present during the drive. Twenty-five participants drove three 9 km routes on familiar roads and then were asked a series of questions about the details of the drives. Three auditory cues (music, radio documentary, or periodic verbal markers) and a visual cue were used as contextual stimuli during the drives and as post-drive recall cues. The music and verbal markers produced better recall than the radio documentary. Although proceduralised driving on a familiar road may make incidental details of the drive difficult to recall, those details are recoverable with a sufficiently robust recall cue.
... Wickens (2008) Mendengarkan musik saat sedang berkendara dianggap sebagai hal yang biasa dilakukan oleh pengemudi serta tidak mengganggu dibandingkan berbicara dengan penumpang lain atau menggunakan telepon genggam (Dibben & Williamson, 2007 Sedangkan, menggunakan telepon genggam ketika sedang berkendara dapat mengganggu pengemudi karena ketika sedang menggunakan telepon genggam visual pengemudi mengalami distraksi (gangguan) sejenak untuk melihat kondisi jalan serta lingkungan di sekitar mobil. ...
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The increasing number of traffic accident is caused by the decreasing of driver situational awareness. Divided attention is one of several factors that affect situation awareness. This experiment was to study the effects of listening to the music or reading short message sent to participant’s mobile phone on participant’s situational awareness while they drove car simulator. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two groups, namely: (a) music group. The subjects were asked to listen to Ed Sheeran pop music when they drove city car simulator, and (b) mobile phone group. In this condition the subjects received and replied short message on their mobile phones at third, fifth, eighth, and tenth minutes during driving car simulator. Situational awareness was measured by SAGAT (Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique). The simulation was stopped when SAGAT questionnaire was distributed to the subjects at fifth and tenth minutes. The t test statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in situation awareness between the two groups (t= 5.750; p= .001). Music group showed higher situation awareness than mobile phone group. The use of mobile phone while driving is more distracting attention than listening to music.
... A recent scholarly thread has focused on the psychological and cognitive ramifications of driving while listening to music. In addition to articles by Brodsky (2002), Bull (2001), Dibben and Williamson (2007), Furnham and Allas (1999), Stutts et al. (2003), and Wiesenthal, Hennessy, and Totten (2000), Warren Brodsky's recent Driving with Music (2015) explores the cognitive aspects of music listening while driving a car in order to understand how music-related behaviour in a car can either enhance or imperil driver safety. Coming largely from the perspective of sound studies, Bijsterveld, Cleophas, Krebs, and Mom's Sound and Safe (2013) is perhaps the most comprehensive look at the connection of sound culture and driving. ...
... However, RT has been found to be a complicated behavior, affected by a large number of variables and varies widely among individuals. [18] The influence of music on driving performance has been given some attention recently [19] though its strong relationship with one's RT was already established many years ago. [20] The aim of this research was to understand the influence of music and age on the RT among drivers. ...
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Background: Music is a popular pastime and an essential part of our lives that has the power to change one's state of mind. The melody, lyrics, and rhythm combine together to create creative symphonies that can either fill one with energy, enthusiasm, and positivity, or take one to melancholic mood. Music is known for its positive influence and therapeutic qualities but at times it can be distracting as well especially when your other faculties are engaged in doing other work. Driving is one such activity where music, though a joy to listen to, can prove disastrous through distractions. Materials and Methods: This study with the help of Vienna Test System examines the psychological impact of different genre of music on a driver's driving abilities and possible reaction and response amidst exposure to multiple stimuli, which could be correct, omitted, or delayed. The sample included 16 individuals who were drivers. The sample was classified into two groups of equal numbers with one named “young” comprised of people up to the age of 30 years while the other named “old,” were more than 45 years old. The participants were asked to undertake driving test, “with” and “without” the music. Using the Vienna Tests System, acoustic and visual stimuli using soft classical, hard rock, and jazz music were used during the driving test. Results: A two-way mixed analysis of variance test and differences by t-test examined the relationship of age and impact of music on individual's reaction time (RT) and number of correct, omitted, or delayed responses, which was found significant. Conclusion: The participants under the group of “with music” clearly resulted in better performance showing lower RT, compared to the situation where no music was played.
... With advances in human-vehicle interaction technology, invehicle infotainment systems (IVIS) (e.g., navigation, radio, music, etc.) offer useful information that enhance the driving experience. However, these systems also increase distraction from primary driving tasks and can pose a danger to drivers and others on the road [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. According to the NHTSA, there are three categories of driver distractions [5]: 1) Visual distraction involves tasks that require the driver to look away from the road to visually obtain information; 2) Cognitive distraction involves tasks that require the driver to avert their mental attention away from the primary driving task; 3) Manual or physical distraction involves tasks that require the driver to take one or both hands off the steering wheel to manipulate a control, device, or other non-drivingrelated items. ...
