Article

Lavender Essential Oil in the Treatment of Migraine Headache: A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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Abstract

Lavender essential oil has been used as an anxiolytic drug, a mood stabilizer, a sedative, spasmolytic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, analgesic agent as well as a wound healing accelerator. We have studied for the first time the efficacy of lavender essential oil inhalation for the treatment of migraine in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Forty-seven patients with definite diagnosis of migraine headache were divided into cases and controls. Cases inhaled lavender essential oil for 15 min, whereas the control group used liquid paraffin for the same time period. Patients were asked to record their headache severity and associated symptoms in 30-min intervals for a total of 2 h. We matched the two groups for key confounding factors. The mean reduction of headache severity in cases was 3.6 ± 2.8 based on Visual Analogue Scale score. The reduction was 1.6 ± 1.6 in controls. This difference between the controls and cases was statistically significant with p < 0.0001. From 129 headache attacks in cases, 92 responded entirely or partially to lavender. In the control group, 32 out of 68 recorded headache attacks responded to placebo. The percentage of responders was significantly higher in the lavender group than the placebo group (p = 0.001). The present study suggests that inhalation of lavender essential oil may be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches.

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... D-borneol is a main commercial structure, which naturally exists in lavender oil (Sasannejad et al., 2012), Rhizoma Curcumae oil , rosemary oil (Eissa et al., 2017), and Cinnamomum camphora oil .. TRPA1, a member of the TRP family, increases intracellular NO levels and calcium concentration following activation , which induces the neurons to release CGRP and SP, which participate in migraine development (Nassini et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2019). Takaishi et al. (2014) discovered that borneol (BO) inhibited human TRPA1 induced by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in a dose-dependent manner. ...
... Optical isomers of linalool exist in nature, l-linalool is primarily derived from ZanthoxyLi Pericarpium oil (Luo et al., 2012), bergamot oil (Russo et al., 2013), lavender oil (Sasannejad et al., 2012), and coriander oil (Aelenei et al., 2019). Batista et al. (2008) administered l-linalool to mice via intraperitoneal injection (10-200 mg/kg), oral administration (5-100 mg/kg), and intrathecal injection (0.1-3 μg/site), l-linalool inhibited glutamate-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the behavioral nociceptive response induced via spinal injection of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α (Batista et al., 2010). ...
... Linalyl acetate (LA) naturally exists in essential oils such as Clary Sage (Blasko et al., 2017), Bergamot (Russo et al., 2013), and lavender (Sasannejad et al., 2012). Aoe et al. (2017) found that LA could inhibit TNF-α-induced E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in a mouse brain endothelial cell line. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Migraines have become a major threat to human health, as they significantly affect human health and quality of life due to a high prevalence rate, attack rate and pain intensity. Aromatherapy, with its comfortable and pleasant natural characteristics and rapid and efficient characteristics, is widely favored by patients in the folk. Chinese folk also have the application history and related records of aromatic plants in the treatment of migraine. Aim of the study This study was conducted to review the pathogenesis of migraine, the application of plant essential oils in the treatment of migraine, and further explore the material basis and mechanism of action of plant essential oils against migraine. Materials and methods Search the electronic literature of essential oils with anti-migraine effect in Google Scholar, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and further search the research situation of the monomer components of essential oils in migraine, inflammation, pain and other aspects. Results studies show that there are 10 types of plant essential oils that could relieve migraine symptoms, and that 16 monomers may play a role in migraine treatment by effectively inhibiting neurogenic inflammation, hyperalgesia and balancing vasorelaxation. Conclusion Aromatic plant essential oils can relieve migraine effectively, these findings can be used as an important part of the development of anti-migraine drugs.
... 20 Also, lavender essential oil patches are suggested as an alternative therapy with acupuncture for managing pediatric headaches. 21 In addition, recent trials have identified the effects of lavender, administered in different forms, in treating some headaches, including migraine headache, 22,23 hemodialysis-induced headache, 24 primary hypertension-associated headache, 25 nitroglycerine infusion-induced headache, 26 primary dysmenorrhea-associated headache, 27 daily headache, 28 and recurrent headaches. 29 However, to the best of our knowledge, no documented trial has been performed to investigate the effects of lavender in managing PDPH. ...
... The sample size was estimated based on a previous trial indicating a significant difference between mean reduction of migraine headache obtained by a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 10 in patients who received aromatherapy with lavender oil and placebo (3.6 ± 2.8 vs. 1.6 ± 1.6; P < .0001). 22 We calculated a sample size of 21 patients per group, using the above mentioned trial and the formula suggested for comparing the two means in clinical trials at a confidence level of 95% and power of 0.08. However, 25 patients were recruited in each group of the study in case of dropouts. ...
... When the early sign of the PDPH was observed, three drops of either lavender oil or liquid paraffin were placed above the upper lip using the prepared droppers. 22 Then, all the patients were asked to inhale the vapor for 15 minutes at their own convenience under the supervision of the assistant nurse. All interventions were performed in a private room and none of the patients saw each other during the intervention times. ...
Context: Lavender has been proposed as an analgesic agent for different types of headaches in complementary and alternative medicine. However, no documented trial has been performed to investigate the effects of lavender in managing post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). Objective: To evaluate the effects of aromatherapy using lavender essential oil in reducing the severity of PDPH. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel group design. Setting: Post-operative wards of Kamkar-Arab-Nia and Nekooei Hedayati Hospitals in Qom, Iran. Participants: Patients with PDPH caused by spinal anesthesia (n = 50). Intervention: Patients received 15-minute inhalations of either lavender oil or liquid paraffin as placebo, using the same protocol. Outcome measures: The severity of headache was scored before (baseline) and five times after the intervention (immediately, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after) using the visual analog scale. Also, dosage and frequency of the received Diclofenac and adverse effects of the intervention were recorded. Results: Both groups showed a reduction in headache scores post intervention. However, the headache scores between the groups was significantly different only immediately after the intervention in favor of lavender oil (difference: 1.60 ± 0.63, P = .015). Furthermore, it was observed that the mean changes of the headache scores compared to the baseline were significant at each time interval in favor of the placebo group (P < .05), except immediately after the intervention. No significant difference was observed in Diclofenac intake between groups (P = .440). Also, no adverse effects were found from the intervention. Conclusions: Aromatherapy with lavender oil was observed to reduce the severity of PDPH only immediately after the intervention, while only minimal effects were observed at successive time intervals. However, it is noted that the study was likely underpowered and further studies are recommended to better understand the effects of lavender oil on PDPH and compare its effects to other herbal products or pharmacological agents commonly used for managing headaches.
... Neuroprotective properties of Lavandula angustifolia have been described in the literature. Dementia, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, neurotoxicity, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and migraine have been found to respond to treatment with Lavandula angustifolia (Arzi et al., 2011;Sasannejad et al., 2012;Hancianu et al., 2013;Caputo et al., 2016Caputo et al., , 2021Nikolova et al., 2016;Chan et al., 2020). Salvia officinalis is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. ...
