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The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage

Authors:
  • Instituto de Estudos de Política Econômica - Casa das Garças

Abstract

This volume offers an exploration of major changes in the way knowledge is produced in science, technology, social science, & humanities, arguing that a new mode of knowledge production promises to replace or radically reform established institutions, disciplines, practices, & policies. A range of features - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - associated with the new mode of knowledge production are identified to illustrate the connections between them & the changing role of knowledge in social relations. Methodological difficulties inherent in attempts to describe a new mode of knowledge production are discussed, & implications of this mode for science policy & international economic competitiveness, collaboration, & globalization are treated. The book is particularly relevant for those concerned with educational systems, the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, & the connections between research & development, & social, economic, & technological development. The book is presented in 7 Chpts with a Preface & an Introduction. (1) Evolution of Knowledge Production. (2) The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge. (3) Massification of Research and Education. (4) The Case of the Humanities. (5) Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation. (6) Reconfiguring Institutions. (7) Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge. References accompany each Chpt. 2 Tables. W. Howard (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
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... In relation to the literature, we can identify that the transfer model is based on modes I and II as described by Gibbons [56]. According to this author, they are inserted in a type of scientific-technological structure of an instrumental nature. ...
... That is, science is generated deliberately for practical purposes in a formal framework of collaboration of institutional agents: university, companies, and state [16]. Mode I and II of knowledge production assumes the existence of different mechanisms to generate and disseminate knowledge, which is conceived from actors from different disciplines [56]. In mode I, problems are posed and solved mainly by paying attention to the academic interests of a specific community; while in mode II, knowledge is produced in the context of application, that is, seeking to be implemented either in society, the state, or companies [51]. ...
... All of this is channeled in the case of universities through the so-called third mission [55]. Figure 1 shows the main aspects of modes I and II of knowledge production as outlined by Gibbons [56]. As universities promote the generation of new knowledge and its transfer to society, they encourage the generation of new social innovations. ...
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... D'abord, les champs de la connaissance se sont multipliés, ce qui permet une caractérisation de la réalité plus fine en vue de produire une expertise pour une décision politique. La science économique, écologique et sociale, et les institutions qui les représentent travaillent en étroite collaboration avec l'appareil technoadministratif afin de répondre à des problèmes concrets (Gibbons et al., 1994). ...
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... Table 1. Changes in the approaches to science and knowledge in the 1990s and beyond (adapted from Gibbon et al., 1994: in Hynes, 1998, 2015. ...
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