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Natural user interfaces (NUI) have been used to reduce driver distraction while using in-vehicle infotainment systems (IVIS), and multimodal interfaces have been applied to compensate for the shortcomings of a single modality in NUIs. These multimodal NUIs have variable effects on different types of driver distraction and on different stages of drivers’ secondary tasks. However, current studies provide a limited understanding of NUIs. The design of multimodal NUIs is typically based on evaluation of the strengths of a single modality. Furthermore, studies of multimodal NUIs are not based on equivalent comparison conditions. To address this gap, we compared five single modalities commonly used for NUIs (touch, mid-air gesture, speech, gaze, and physical buttons located in a steering wheel) during a lane change task (LCT) to provide a more holistic view of driver distraction. Our findings suggest that the best approach is a combined cascaded multimodal interface that accounts for the characteristics of a single modality. We compared several combinations of cascaded multimodalities by considering the characteristics of each modality in the sequential phase of the command input process. Our results show that the combinations speech + button, speech + touch, and gaze + button represent the best cascaded multimodal interfaces to reduce driver distraction for IVIS.
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Driver’s drowsiness is one of the high-risk road behaviors that quadruples the risk of road accidents. Measures to deal with drowsiness during driving include listening to music. The present study investigates the effect of two types of music, namely Iranian high-tempo pop and classical music, on mental and physiological drowsiness during driving. Twelve male students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences within the normal range of the Epworth Drowsiness Scale (ESS) participated in this study. Two types of music (classical and pop) were assessed on two separate days with an interval of one week. The mental aspect of drowsiness was evaluated using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the physiological aspect by monitoring the EEG and heart rate, and the functional aspect through the mean and standard deviation of speed and the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) in a driving simulator. The results showed that the brain waves (four algorithms (1) (θ+α)/β, (2) α/β, (3) (θ+α)/(α+β) and (4) θ/β), the KSS score, SDLP and standard deviation of speed all decrease while the mean heart rate increases when listening to music during driving compared to driving without music. No significant difference was observed in the mean speed when exposed to music. Moreover, no difference was observed between the effect of the two music styles, i.e. Iranian classical and pop music. Listening to Iranian classical and pop music while driving improves the driver’s performance and reduces drowsiness. The present study showed that higher tempo music during driving can reduce drowsiness and change physiological responses and driving performance.
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The overall aim of the ESRA project is to provide scientific support to road safety policy by generating comparable national data on the current road safety situation. The first ESRA survey was conducted online using representative samples (N = 1000) of the national adult populations in 25 countries across the world. The field work was carried out in two waves: (1) June/July 2015, and (2) November 2016. In total, the first ESRA1 survey covers almost 27,000 respondents, among which roughly 21,000 were identified as vulnerable road users. Vulnerable road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, or motorcyclists suffer the most severe consequences in road crashes with other road users, because they cannot protect themselves against the speed and mass of the other party. Given their high vulnerability, these types of road users are of special interest to policy makers. The objective of this paper is to present the ESRA1 results regarding the safety attitudes of vulnerable road users. Special attention was given to ‘road crash involvement’, ‘safety feeling’, and ‘self-reported unsafe traffic behavior’ (i.e., the use of headphone and (motor)cycle helmet). Results show that vulnerable road users were more involved in road crashes compared to car drivers and that they feel less safe. Pedestrians feel safer in traffic compared to other types of vulnerable road users. Logistic regression models show that the use of headphones while walking and cycling is associated with gender, age, and support of policy measures. The use of a (motor)cycle helmet is associated with age and support of policy measures. The ESRA project has shown the feasibility and the added value of joint data collection by a network of road safety organizations. The intention is to extend the ESRA survey to an increasing number of countries and to repeat it on a triennial basis.
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Distracted driving, specifically cell phone use while driving, is found to be responsible for traffic accidents and road casualties throughout the world, annually. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of drivers' engagement in hazardous secondary activities on Mashhad urban roads with cell phone use being its main objective. A cross-sectional study after collecting the data from Mashhad Traffic and Transportation Orgazination was conducted at 17 randomly selected sites in 3 months which were comprised of 42 arterial and collector roads. Data were analyzed by Pearson's chi-squared test. In total from 81,960 observed drivers, 5,674 (6.9%) were engaged at least in one secondary task (86.2% men). The prevalence of cell phone use was 5.27% and the most observed related task was handheld conversation (3.15%) followed by texting (1.83%) and hands-free use (0.28%). In addition, 1.75% of drivers were engaged in eating, drinking and smoking. Significant differences were found in driver's gender and age. Distracted female drivers and drivers aged 26-35 were significantly more likely to be observed engaging in cell phone use while drivers under 26 were the dominant group in texting. Having known about the severity of the case, more robust interventions should be integrated into jurisdictions and authorities, including education regarding the risks associated with engaging in secondary activities while driving, law enforcement, tougher legislation, regular assessment and raising public awareness.