... Also, it has been shown that using lavender can develop the risk of recurrent migraine. Lavender is better than oral triptans, acetaminophen, and NSAIDs without many remarkable side effects (Sasannejad et al., 2012). Rafie et al., in a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the impact of lavender as a prophylactic treatment for migraine over 3 months. ...
Article
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Hundreds of millions of people around the world suffer from neurological disorders or have experienced them intermittently, which has significantly reduced their quality of life. The common treatments for neurological disorders are relatively expensive and may lead to a wide variety of side effects including sleep attacks, gastrointestinal side effects, blood pressure changes, etc. On the other hand, several herbal medications have attracted colossal popularity worldwide in the recent years due to their availability, affordable prices, and few side effects. Aromatic plants, sage (Salvia officinalis), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), and rosemary (Salvia Rosmarinus) have already shown anxiolytics, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. They have also shown potential in treating common neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, migraine, and cognitive disorders. This review summarizes the data on the neuroprotective potential of aromatic herbs, sage, lavender, and rosemary.
... The effect of the topical application of lavender oil on migraine was examined in a single-blinded (participant), placebo-controlled study (Sasannejad et al., 2012). At the onset of a migraine, 47 adults with migraine applied two to three drops of a placebo solution (liquid paraffin), or a lavender oil preparation to their upper lip and inhaled the vapour for 15 min. ...
... In another acute inflammatory animal model, lavender also had anti-inflammatory effects via its influence on prostanoids, nitric oxide, proinflammatory cytokines, and histamine (Cardia et al., 2018). In terms of the safety and tolerability of lavender topical application, there were no reported dropouts or adverse effects reported in the study by Sasannejad et al. (2012). In general, lavender is well tolerated although gynecomastia in three boys aged between 7 to 10 years was reported after the topical application of products containing lavender and tea tree oils. ...
Article
Herbal treatments are often used as a treatment for migraine. Therefore, an evaluation of their safety and efficacy is important. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses guidelines, and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias, a systematic literature review of randomised, controlled human trials assessing the effects of herbal treatments delivered as a single ingredient for the acute or prophylactic treatment of migraine were conducted. Studies were identified through electronic database searches on Medline (Pubmed), Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CINAHL. Nineteen studies were identified examining the effects on migraine of feverfew, butterbur, curcumin, menthol/peppermint oil, coriander, citron, Damask rose, chamomile, and lavender. Overall, findings on the efficacy of feverfew were mixed and there was positive, albeit limited evidence for butterbur. There were positive, preliminary findings on curcumin, citron, and coriander as a prophylactic treatment for migraine, and the use of menthol and chamomile as an acute treatment. However, the risk of bias was high for many studies. The results of this systematic review suggest that several herbal medicines, via their multifactorial physiological influences, present as potential options to enhance the treatment of migraine. However, further high‐quality research is essential to examine their efficacy and safety as a treatment for migraine.
... Several studies have demonstrated that integrative therapies such as acupuncture, biofeedback, relaxation and stress coping skills, nutraceuticals/supplements, and aromatherapy are efficacious for headaches [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. The use of complementary and integrative therapies in children with headaches may be as high as 76% in some populations [15]. ...
... It has been evaluated for migraines in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Inhaling lavender essential oil for 15 min reduced headache severity on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) from 3.6 ± 2.8 to 1.6 ± 1.6 and was statistically significant compared to the control group [10]. ...
Article
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The demand for integrative medicine has risen in recent years as research has demonstrated the efficacy of such treatments. The public has also become more conscientious of the potential limitations of conventional treatment alone. Because primary headache syndromes are often the culmination of genetics, lifestyle, stress, trauma, and environmental factors, they are best treated with therapies that are equally multifaceted. The Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri Headache Clinic has successfully incorporated integrative therapies including nutraceuticals, acupuncture, aromatherapy, biofeedback, relaxation training, hypnosis, psychology services, and lifestyle recommendations for headache management. This paper provides a detailed review of the implementation of integrative therapies for headache treatment and discusses examples through case studies. It can serve as a model for other specialty settings intending to incorporate all evidenced-based practices, whether complementary or conventional.
... In a study, it was observed that lavender with inhalation method was effective in migraine headaches and decreased the severity of migraine pain (Sasannejad, 2012). In another study, it was observed that the application of lavender oil through massage was effective in pain and inflammation as well as prescription products (Silva, 2015). ...
... Lavender oil acts as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic making it an effective pain reliever in mild to moderate pain. It has many applications including assisting with osteoarthritis pain, neck and back pain (118) . ...
... These results provide evidence that aromatherapy massage with LEO could significantly stimulate immune functions and diminish stress. Additionally, a significant impact of inhaled LEO was observed in the treatment of migraine headache in a placebo-controlled clinical trial [76]. Therefore, LEO might be an effective alternative for reducing symptoms caused by acute migraine. ...
Article
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Recently, the application of herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases has gained increasing attention. Essential oils (EOs) are generally known to exert various pharmacological effects, such as antiallergic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Current literature involving in vitro and in vivo studies indicates the potential of various herbal essential oils as suitable immunomodulators for the alternative treatment of infectious or immune diseases. This review highlights the cellular effects induced by EOs, as well as the molecular impacts of EOs on cytokines, immunoglobulins, or regulatory pathways. The results reviewed in this article revealed a significant reduction in relevant proinflammatory cytokines, as well as induction of anti-inflammatory markers. Remarkably, very little clinical study data involving the immunomodulatory effects of EOs are available. Furthermore, several studies led to contradictory results, emphasizing the need for a multiapproach system to better characterize EOs. While immunomodulatory effects were reported, the toxic potential of EOs must be clearly considered in order to secure future applications.
... Lavender oil has been known for its medicinal properties in soothing headache and other types of pain [11,12]. Lavender oil inclusion in this formula is an added advantage, which offers the natural approach in relieving migraines; moreover, synthesized NLCs retained the smell of lavender oil in the formulation. ...