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This review builds on prior reviews by synthesizing thirty studies that examined the effects of background music (BM) on learning from 2008 to 2018. Each study was coded based on key methodological features, BM’s characteristics, and reported BM effects on learning (i.e., negative, neutral or positive). Frequencies and percentages were used to describe BM effects on learning across studies, methods used, and BM’s characteristics manipulated in the selected studies. Results showed (a) inconclusive findings as noted in prior reviews, (b) the need for more rigorous research methods, (c) that not all BM interventions are the same, and (d) a dearth of studies exploring BM impacts in multimedia learning environments. Implications are discussed for primary researchers, synthesis researchers, faculty and instructional designers.
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Stress is inevitably experienced by almost every person at some stage of their life. A reliable and accurate measurement of stress can give an estimate of an individual's stress burden. It is necessary to take essential steps to relieve the burden and regain control for better health. Listening to music is a way that can help in breaking the hold of stress. This study examines the effect of music tracks in English and Urdu language on human stress level using brain signals. Twenty-seven subjects including 14 males and 13 females having Urdu as their first language, with ages ranging from 20 to 35 years, voluntarily participated in the study. The electroencephalograph (EEG) signals of the participants are recorded, while listening to different music tracks by using a four-channel MUSE headband. Participants are asked to subjectively report their stress level using the state and trait anxiety questionnaire. The English music tracks used in this study are categorized into four genres i.e., rock, metal, electronic, and rap. The Urdu music tracks consist of five genres i.e., famous, patriotic, melodious, qawali, and ghazal. Five groups of features including absolute power, relative power, coherence, phase lag, and amplitude asymmetry are extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals of four channels and five bands, which are used by the classifier for stress classification. Four classifier algorithms namely sequential minimal optimization, stochastic decent gradient, logistic regression (LR), and multilayer perceptron are used to classify the subject's stress level into two and three classes. It is observed that LR performs well in identifying stress with the highest reported accuracy of 98.76% and 95.06% for two- and three-level classification respectively. For understanding gender, language, and genre related discriminations in stress, a t-test and one-way analysis of variance is used. It is evident from results that English music tracks have more influence on stress level reduction as compared to Urdu music tracks. Among the genres of both languages, a noticeable difference is not found. Moreover, significant difference is found in the scores reported by females as compared to males. This indicates that the stress behavior of females is more sensitive to music as compared to males.
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Language is seen as a gatekeeper to science learning for many students. This randomized experimental study explores how learning science through complex language reduces working memory capacity. A sample of 64 students aged 14–17 years was randomly assigned to two conditions. The control group watched an instructional video about the water cycle taught using complex scientific language. The experimental group watched the same video with simple scientific language replacing the more complex alternatives. After instruction, students were asked to complete a Stroop test and a Flanker test measuring cognitive capacity. There were no significant differences across the treatment groups in students’ ability to answer questions correctly. However, the results revealed statistically significant differences in the rate of students’ responses to complicated items. When students needed to answer questions with increased cognitive difficulty, the experimental group (everyday language condition) answered significantly faster than the control group. These results suggest that complex scientific language is a potential inhibitor of cognitive capacity for students.
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Background: The Stroop Colour and Word Test (SCWT) is the most extensively used neuropsychological test in humans to evaluate the ability to inhibit cognitive interference. Any music played while the listener's primary attention is focused on another activity is known as background music and its effects on SCWT have not been studied well. Objective: The current study was designed to evaluate the influence of different background music (classical and heavy metal) on inhibiting cognitive interference in young adults by using the Stroop Colour and Word Test. Methods: Eighty student volunteers were invited for the study after obtaining their informed consent. They were first tested for colour blindness using Ishihara's colour test, and once passed, they were recruited to perform a computerised Stroop colour-word interference test. Each participant was requested to take part in four reading exercises: monochrome words, rectangle colours, coloured words and colour naming, respectively. These exercises were performed under three different conditions such as silence (absence of background music), presence of heavy metal and classical music, respectively. The participants' reaction time, errors made and heart rate were recorded and compared. Results: The participants' reaction time was found to be significantly decreased with classical and heavy metal background music compared with the silence condition. The heart rate and errors made by the participants did not significantly change during any of the study conditions. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate the positive impact of background music on a cognitive interference task. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying neural mechanisms.
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Music may modify the impression of a visual environment. Most studies have explored the effect of music on the perception of various service settings, but the effect of music on the perception of outdoor environments has not yet been adequately explored. Music may make an environment more pleasant and enhance the relaxation effect of outdoor recreational activities. This study investigated the effect of music on the evaluation of urban built and urban natural environments. The participants ( N = 94) were asked to evaluate five environments in terms of spatio-cognitive and emotional dimensions while listening to music. Two types of music were selected: music with a fast tempo and music with a slow tempo. In contrast with a previous study by Yamasaki, Yamada & Laukka (2015), our experiment revealed that there was only a slight and not significant influence of music on the evaluation of the environment. The effect of music was mediated by the liking of music, but only in the dimensions of Pleasant and Mystery . The environmental features of the evaluated locations had a stronger effect than music on the evaluation of the environments. Environments with natural elements were perceived as more pleasant, interesting, coherent, and mysterious than urban built environments regardless of the music. It is suggested that the intensity of music may be an important factor in addition to the research methodology, individual variables, and cultural differences.
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The road safety issues had cover many issues such as speeding, mobile phone, motorcyclist and other issues that may related with safety on road. The road users had differently behaviour while driving their vehicles on the road and may have distractions that can cause an accident, such as using hand phone, hearing the music, eat, drink and etc. This paper describes one approach to explore the driver behaviour based on listening music and Al Quran recitation. In traffic engineering, the approach of evaluating driver behaviour is based on traffic parameters that are normally considered and measured such as by vehicle type, speed, gap and others. The method use in this paper is using vehicle with V-Box and Race Logic technique for data collection. The data analysis are focused on speed trend and patterns indicate the music and Al Quran recitation that effects on driver behaviour. Five types of the categorization during driver drive the vehicles (e.g. car) were presented and discussed. The finding shows that this study enables the relationship between music and Al Quran recitation due to speed parameter and it show how significance that driver behaviour reaction (e.g. aggressiveness) on them especially due to road safety purposes.
Thesis
The practice driving this research is called RoadMusic. The project uses a small computer based system installed in a car that composes music from the flux of information it captures about the journey as it unfolds. It uses a technique known as sonification that consists of mapping data to sound. In the case of RoadMusic, this data capture is real- time, external to the computer and mobilised with the user. This dissertation investigates ways in which such a sonification can become an artistic form.To interrogate the specificity of an art of real-time it considers philosophical theories of the fundamental nature of time and immediacy and the ways in which the human mind ‘makes sense’ of this flux. After extending this scrutiny via theories of system and environment, it proceeds to extract concepts and principles leading to a possible art of real-time flux. Time, immediacy and the everyday are recurring questions in art and music, this study reviews practices that address these questions, essentially through three landmark composers of the twentieth century: Iannis Xenakis, John Cage and Murray Schafer. To gain precision in regards to the nature of musical listening it then probes theories of audio cognition and reflects on ways in which these can apply to real-time composing. The art of sonifying data extracted from the environment is arguably only as recent as the computer programs it depends on. This study reviews different practices that contribute towards a corpus of sonification-art, paying special attention to those practices where this process takes place in real-time. This is extended by an interrogation of the effect that mobility has on our listening experience.RoadMusic is now a fully functional device generating multi-timbral music from immediate data about its surroundings. This dissertation argues that this process can be an alternative to mainstream media systems; it describes how RoadMusic’s programs function and the ways in which they have evolved to incorporate the ideas developed in this thesis. It shows how RoadMusic is now developing beyond my own personal practice and how it intends to reach a wider audience.
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Approximately one quarter of vehicle crashes in the United States are estimated to result from the driver being inattentive, or distracted. As more wireless communication, entertainment and driver assistance systems proliferate the vehicle market, the incidence of distraction-related crashes is expected to escalate. In North America, Europe and Japan, driver distraction is a priority issue in road safety. However, the significance of driver distraction as road safety issue has only recently been recognised in Australia. This paper provides a review of current research on in-vehicle driver distraction, focusing on mobile phone use in particular, given that this device has received the greatest attention in the driver distraction literature. The review discusses the effect of in-vehicle devices on driving performance. Issues addressed include: the adaptive strategies drivers adopt in order to maintain their driving performance while distracted at an adequate level; under what conditions these adaptive strategies can fail; and how driving performance is affected when they do. Also examined is whether, and to what degree, these degradations in driving performance translate into an increased crash risk. In the final section of the paper, recommendations for future research are provided.