Article
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Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of sumatriptan succinate (SS) were prepared by using lavender oil. In ancient days, lavender oil was used for the treatment of a migraine. The natural anti-migraine agent, lavender oil, combined with an anti-migraine drug such as SS in a nano-formulation, will be a practical alternative approach in migraine therapy. Objective: NLCs of sumatriptan succinate were fabricated by using a natural anti-migraine oil (lavender oil), LECIVA-S70, which is a specialized grade for liposomal dermatological preparation and designed for emulsion, fat infusions, nutraceutical formulations, and parenteral use. It contains 70% phosphatidylcholine, which is not generally present in the regular soy lecithin. Methods: The central composite design technique was used to examine the relationship between independent variables and responses such as lavender oil and LECIVA-S70. The dependent variables were Z-average (R1), polydispersity index (R2), and % entrapment efficiency (R3). The NLCs were prepared with the double emulsification technique. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry analyzed the drug excipient compatibility profile. The developed NLCs were characterized for particle size by using Mastersizer, Zetasizer, and transmission electron microscopy. The membrane diffusion technique studied the in vitro drug release profile. Results: The mean±SD size of the NLCs ranged from 411.4±311.1 d.nm to 398.8±242.6 d.nm. The best formulation (SNE9) demonstrated an average diameter of 398.8±242.6 d.nm, with the PDI of 0.216, and zeta potential of 17.18 mV. Conclusion: The optimized formula demonstrated the narrow size range, a satisfactory zeta potential, high drug loading, and reproducible drug release profile. The NLCs successfully retained the aroma of the lavender oil. According to ANOVA, the polydispersity index (R2) is significant with the central composite design.
... It meant that placebo and lavender oil have similar effects in headache improvement. Lavender oil has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment in management of acute headaches [45] as well as tension type headaches in students [46]. The results from our study also support the effectiveness of lavender oil/aromatherapy in reducing pain intensity in stress related headaches. ...
Article
Introduction: Academic stress is prevalent among pharmacy students. Several factors such as hectic schedules, courses and exam load as well as lack of recreational time during semester have been reported as determinants of academic stress. Studies revealed; the use of aroma oils especially with relaxant properties may help ease stress. Methods: This study aimed to investigate the effect of lavender oil on academic stress during exams in pharmacy students. A randomized-single-blind placebo-controlled trial providing aromatherapy with lavender oil as an intervention was conducted in male pharmacy students. The outcomes assessed included stress, stool pattern, headache and vital signs that comprised of systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR). The study was approved from concerned authority and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT#03460626). Results: The placebo and experimental group showed a significant (p < 0.01) difference in stress score (F = 244.865, p < 0.0001), headache VAS score (F = 8.187, p < 0.0001), SBP (F = 11.141, p < 0.0001), DBP (F = 3.873, p < 0.001) and HR (F = 8.537, p < 0.0001); at during-exam time-point as compared to control group. No significance was achieved; among three treatment groups in stool pattern (F = 2.143, p > 0.05) and, at post-exam time-point (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender oil did not have any effect on academic stress. Trial registration: The study was registered prospectively on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT#03460626) on 19th February 2018.
... While during massage essential oil uses may help relieve stress but may last during massage time only(Steflitsch et al. 2015).Headaches and migraines:Research studies observed during 90's that headache pain can be relieved by mixing peppermint oil and ethanol oil and dapping on person foreheads and temples(Gobel et al. 1995). In addition, recent studies shows positive results that applying peppermint and lavender oil to the skin can reduce headache pain(Sasannejad et al. 2012). Headache remedy has been suggested by traditional Persian that headaches and migraines can be treated by applying a mixture of chamomile and sesame oil to the temples(Zargaran et al. 2014).Sleep and insomnia: Studies shows that by smelling lavender oil improves the sleep quality of women after childbirth, as well as patients with heart disease(Karadag et al. 2017). ...
... Although the results of some studies [15,26] do not confirm the phytoestrogenic qualities of lavender, the results of the present study show a significant difference in the physical dimension of QOL in both intervention and control groups ( Table 2). The results of some studies indicate the effect of lavender essential oil on the reduction of the severity of different types of pain, including headache and musculoskeletal pain, insomnia, and fatigue [27][28][29][30]. This can be due to the relaxative, analgesic, and sedative effects of linalool and linalool acetate compounds contained in lavender essential oil [31]. ...
... [16][17] To date, Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) continues to excite the scientific community through significant results both on in vitro testing and in clini- cal trials. [41][42][43][44] Sideritis (Sideritis perfoliata), widely known as "mountain tea", has been used for centuries as a home- made beverage due its soothing characteristics. It is widely used as aromatic and warming drink, for its anti-inflammatory properties. ...
... The smell of Lavender is of high intensity and therefore has great stress relieving properties. Moreover, lavender not only has stress relieving properties but it also provides aid in combating flu, colds and migraine [59]. Lavender oil has other therapeutic properties as well, such as antidepressant, antiseptic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic, decongestant, deodorant and sedative properties [60]. ...
Background - At present, 'pharmaco-epigenomics' constitutes the hope in cancer treatment owing to epigenetic deregulation- a reversible process and playing a role in malignancy. Objective: Chemotherapy has many limitations like host-tissue toxicity, drug resistance. Hence, it is imperative to unearth targets to better treat cancer. Here, we intend to repurpose a set of our previously synthesized difluorinated propanediones (PR) as histone lysine methyltransferase inhibitors (HMTi). Methods: The cell lines of leukemic origin viz. histiocytic lymphoma (U937) and acute T-cell leukemia (JURKAT) were treated with PR-1 to 7 after docking studies with active pocket of HMT. The cell cycle analysis, in vitro methylation and cell proliferation assays were carried out to delineate their physiological role. Results - A small molecule PR-4, at 1 and 10μM, has shown to alter the methylation of histone H3 and H4 in both cell lines. Also, treatment shows an increase in G2/M population and a subsequent decrease in the G0/G1 population in U937. In JURKAT, an increase in both G2/M and S phase population was observed. The sub-G1 population showed a steady rise with increase in dose and prolonged time intervals in U937 and JURKAT cell lines. In SRB assay, the PR showed a cell growth of 42.6 and 53.4% comparable to adriamycin; 44.5 and 53.2% in U937 and JURKAT, respectively. The study suggests that PR-4 could emerge as a potential HMT inhibitor. Conclusion - The molecule PR-4 could be a lead in developing more histone lysine methyltransferases inhibitors with potential to be pro-apoptotic agents.
... Essential oils and their volatile constituents are utilized broadly to prevent and treat human illness. Lavender is as an effective medicinal plant that is used in the prevention of various problem including inflammation, depression, stress, seizure and migraine by exerting protective effects through its antioxidant properties (Sasannejad et al., 2012). There is also a developing confirmation that free radicals cause damages to cellular structures as observed in neurodegenerative ailments and leads to oxidative stress (Emerit et al., 2004). ...
Article
Stress has become an integral feature of everyday living. Each individual that lives encounters some manifestation of stress in life. Stress causes certain alterations in the structure and functions of the body and is considered to be a major factor in many health problems. Many synthetic and natural compounds are used for the attenuation of stress induced changes in the body. Medicinal plants are used since ancient times to prevent from neurological disorders. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is very efficacious and possesses the ability to improve several neurological disorders. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used against pain and inflammation. However, effectiveness of NSAIDs in the treatment of various psychiatric ailments is also reported. The present study investigated the effects of ibuprofen and lavender oil on stress induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats. The rats were subjected to restraint stress and behavioral parameters like open field test (OFT), light/dark transition box activity (LDT) and forced swim test (FST) were used to assess exploratory, anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity, respectively. Corticosterone, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and endogenous antioxidant enzymes activities were also estimated. Results of OFT, LDT and FST showed substantial effects of lavender oil and standard drug ibuprofen. A significant decrease in plasma corticosterone and LPO levels with increase in antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in the study. However, the effects of lavender oil were more as compared to standard drug ibuprofen in diminution of stress induced behavioral and biochemical changes in rats. This study demonstrates that lavender oil is more remedial than ibuprofen in stress related disorders.