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Several studies indicate that mood can influence the likelihood of an individual demonstrating instances of helping behavior, and one previous laboratory study has indicated that music can be used to bring about manipulations of mood to such an end. To investigate this in a naturalistic setting, 646 users of a university gym were played either uplifting or annoying music while theyworked out. Upon completion of theirworkout, they were asked to either sign a petition in support of a fictitious sporting charity (i.e., a low-cost task) or to distribute leaflets on their behalf (i.e., a high-cost task). Responses to the petition-signing measure indicated a ceiling effect with almost all participants offering to help. However, consistent with previous research on mood and helping behavior, uplifting music led to participants offering to help more on the high-cost, leaflet-distributing task than did annoying music.
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Automobile drivers were randomly assigned to either a “music” or “non-music” group. The music group listened to their favorite music, while the non-music group abstained from any music or talk radio, during their entire commute to or from school⧹work. Using a cellular telephone, state measures of driver aggression, time urgency, and stress arousal were obtained during a single commute in low and high congestion conditions. No predictors of mild aggression were found in low congestion. In high congestion, a music X time urgency interaction was found. Mild aggression was lower among those listening to music but only at low levels of time urgency. Results are interpreted in terms of the distractibility and relaxation effects.
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The aim of this exploratory study was to (a) test the viability of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as a means of identifying unfolding episodes of everyday musical experience, (b) examine the consistency of situations where music listening occurs by comparing the findings of previous studies involving retrospective data, and (c) investigate the extent to which degree of personal choice over the music and psychological outcomes, such as mood change, are associated with participants' descriptions of the functions of music in particular contexts. Eight non-musicians (aged 16–40 yrs) were asked to carry an electronic pager with them for a 1-week period. A remote computer activated the pagers once at random in every 2-hour period between 0800 and 2200 hrs. On each paging, participants were asked to stop what they were doing as soon as practicable and complete a diary of self-report forms with open-ended and scaled items, allowing "on the spot" thoughts and feelings in real life everyday situations to be recorded as sequential episodes. At the end of the week, each respondent was individually interviewed. Results indicated that the ESM is a robust method for exploring daily musical experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In order to examine the efficacy of music in dealing with daily stressors, automobile drivers were randomly assigned to either a music or nonmusic group. The music group listened to their favorite music, while the nonmusic group abstained from any music or talk radio during their entire commute to or from school or work. Using a cellular telephone. state measures of driver stress were obtained during a single commute in Iow- and high-congestion conditions. A Condition × Music Group interaction was found. Driver stress was greater in high congestion than in low congestion, but the nonmusic group demonstrated extreme levels of stress within high congestion. Listening to self-selected music appeared to limit driver stress only within highly frustrating and irritating traffic congestion.
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A mental arithmetic task was applied on 123 medical students (43 males and 80 females) under quiet (42 dB/A/Leq) and noisy laboratory conditions (recorded traffic noise, 88 dB/A/Leq). Personality trait of intro-extroversion was estimated with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Two groups of subjects were formed concerning intro-extroversion, using a testing mean score as a dividing criterion: 46 introverts (<mean score) and 77 extroverts (>mean score). Concentration problems, fatigue and noise annoyance during the experiments were measured with numeric ten-point self-rating scales. There was no significant effect of noise on the accuracy of mental processing, compared to the quiet condition. Extroverted subjects performed significantly faster in noise, compared to the quiet condition (p<0·05). Concentration problems and fatigue were more pronounced in noise, compared to quiet conditions, but that was only among introverted subjects (p<0·05). Correlation analysis revealed a highly significant negative relation of extroversion and noise annoyance during mental processing (p<0·01).
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Whether radio monitoring, task difficulty, and time of day affect driving performance was examined in a computer-controlled, simulated driving task. Driving performance was defined as the absolute deviation of the car position from road midline as displayed on the computer monitor. We found for 12 men and 8 women (i) an expected, marked deterioration of performance with increasing task difficulty, (ii) a deterioration of performance in the morning, and (iii) a deterioration of performance when subjects concurrently listened to radio programs except for the easy task conducted in the morning. The latter is supposed to be caused by a reactive increase of effort, which is induced by the concurrent radio monitoring and stimulated through a perceived impairment of attention.
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The effects of music amplitude on participants' response time to randomly presented, unexpected, visual events were investigated. Ninety participants completed a motor-reaction task without music and with music played at 60, 70, or 80 dBA. Males preferred more intense music than females did, with males selecting a comfort level of 72 dBA and females, 66 dBA. However, participants' reaction time and the total time to respond to a randomly activated red light were independent of gender. All participants responded more quickly when the music was played at 70 dBA (close to their comfort level) than when it played at lower (60 dBA) or higher (80 dBA) amplitudes. It is proposed that people may react more quickly to visual events (e.g., the sudden appearance of a plane on the screen of an air traffic controller, or the unpredictable activation of a car's rear brake lights when driving) with music playing at a volume preset to maintain individual comfort levels against other situational background noise.
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Sztnmary.-For 64 undergraduates varied musical selections did not offset scores on Sequential Tests of Educational Progress but scores on the easier sections were higher than those on more difficult ones. Scores made with familiar music were higher than those with unfamiliar music. Etaugh and Michals ( 1975) and Wolf and Weiner (1972) have suggested that performance of cognitive tasks is influenced by familiarity wich background stimulation. Etaugh and Michals reported that the more frequently undergraduates reportedly studied in the presence of music, the less background music impaired their performance on a reading comprehension test. Wolf and Weiner found that undergraduates correctly answered more arithmetic problems in the presence of background music than when background stimulation was industrial noise. However, in neither study was familiarity with specific background stimulation systematically manipulated: in the former, all subjects experiencing background music listened to presumably familiar music, while in the latter, several parameters may have differentiated the music and the noise. The purpose of the present study was to assess further the effect of variation in familiarity of background music on reading comprehension scores using an experimental manipulation of familiari~y. Of interest, too, was the possible interaction of familiarity wich the difficulty of the test. Sixty-four undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to eight groups in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design. The independent variables were the difficulty of the test, familiarity with the music, and the music selection; the latter was included to control for possible idiosyncratic effects of the particular choice of music. There were equal numbers of male and female subjects in each condition; however, since this factor did not have significant main or interactive effects, it will not be considered further. Each subject was told that this was a study of the effect of music on performance. Subjects were instructed to listen to music for 15 min. and that further instructions would be given at the end of that period. They then listened through headphones ro one of two rape recorded 3-min. selections (from "Thee Scenes from 'Petrouchka': Russian Dance" by Stravinsky or "Divertimento No. 3 in E-flat Major, K 117, Minuetto" by Mozart) played repeatedly at 80 -+ 5 dB for 15 min. At the end of chis period, subjects were
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Earlier research has not found consistent differences between the way novices and experienced drivers allocate time between road and in-car tasks when average time spent on the latter is being considered. This study addresses the question of whether novices occasionally fail in supervisory control more often than experienced drivers. The influence of driving experience and road type on the allocation of visual attention was investigated by analysing the distribution of glance duration at in-car tasks for 23 experienced (life-time driving experience 50 000 – 2 000 000 km) and 24 inexperienced (life-time driving experience 400 – 15 000 km) drivers. The duration and number of glances were recorded while the participants changed a radio cassette, dialled a mobile phone or tuned the radio, while driving on a highway or motorway. The experienced drivers allocated their visual attention more adequately, here interpreted as attributed to their greater driving experience. The glance duration of the novices showed a larger variance, due to a greater percentage of short, possibly ineffective, and long, risky glances. None of the experienced drivers took glances longer than 3 s at the in-car task, but 29% of the novices did. The novices' long glances were also associated with large lateral displacement of the car. Drivers took longer glances on a motorway than on a highway, which supports the notion that drivers accommodate their glances to the time margins dictated by different traffic situations.
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The growing elderly population increases the number of older drivers. Driving requires detection of information against an acoustic background. Modern vehicles are designed to reduce external noises (including warning signals) and provide audio entertainment options that capture auditory attention. The present study investigated the effects of age on the detection of external vehicular warning sounds (car horn or police siren) in the presence of road noise and road noise combined with music. Older listeners required higher warning sound intensities in background noise relative to younger listeners. For both age groups, intensity for detecting acoustically similar stimuli (siren and music) was higher than for dissimilar (car horn and music). Music in vehicles potentially increases accident risk for older drivers and suggests the need for technology that will augment rather than attenuate external warning sounds.
Article
This study measured the effect of music listening on state positive affect, work quality and time-on-task of computer information systems developers. Effects of music on work performance, in this case, software design, may be explained by increases in state positive affect. Data from 56 (male = 41, female = 15) developers were obtained from four different Canadian software companies. Data were collected in the participants' actual work environments over five weeks. Results indicated that state positive affect and quality-of-work were lowest with no music, while time-on-task was longest when music was removed. Narrative responses revealed the value of music listening for positive mood change and enhanced perception on design while working. Evidence is provided of the presence of a learning curve in the use of music for positive mood alteration. Overall, the study contributes to the development of a model that aspires to elucidate music and workplace interactions; as well, it has implications for organizational practice. Copyright
Article
This study examined the effects of complexity in background music on the performance of four cognitive tasks by extroverts and introverts. In the presence of either ‘complex’ or ‘simple’ musical distraction or in silence, 24 introverts and 24 extroverts carried out a reading comprehension test, an observation test, and a memory test (in which recall was measured both immediately and after a six-minute delay). An interaction was predicted such that increasing-complexity musical distraction would result in the increase of extroverts', and the decrease of introverts', cognitive-task performance. A significant interaction was obtained for three of the four tests: the observation test and both memory tests. These findings are discussed with regard to Eysenck's theory of personality. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The effect of music on driving-related tracking and vigilance tasks was examined. Participants carried out the tasks either singularly (low demand) or together (high demand) under conditions of silence, low-intensity music of high intensity music. The results indicated that while the relatively simple tracking task was not affected by the music, response time to centrally located visual signals was improved under both music conditions and under both low- and high-demand situations. High-intensity music was associated with an increase in response time to peripheral signals under high-demand conditions. The results are discussed in relation to increased selectivity of attention with music-induced arousal.