... 67,68 Inhalation of lavender essential oil for 15 minutes may be helpful for some patients with migraine. 69 Deep relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, and cognitive behavioral techniques to adapt behavioral responses to pain can also be useful. 70,71 Mindfulness and meditation may also be helpful. ...
... [40] Another clinical study showed that inhalation of lavender essential oil may be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches when it compared with a placebo-controlled clinical trial. [41] CONCLUSION Ustukhuddoos has been extensively used in the Unani system of medicine since time immemorial for various neurological disorders such as epilepsy, paralysis, dementia, amnesia, migraine, melancholia, anxiety and convulsions etc. This drug is also used in other bodily system disorders such as respiratory system disorders, digestive system disorders and urogenital system disorders etc. Ustukhuddoos belongs to Lamiaceae / Labiatae family. ...
Article
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Ustukhuddoos has been used as a healing agent since ancient times. Renowned Unani physicians Jalinus and Desquredus discovered varied medicinal properties of this plant origin drug. They recommended using this drug, especially in cerebral disorders. Lavandula stoechas Linn. belongs to Lamiaceae / Labiatae family. This is an evergreen shrub usually grows to 30-100 cm in height. The leaves are 1-4 cm long, greyish and tomentose. The flowers are pink to purple in color appear in late spring and early summer season. In Unani Medicine, it is commonly known as Ustukhuddoos. Unani literatures has mentioned many pharmacological actions of this drug such as Jaroob-e-Dimagh (brain scavenger), Daf-e-Sauda (evacuation of black bile), Da-fe-Tashannuj (anti-convulsant), Mufarrah-e-Qalb-Wa-Dimagh (exhilarant of heart and brain), Muqaww-i-Aasab (nervine tonic) etc, and it is used in several ailments such as Zof-e-Dimagh, Nisyan (dementia), Malankholia (malancholia), Waja al qalb (angina pectoris), Suda-e-Muzmin (a chronic headache), Falij (paralysis), Laqwa (facial paralysis) etc. Many scientific studies have been proved that Ustukhuddoos is significantly useful in several neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, convulsions and cerebral ischemia etc. The present review is an attempt to portray this wonder drug Ustukhuddoos in the light of scientific studies carried out pertaining to brain and nerves which is rightly coined as the "broom of the brain".
... An effect on pain intensity was reported only by the studies that applied lavender oil [44,45]. Widely applied in aromatherapy, lavender oil can reduce migraine headache severity [102]. In one case report, migraine attacks triggered by the smell of onions and garlic were relieved by inhalation of peppermint oil [103]. ...
Article
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Every day our sensory systems perceive and integrate a variety of stimuli containing information vital for our survival. Pain acts as a protective warning system, eliciting a response to remove harmful stimuli; it may also be a symptom of an illness or present as a disease itself. There is a growing need for additional pain-relieving therapies involving the multisensory integration of smell and taste in pain modulation, an approach that may provide new strategies for the treatment and management of pain. While pain, smell, and taste share common features and are strongly linked to emotion and cognition, their interaction has been poorly explored. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on pain modulation by olfactory and gustatory substances. It includes adult human studies investigating measures of pain threshold, tolerance, intensity, and/or unpleasantness. Due to the limited number of studies currently available, we have structured this review as a narrative in which we comment on experimentally induced and clinical pain separately on pain–smell and pain–taste interaction. Inconsistent study findings notwithstanding, pain, smell, and taste seem to interact at both the behavioral and the neural levels. Pain intensity and unpleasantness seem to be affected more by olfactory substances, whereas pain threshold and tolerance are influenced by gustatory substances. Few pilot studies to date have investigated these effects in clinical populations. While the current results are promising for the future, more evidence is needed to elucidate the link between the chemical senses and pain. Doing so has the potential to improve and develop novel options for pain treatment.
... In a single-blind trial, 47 Iranian migraine patients were randomized to apply two to three drops of either a lavender (species not identified) volatile oil or a paraffin placebo to their upper lip at the first sign of a headache. 69 Given the lack of odor with paraffin, it is very difficult to see how any kind of blinding was maintained in this trial. Lavender oil significantly reduced headache severity compared to placebo when followed over six migraine episodes per patient. ...
Article
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Many herbs and herbal formulas are effective for migraine sufferers, both as acute treatment and for prevention, particularly when coupled with the identification and elimination of migraine triggers. The natural products discussed here include Zingiber officinale (ginger) for migraine treatment and Cannabis sativa (cannabis), intranasal Capsicum annuum (cayenne), and Lavandula stoechas (Spanish lavender) volatile oil for treatment and prevention. The many agents discussed for migraine prevention primarily include Petasites hybridus (butterbur) root, Curcuma longa (turmeric)1fish oil, Citrus medica (citron) fruit, Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew), Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew)1Salix alba (white willow), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Lippia alba (bushy matgrass), though the latter three have little published evidence of efficacy. The Chinese herbal formulas Zhèng Tiān Wán (Rectify Heaven Pill) and Wú Zhū Yú Tāng (Evodia Decoction, goshuyutō) have fairly strong evidence supporting their efficacy for migraine prophylaxis. Dosing and safety information are provided for all herbs discussed.
... The lavender is used in perfumery industry for its strong odor. In a study, it was seen that oil of lavender plant can decrease the effects of migraine (Sasannejad et al., 2012). Also, in different studies, it is claimed that lavender is beneficial for sleeping problems. ...
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The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the main potato pathogen that causes great losses in the production of the tuber, constituting a threat to food security. Recently in Europe, new and more aggressive races have been described, linked to a A2 breeding sort, that appears being more complicated than the initial A1 breeding sort and may be expelling it. This study evaluated 52 isolates of P. infestans from diverse potato farms from the Spanish population (33 from 2003 to 2005 and 19 from 2011 to 2013). CAPs markers were used to classify breeding sorts A1 and A2 in Spain for the first time. In 23 samples were identified as A1 mating type, whereas 29 were classed as A2 type. Furthermore, 3 clonal linkeages of P. infestans remained identified employing SSR markers: 2 A1, 3 A2, and 13 A2 (Blue 13), with sub-clonal variability seen within this linkeage (13 A2 1, 13 A2 2, 13 A2 3, 13 A2 4, 13 A2 15, 13 A2 68, and 13 A2 new). Two detaches labeled 'Misc' might not be assigned to some of the alleles investigated. Such findings show expansion clones of pathogens throughout Europe throughout in that time frame, as well as hazards associated to the existence both breeding forms of P. infestans.