Article
Relationships between attention and speed control are analysed. The demands of speed control are derived from subjective appreciation of the traffic environment and from the need to adapt to legal restrictions. Drivers check the speedometer more or less frequently and also use their subjective speed perception while looking ahead. It is hypothesised that, in absence of specific speed restrictions, drivers choose an optimum preferred speed so that the attentional effort dedicated to speed control is minimised but with explicit speed restrictions additional resources are required to keep speed under control including more glances to the speedometer. If a secondary task needs attention the speed control is affected and the speed tends to return to the optimal preferred level. Twelve participants drove about 200 km in a Spanish highway under eight conditions: two speedometer states (visible/concealed) × two speed instructions (free/restricted between 90 and 100 km/h) × two workload states (normal driving/performing a mental task). The results demonstrated: (a) that under free speed the drivers choice was 11 km/h faster than in the restricted-speed condition, indicating that the speed instructions were effective and operated as a speed limit. (b) When a mental task was performed the speed increased independently of the speedometer availability under restricted speed but not in the free speed condition, what clearly supports the stated hypothesis. The role of the speedometer in speed control, its relations with endogenous distraction and its implications for driving are analysed.
Article
The automobile is currently the most popular and frequently reported location for listening to music. Yet, not much is known about the effects of music on driving performance, and only a handful of studies report that music-evoked arousal generated by loudness decreases automotive performance. Nevertheless, music tempo increases driving risks by competing for attentional space; the greater number of temporal events which must be processed, and the frequency of temporal changes which require larger memory storage, distract operations and optimal driving capacities. The current study explored the effects of music tempo on PC-controlled simulated driving. It was hypothesized that simulated driving while listening to fast-paced music would increase heart rate (HR), decrease simulated lap time, and increase virtual traffic violations. The study found that music tempo consistently affected both simulated driving speed and perceived speed estimates: as the tempo of background music increased, so too did simulated driving speed and speed estimate. Further, the tempo of background music consistently affected the frequency of virtual traffic violations: disregarded red traffic-lights (RLs), lane crossings (LNs), and collisions (ACs) were most frequent with fast-paced music. The number of music-related automobile accidents and fatalities is not a known statistic. Police investigators, drivers, and traffic researchers themselves are not mindful of the risks associated with listening to music while driving. Implications of the study point to a need for drivers' education courses to raise public awareness about the effects of music during driving.
Article
Aggressive driving is defined in terms of the frustration–aggression model. In that context aggressive driving is a syndrome of frustration-driven behaviors, enabled by the driver's environment. These behaviors can either take the form of instrumental aggression—that allows the frustrated driver to move ahead at the cost of infringing on other road users’ rights (e.g., by weaving and running red lights)—or hostile aggression which is directed at the object of frustration (e.g., cursing other drivers). While these behaviors may be reflective of individual differences in aggression, it is argued that the exclusive focus on the characteristics of the aggressive drivers and how to control them is short-sighted. Instead, this paper proposes a multi-factor approach to the problem. Five studies conducted so far tend to support this approach, by showing that specific aggressive behaviors—such as honking and running red lights—are associated with cultural norms, actual and perceived delays in travel, and congestion. Ergonomics-oriented approaches that involve environmental modifications are proposed.
Article
In Exper. I, 10 normal-hearing college students performed visual acuity, visual search, and pursuit tracking tasks during music presented at 70 or 107 dbA. Only visual acuity was significantly worse during the higher sound level, which suggest that the effect existed at the relatively low level of sensory processing rather than at the level(s) of cognition and decision-making. In Exper. II, 28 similar Ss performed the visual acuity task during either music or noise presented at 70 or 107 dbA. Acuity was impaired by loud music but not by loud noise. It was suggested that the momentary peak levels in music may play a role in disrupting vestibulo-ocular control, and that some workplace noises may partake of this acoustic characteristic.
Article
The efficacy of putative "in-car" countermeasures to driver sleepiness is unknown. Sixteen young adult drivers within the normal range for the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), had their sleep restricted to 5 hours the night before, and drove an interactive car simulator in the afternoon for 2.5 hours, under monotonous conditions. After 30 minutes of driving they were exposed to: (1) cold air to the face (AIR) from the vehicle's air conditioning vents, (2) listening to the vehicle's radio/tape (RADIO) according to subjects' choice, or (3) NIL treatment. The active treatments typified those experienced under real driving conditions. Drifting over lane markings were "incidents." EEGs were recorded and spectrally analyzed in the alpha and theta range. Subjects responded to the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) every 200 seconds. Overall, RADIO and AIR had no significant effects on incidents, although there was a trend for RADIO to reduce incidents, particularly during the first 30 minutes, when AIR also had some effect. KSS scores were significantly lower for RADIO for most of the drive, whereas AIR had only transient and non-significant effects. The EEG showed no significant effects of the active treatments. Compared with other countermeasures such as caffeine and a brief nap, which we have previously shown to be more effective (using the same equipment and protocols), AIR and RADIO are at best only temporary expedients to reduce driver sleepiness, perhaps enabling drivers to find a suitable place to stop, take a break and avail themselves of caffeine and a nap.
Article
The paper describes the coding and analysis of a database of police fatal accident reports to investigate the extent to which in-vehicle distraction is a contributory factor in vehicle crashes. A particular focus has been the involvement of mobile telephones and entertainment systems. Analysis of accidents occurring over the period 1985-1995 shows that in-vehicle distraction is reported as a contributory factor in about 2% of fatal accidents (although this figure may be a conservative estimate). Specific examples of distraction attributed to entertainment systems and telephones have been identified. Electronic driver information systems are also of particular interest, but have not featured in the available data. Work is progressing, on an annual cycle, to obtain, code and analyse further data and this is expected to provide an invaluable source of information for accident researchers.
Article
Knowledge of how different indicators of drowsiness affect crash risk might be useful to drivers. This study sought to estimate how drowsiness related factors, and factors that might counteract drowsiness, are related to the risk of a crash. Drivers on major highways in a rural Washington county were studied using a matched case-control design. Control (n=199) drivers were matched to drivers in crashes (n=200) on driving location, travel direction, hour, and day of the week. Crash risk was greater among drivers who felt they were falling asleep (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 14.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 147) and those who drove longer distances (aRR 2.2 for each additional 100 miles, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.3). Risk was also greater among drivers who had slept nine or fewer hours in the previous 48 hours, compared with those who had slept 12 hours. Crash risk was less for drivers who used a highway rest stop (aRR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.0), drank coffee within the last two hours (aRR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9), or played a radio while driving (aRR 0.6, 95% CI .4 to 1.0). Drivers may be able to decrease their risk of crashing if they: (1) stop driving if they feel they are falling asleep; (2) use highway rest stops; (3) drink coffee; (4) turn on a radio; (5) get at least nine hours sleep in the 48 hours before a trip; and (6) avoid driving long distances by sharing the driving or interrupting the trip.
Article
Dual-task studies assessed the effects of cellular-phone conversations on performance of a simulated driving task. Performance was not disrupted by listening to radio broadcasts or listening to a book on tape. Nor was it disrupted by a continuous shadowing task using a handheld phone, ruling out, in this case, dual-task interpretations associated with holding the phone, listening, or speaking, However significant interference was observed in a word-generation variant of the shadowing task, and this deficit increased with the difficulty of driving. Moreover unconstrained conversations using either a handheld or a hands-free cell phone resulted in a twofold increase in the failure to detect simulated traffic signals and slower reactions to those signals that were detected. We suggest that cellular-phone use disrupts performance by diverting attention to an engaging cognitive context other than the one immediately associated with driving.
Article
This paper presents the findings of a simulator study that examined the effects of distraction upon driving performance for drivers in three age groups. There were two in-vehicle distracter tasks: operating the vehicle entertainment system and conducting a simulated hands-free mobile phone conversation. The effect of visual clutter was examined by requiring participants to drive in simple and complex road environments. Overall measures of driving performance were collected, together with responses to roadway hazards and subjective measures of driver perceived workload. The two in-vehicle distraction tasks degraded overall driving performance, degraded responses to hazards and increased subjective workload. The performance decrements that occurred as a result of in-vehicle distraction were observed in both the simple and complex highway environments and for drivers in different age groups. One key difference was that older drivers traveled at lower mean speeds in the complex highway environment compared with younger drivers. The conclusions of the research are that both in-vehicle tasks impaired several aspects of driving performance, with the entertainment system distracter having the greatest negative impact on performance, and that these findings were relatively stable across different driver age groups and different environmental complexities.
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