... Exposure to nature Green LED light • Exposure to green LED light significantly decreases headache days in migraine patients [65] Aromatherapy • Aromatherapy with lavender significantly reduces headache severity in migraine patients [74] • Inhalation of peppermint essential oil reduces the intensity and frequency of headaches [75] Relaxation and mindfulness meditation • Relaxation training improves headache frequency and pain severity [76] • Mindfulness-based stress reduction decreases migraine days [77] • Mindfulness can improve headache-related disabilities and well-being [78] • Relaxation and mindfulness meditation are suggested for migraine prophylaxis [79] Yoga • Yoga practice reduces headache frequency and intensity in migraine patients [80] Sleep hygiene • Sleep disorders are associated with more frequent and severe migraines [81] • Behavioral sleep treatment can reduce headache frequency and intensity [82,83] Nutrition • Magnesium can be used as prophylactic treatment of migraines [84,85] • Ginger can reduce headache severity in migraine patients [86] As illustrated in Figure 2A, the customized interior design for people with migraines includes biophilic elements and features supporting migraine self-care. Ambient conditions are complex and varied, but familiar and comfortable. ...
Article
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The benefits of biophilic interior design have been recognized by healthcare facilities, but residential environments receive relatively less attention with respect to improving the health of people living with chronic diseases. Recent “stay-at-home” restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic further emphasized the importance of creating interior spaces that directly and indirectly support physical and mental health. In this viewpoint article, we discuss opportunities for combining biophilic interventions with interior design, fostering disease-specific self-care. We provide examples of designing residential spaces integrating biophilic interventions, light therapy, relaxation opportunities, mindfulness meditation, listening to music, physical activities, aromatherapy, and quality sleep. These modalities can provide the clinical benefits of reducing migraine headaches and chronic pain, as well as improving depressive symptoms. The disease-specific interior environment can be incorporated into residential homes, workplaces, assisted-living residences, hospitals and hospital at home programs. This work aims to promote a cross-disciplinary dialogue towards combining biophilic design and advances in lifestyle medicine to create therapeutic interior environments and to improve healthcare outcomes.
... Most commonly lavender is recommended for oral administration. However, it is also being employed in aromatherapy (inhalation of lavender) (Sasannejad et al., 2012), aromatherapy massage, dripping oil and bathing (Xu et al., 2008). In this paper we review the therapeutical effects of lavender oil components that have valuable effects like antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxing), sedative, antidepressive and effective for burns and insect bites (Morris, 2002). ...
... Aromatherapy is a very popular complementary therapy and is widely used in many health care settings and services. For example, the effect of the treatment of migraine headache and sleep disturbances by lavender oil [1,2], suppression of the inflammatory mediator by tea tree oil [3], anti-inflammatory activity on bronchial asthma by eucalyptus oil [4], and management of agitation in dementia by melissa oil [5]. Some of the people believe that their routine healthcare on aromatherapy is low cost for preventing to take medical care for illness. ...
Article
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This study analyzed temporal variation of the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at different diffusion time of gaseous phase of aroma compounds of four essential oils, lavender, tea tree, eucalyptus, and melissa. GC/MS methodology with the trace gas sampling by a thermal desorption tube is used to quantitatively determine the concentration of the corresponding 14 kinds of major and original VOCs in four essential oils. This study revealed for the first time that the concentration level of gaseous phase composition is varied, with a diffusion time from that of the liquid phase at equilibrium with it and the VOCs in the essential oils are classified into two groups, depending on whether their concentration with the time. It is verified that the total concentration of VOCs of these essential oils in the room air diffused by the ultrasonic diffuser is as low as 0.6 ppb and decreased soon below 0.1 ppb.
... The lavender is used in perfumery industry for its strong odor. In a study, it was seen that oil of lavender plant can decrease the effects of migraine (Sasannejad et al., 2012). Also, in different studies, it is claimed that lavender is beneficial for sleeping problems. ...
Book
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Whilst world's climate crises worsen, the crucial limitations of natural assets are quickly dwindling. Since agriculture is the initial step of the food chain, the basic concepts of sustainability in agriculture are to protect the soil, and nature, agriculture and livestock resources while increasing productivity in agriculture with providing sufficient and quality food to insure the food security for the rapidly increasing world population. Both food and nutrition security is one of the key issues for current and close future of humanity. Thus, we have to practice the most effective agricultural activities in order to provide the maximum and best quality yield from the unit area of agricultural lands. In a drastically changing world, considering the changing climate and changing needs, different disciplines come together to provide innovative remedies, and we aim to determine and find solutions to the problems of the world we live in together with interdisciplinary approaches. In this context, new engineering sciences including the application of interdisciplinary engineering sciences such as Biosystems Engineering and Bioengineering to biological systems and processes have emerged, bringing together complementary and comparative studies in changing conditions, and increasing interdisciplinary studies with the application of multidisciplinary approaches and opportunities. In the book in your hand, you will find the comparative studies of different disciplines such as agricultural engineering, biosystem engineering, livestock, agricultural economics, and soil science for the changing world and climate conditions. We would like to thank our respected colleagues for their contributions to the book and engineering science via their scientific investigations, and we wish the best of success to the readers and all science enthusiasts who pursue multidisciplinary studies
... Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely cultivated essential oil crops in the world. It has been used as an anxiolytic drug, mood stabilizer, sedative, spasmolytic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, analgesic, and accelerator of wound healing [116]. Lavender essential oil is said to possess antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxant), sedative, antidepressant properties, and effective activity for healing burns and insect bites [117]. ...
Article
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Burns are a major threat to public health and the economy due to their costly and laborious treatment and high susceptibility to infection. Efforts have been made recently to investigate natural bioactive compounds with potential use in wound healing. The importance lies in the capacities that these compounds could possess both in infection control by common and resistant microorganisms, as well as in the regeneration of the affected tissues, having in both cases low adverse effects. However, some bioactive molecules are chemically unstable, poorly soluble, and susceptible to oxidative degradation or have low bioavailability. Therefore, developing new technologies for an efficient treatment of wound healing poses a real challenge. In this context, electrospun nanofibers have gained increasing research interest because bioactive molecules can be easily loaded within the nanofiber, resulting in optimal burst control and enhanced drug stability. Additionally, the nanofibers can mimic the extracellular collagen matrix, providing a suitable highly porous structural support for growing cells that facilitate and accelerate skin burns healing. This review gives an overview of the current state of electrospun fibers loaded with natural bioactive compounds as a biomedical system for skin burn treatment.
... Most commonly lavender is recommended for oral administration. However, it is also being employed in aromatherapy (inhalation of lavender) (Sasannejad et al., 2012), aromatherapy massage, dripping oil and bathing (Xu et al., 2008). In this paper we review the therapeutical effects of lavender oil components that have valuable effects like antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxing), sedative, antidepressive and effective for burns and insect bites (Morris, 2002). ...
Article
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This present review aimed to focus on the lavender oil which used in alternative medicine for many centuries. Because of Lavandula species are highly aromatic plants and produce essential oils wich composition varies within the same species and among different species. The oil contains hundreds of chemical compounds and the major compounds such as linalool, linalyl acetate, β-ocimene, terpinen-4-ol, lavandulyl acetate and more others act on many chronic and degenerative illnesses, such as cancer autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The secondary metabolites found in this plant have high antioxidant activity, important antimicrobial agents, several microorganisms, have activity against many fungal species, antiproliferative activity, anti-inflammatory activity, pain relief effect, wound healing effect and recognized as an antiseptic and insecticide agent. Also used as an ingredient in bath salts and washing agents as well as commercial cosmetic products: hair shampoo, cosmetic and bath products.
... The reaction mixture was heated for 25 min to get a ruby red copolymer with better T g and sulfur stabilizing property [44]. Perillyl alcohol is extracted from essential plant oils like lemongrass, peppermint, sage and lavender and can also be obtained from bioreactor [46,47]. They also synthesized Ssqualene copolymer maintaining the same reaction procedure [44]. ...
Article
Elemental sulfur, an industrial by-product from petroleum industries worldwide, has drawn sufficientattention to researchers. The limited scope of application has caused a colossal surplus amount of ele-mental sulfur stacked in the open places. Several polysulfide synthesis processes, including condensation,free-radical process, and ionic copolymerization technique, were used but resulted in unstable products.A new polymerization technique, termed inverse vulcanization, has been introduced, which enabled dif-ferent types of crosslinkers for polysulfide production and their scopes to explore numerous applications.The current paper concisely reviews the evolution and advances of using vegetable oils and plant extractsin inverse vulcanization to produce polysulfides. The alluring applications and properties have also beendiscussed briefly.
... [43] Migraine headaches There is a placebo-controlled clinical trial showed that inhalation of lavender essential oil may be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches. [44] Chronic sinusitis A Preliminary clinical trial was conducted on 63 patients of chronic sinusitis and 4.5 grams of Ustukhuddoos tablets daily in three divided doses for three weeks showed complete recovery in 7.93% and improvement in 71.43% of the patients. [45] CONCLUSION Ustukhuddoos (Lavandula stoechas) is an important drugs wich is being used in unani medicine since ancient time in different ailments like epilepsy, paralysis, dementia, amnesia, migraine, melancholia, anxiety, convulsions, chronic catarrh, liver disorders, urinary disorders. ...
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ABSTRACT Ustukhuddoos is named on „Stoechades‟ a group of Islands on the south coast of Gaul, where this shrub is basically grown. Scientific name of Ustukhuddoos is Lavandula stoechas Linn and belong to family „Lamiaceae‟. It is very popular drug and also called “Jaroob-e-Dimagh” (broom of brain) in unani medicine, because it remove the black bile from the brain, give strengthens and improves the brain condition. Many of the unani physicians like Jalinus, Dioscorides and Ibn Sina have also described in their books about the morphological characters, temperament and medicinal uses of Ustukhuddoos. There are a number of pharmacological actions of this drug such as Munaqqi-eDimagh (Brain purifier), Dafa-e-Tashannuj (anti-convulsant), Mufarrah-e-Qalb- wa- Dimagh (exhilarant of heart and brain), Muqawwi-e-Aasab (nervine tonic) Dafa-e-Sauda (evacuation of black bile), Jaroob-e-Dimagh (brain scavenger) etc, and it is used in several ailments such as nisyan (dementia), malankholia (malancholia), waja-ulqalb (angina pectoris), suda-e-muzmin (a chronic headache), falij (paralysis), laqwa (facial paralysis), zo’af-edimagh, sahar (insomnia), anxiety, depression, sidr (Giddiness) etc. This review paper covers the pharmacognostic character, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and therapeutic approaches of Ustukhuddoos (Lavandula stoechas) in the perspective of unani literature. KEYWORDS: Ustukhuddoos, Lavandula stoechas, Jaroob-e-Dimagh.
... Finally, olfactory stimuli have also been shown to produce odour-induced analgesia [65]. For example, aromatherapy using lavender essence has been reported to reduce pain after episiotomy [66], reduce the severity of migraine attacks [67], and can reduce demand for postoperative opioids [68]. Neurons in the olfactory cortices project directly and indirectly via the amygdala to the hypothalamus [69], an area that is known to modulate pain via connections with the brainstem, in particular the PAG [70,71]. ...
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Purpose of review: It is well established in experimental settings that brainstem circuits powerfully modulate the multidimensional experience of pain. This review summarizes current understanding of the roles of brainstem nuclei in modulating the intensity of pain, and how these circuits might be recruited therapeutically for pain relief in chronic and palliative settings. Recent findings: The development of ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and more robust statistical analyses has led to a more integrated understanding of brainstem function during pain. It is clear that a number of brainstem nuclei and their overlapping pathways are recruited to either enhance or inhibit incoming nociceptive signals. This review reflects on early preclinical research, which identified in detail brainstem analgesic function, putting into context contemporary investigations in humans that have identified the role of specific brainstem circuits in modulating pain, their contribution to pain chronicity, and even the alleviation of palliative comorbidities. Summary: The brainstem is an integral component of the circuitry underpinning pain perception. Enhanced understanding of its circuitry in experimental studies in humans has, in recent years, increased the possibility for better optimized pain-relief strategies and the identification of vulnerabilities to postsurgical pain problems. When integrated into the clinical landscape, these experimental findings of brainstem modulation of pain signalling have the potential to contribute to the optimization of pain management and patient care from acute, to chronic, to palliative states.
... These results were confirmed in a clinical study involving patients with depression who were treated with lavender flower tincture. There was a significant improvement as measured by the Hamilton scale (from 19 to 12 points), comparable to that of imipramine (from 19 to 9 points) [67]. Based on pharmacological and clinical studies, it can be concluded that lavender oil and lavender flower work to improve mood, have an antianxiety effect, and are more antidepressants than a sedative. ...
Article
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COVID-19 infection causes complications, even in people who have had a mild course of the disease. The most dangerous seem to be neurological ailments: anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety–depressive (MAD) syndromes, and irreversible dementia. These conditions can negatively affect the respiratory system, circulatory system, and heart functioning. We believe that phytotherapy can be helpful in all of these conditions. Clinical trials confirm this possibility. The work presents plant materials (Valeriana officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Piper methysticum, Humulus lupulus, Ballota nigra, Hypericum perforatum, Rhodiola rosea, Lavandula officinalis, Paullinia cupana, Ginkgo biloba, Murraya koenigii, Crataegus monogyna and oxyacantha, Hedera helix, Polygala senega, Pelargonium sidoides, Lichen islandicus, Plantago lanceolata) and their dominant compounds (valeranon, valtrat, apigenin, citronellal, isovitexin, isoorientin, methysticin, humulone, farnesene, acteoside, hypericin, hyperforin, biapigenin, rosavidin, salidroside, linalool acetate, linalool, caffeine, ginkgolide, bilobalide, mihanimbine, epicatechin, hederacoside C,α-hederine, presegenin, umkaline, 6,7,8-trixydroxybenzopyranone disulfate, fumaroprotocetric acid, protolichesteric acid, aucubin, acteoside) responsible for their activity. It also shows the possibility of reducing post-COVID-19 neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications, which can affect the functioning of the nervous system.
... Essential oils have both ecological benefits such as decreased residual actions and economical benefits such as diverse market values (Regnault-Roger, 1997) and increasing popularity among organic farmers and environmentally conscious consumers and hence used as green pesticides(Koul et al. 2008) Headaches and migraines: Research studies observed during 90's that headache pain can be relieved by mixing peppermint oil and ethanol oil and dapping on person foreheads and temples(Gobel et al. 1995). In addition, recent studies shows positive results that applying peppermint and lavender oil to the skin can reduce headache pain(Sasannejad et al. 2012). Headache remedy has been suggested by traditional Persian that headaches and migraines can be treated by applying a mixture of chamomile and sesame oil to the temples(Zargaran et al. 2014). ...
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Essential oils are aromatic liquids composed of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, phenols, sulphur and nitrogen components derived from the plant material. Essential oils are used in cosmetics, perfumes, medical industry. It has antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-cancerous, anti-microbial activity. Oils derived from the medicinal plants are non-toxic to normal cells which modulates the immune system. They play a major role in drug discovery. It retains the aroma of the original plant. There are many methods for extraction of essential oils. Steam distillation method is one among them and considered as the most common and efficient method. Supercritical CO 2 method is used for the extraction of pure, clean and safe essential oils which separates various metabolic components from the plant material. Supercritical CO 2 is regarded as the industry's gold standard which can show both the properties of liquid and gas. This method is carried out above critical temperature of 31 degree Celsius and 74 bar of critical pressure. Its main advantages includes faster separation speed, high productivity, CO 2 can be recycled. Extracts recovered by supercritical CO 2 extraction can be analysed by GC-MS analysis method. GC-MS has the ability for separation of complex mixtures and tracing very tiny level of contamination. This study revealed the significance and usefulness of essential oil which provides an approach towards better quality product composed of superior bioactive constituents.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate growth performance, selected biochemical blood parameters, and the microbiota of ileal digesta in broiler chickens provided with drinking water containing an addition of natural lavender essential oil (LEO). The experiment was carried out on a commercial farm using n = 300 unsexed Ross-308 broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to three groups of 100 chickens each (five replications, 20 individuals each). The control group broilers were provided with drinking water without the addition of LEO. Groups LEO1–42 and LEO22–42 had access to water containing 0.4 ml/L LEO (for 6 h/day) from days 1 to 42 (LEO1–42) and 22 to 42 (LEO22–42). Body weight, feed intake, water intake, and mortality were recorded throughout the experiment. The analyses reveal that the addition of LEO has a positive effect on body weight in the second period of rearing (d 22–24). Treatment broilers (LEO1–42 and LEO22–42) weighed on average 6.35% more compared to the control (P < 0.01). LEO addition positively affected weight gains and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01) in the second period of rearing (d 22–24). No differences were found between the groups feed intake, water intake, survival rate, and blood biochemical parameters (P > 0.05). The addition of LEO to drinking water had a positive impact on the gut microflora of the ileum: the numbers of pathogenic microorganisms decreased (Escherichia coli and coliform) while the number of probiotic bacteria increased (P < 0.01).
Article
Zusammenfassung Monoterpene können die Nozizeption, also die Wahrnehmung von Schmerzen im Körper, deutlich herabsetzen und haben so eine beruhigende Wirkung auf das Schmerzgeschehen. Dies macht man sich bei der Aromatherapie zunutze. Dieser sog. Counterirritant-Effekt, ausgelöst durch Monoterpene, wurde bereits in zahlreichen Studien nachgewiesen. Der Beitrag zeigt die breite Studienlage auf und geht auf verschiedene Studien in unterschiedlichen Schmerzarealen und Körperregionen ein.
Article
Objective: Gather scientific evidence on the application of inhalation aromatherapy for pain relief and estimate the effect measure of this practice on pain reduction. Methods: Searches were performed in 2021 in the Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Science direct, Lilacs, Scielo databases. We selected 44 articles demonstrating the effect of aromatherapy on different painful conditions, of which 17 were inserted in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was assessed according to Cochrane methodology. Results: In 35 (79.55%) studies was observed a significant reduction in pain, especially pain labor and postoperative pain. Through the meta-analysis, it was found that inhalation aromatherapy reduces by up to -1.73 points of the visual analog scale (VAS), indicating that this practice contributes to the reduction of pain perception in different painful conditions. In addition, the meta-analysis indicated that the time after inhalation, the type of oil used and the type of pain treated are important variables that interfere with the magnitude of the effect. These effects are attributed to the ability of essential oils to modulate nerve control centers and neurotransmission systems involved in pain control. Conclusion: From the gathering of articles on aromatherapy, it can be noted that aromatherapy appears to be helpful in alleviating acute pain, however there is an imminent need to improve aromatherapy studies to reduce the risk of bias and increase the power of its clinical evidence. Prospero: CRD42019121665.
Article
Background: The literature regarding clinical olfaction, olfactory loss, and olfactory dysfunction has expanded rapidly over the past two decades, with an exponential rise in the past year. There is substantial variability in the quality of this literature and a need to consolidate and critically review the evidence. It is with that aim that we have gathered experts from around the world to produce this International Consensus on Allergy and Rhinology: Olfaction (ICAR:O). Methods: Using previously described methodology, specific topics were developed relating to olfaction. Each topic was assigned a literature review, evidence-based review, or evidence-based review with recommendations format as dictated by available evidence and scope within the ICAR:O document. Following iterative reviews of each topic, the ICAR:O document was integrated and reviewed by all authors for final consensus. Results: The ICAR:O document reviews nearly 100 separate topics within the realm of olfaction, including diagnosis, epidemiology, disease burden, diagnosis, testing, etiology, treatment, and associated pathologies. Conclusion: This critical review of the existing clinical olfaction literature provides much needed insight and clarity into the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with olfactory dysfunction, while also clearly delineating gaps in our knowledge and evidence base that we should investigate further.
Thesis
La migraine est une pathologie caractérisée par des maux de tête qui nuisent à la qualité de vie de près de10 millions d'individus en France. En plus de son impact sur la vie sociale, elle engendre des dépenses desanté considérables. Les personnes touchées par cette maladie sont souvent non diagnostiquées ou sanstraitement approprié : elles ont trop fréquemment recours à l'automédication, ce qui peut conduire à unesurconsommation d'antalgiques et d'anti-inflammatoires.Après un rappel sur la physiopathologie de la migraine, ce travail a pour but de présenter les différentesvoies thérapeutiques pouvant être proposées en complément ou en remplacement des traitementsclassiques à l'officine. Elles comprennent une thérapie par les plantes comme la phytothérapie etl'aromathérapie, une prise en charge par la médecine chinoise avec l'acuponcture et la phytothérapiechinoise. Les traitements par l'homéopathie, la nutrithérapie ainsi que des techniques plus innovantescomme les injections de toxine botulique, la stimulation magnétique transcrânienne ou encorel'oxygénothérapie seront également détaillés.Le pharmacien tient un rôle prépondérant dans la prise en charge de cette maladie. Il doit savoir orientervers le médecin, trouver les conseils hygièno-diététiques et les traitements adaptés à chaquepatient; l'objectif étant l?amélioration de la qualité de vie en diminuant la fréquence et l'intensité descrises.
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Background Migraine is a disabling disease and conventional treatment has many side effects. Dietary supplements and various herbs have reported valuable effects on migraine. Aim The present study systematically review the effects of these dietary supplements and herbs on migraine. Methods The literature search was done on electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Science direct (2005–2015). The quality of articles was assessed through a criteria list of methodological quality assessment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The papers got C 50 points considered to be of good quality methodology. The maximum score was 100. Results Fourteen RCTs on migraine were included in this review. The range of quality score varied from 37 to 65 points. Conclusion Various RCTs suggested that dietary and vitamin supplementation and different herbs might be effective in treatment of migraine. Evaluated RCTs have various methodological shortcomings. So, a firm conclusion can’t be made for the efficacy of dietary supplementation and herbs in the treatment of migraine.
Article
This study explores essential oils' use by health care professionals for health maintenance. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed, and a convenience sample of 10 participants was interviewed. Four themes were identified: an essential oils' community, essential oils' use, essential oils' acceptance, and essential oils' benefits and harms.
Article
Objective: Complementary therapies have been increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of migraine so that there is a need for studies in this setting. This study sought to determine the effects of basil essential oil on the severity and frequency of migraine attack headaches. Methods: A triple-blind clinical trial study was performed on 144 patients diagnosed with migraine. Patients were randomly allocated by a stratified method to four groups of 36 titled basil essential oil 2, 4, 6%, and placebo groups. Medications were used topically every 8 h for 3 successive months. In addition, each individual received 325 mg of acetaminophen every 12 h. The severity and frequency of migraine attacks were measured prior to the study, at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. The visual analog scale was used to measure pain intensity. The marginal model and generalized estimation equations were used to compare changes in the intensity and frequency of pain over time. Results: The interaction of the dose and time factors was significant on both pain intensity (p < 0.001) and frequency of attack (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of higher pain intensity and rate ratio of higher frequency of attack in the intervention groups compared to the placebo group were decreased over the study time. Conclusion: Time lapse and higher doses of basil essential oil would reduce both the intensity and frequency of migraine attacks.
Article
Background: Disability due to headache in migraine and being chronic of it can lead to sadness and depression. Objective: This study was aimed to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy on depression and headache disability. Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 60 migraine patients referred to Toba Clinic of Sari (Mazandaran, Iran) during 2016-2017. Patients in the experimental group inhaled 2-3 drops of lavender essence for 15 min, three times a week for 4 consecutive weeks. The dose, duration and inhalation method of paraffin (as placebo) in control group were similar to those in the experimental group. Before the intervention, at the end of the second and fourth weeks, the intensity of depression and headache disability were measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and Jacobson questionnaire. For analyzing in each group and groups, repeated measure tests and Boneforeni were used. Results: In experimental group, depression (P
Article
The efficacy of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is supported by the literature to decrease preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain and opioid requirements, as well as nausea and vomiting and to improve severity of headaches and increase wound healing. Nursing care includes interventions using CAs for treatment of a range of patient needs. Being supportive while educating parents and patients demonstrates altruism, which also is beneficial for improving health outcomes with CAM.
Chapter
Nutraceuticals are pharmaceutical alternatives, which many patients use for management of their migraines. The American Academy of Neurology is in the process of updating their guidelines regarding nutraceuticals due to recent safety concerns. Magnesium, Vitamin D, Riboflavin, and Coq10 are better known examples; however, the list of options is extensive. Data for nutraceuticals is limited. Further studies should be completed to assess their effect on migraine and safety of use.
Article
Zusammenfassung Angststörungen sind als Gruppe betrachtet die häufigsten psychiatrischen Erkrankungen überhaupt, die Ein-Jahres-Prävalenz beträgt 14%. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden zunächst die wichtigsten klinischen Charakteristika dieser Erkrankungen vorgestellt und wie zu einer differentialdiagnostischen Einschätzung gelangt werden kann. Die wichtigsten Behandlungsmethoden für diese Störungen sind Psychotherapie und Pharmakotherapie. Bei letzterer Option besitzt das Phytopharmakon Silexan einen besonderen Stellenwert, da dessen Effektivität und Verträglichkeit in einer Reihe von doppelblinden, meist placebokontrollierten Studien im Indikationsbereich subsyndromale Angststörungen und generalisierte Angststörung gezeigt werden konnten; auch Metaanalysen über diese Studien bestätigten diese günstigen Ergebnisse. Zudem liegen Interaktionsstudien und spezielle Studien zur Fahrfähigkeit und zu dem Fehlen von Absetzeffekten vor. Insofern stellt Lavendelöl eine wertvolle Alternative zur Pharmakotherapie der Angststörungen dar.
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Since ancient times, humans have used aromatic plants and their extracts for religious rituals, perfumery, cosmetics, food manufacture and preservation, as well as for aromatherapy, disease control and for making medicinal drugs, which are needed nowadays inpharmaceutical industry. Essential oils, are essence extracted from the plant or from some of its parts, itcould be defined as natural metabolic secretions that has not yet fully understood. It can also be considered as real plant hormonesgives it anaromatic smell characterized by its strong concentration and easy volatilizationas it evaporates completely without leaving a greasy tracebehind it, these oils are extracted in different extraction methods.Essential oils havebeen used as an alternative medicine since Twelfth century, and became more widespread in the second half of the Sixteenth century. This has allowed modern chemistry to adopt ascientificapproach in usingit, which gave many publications and research during the Nineteenth and Twentieth century. As they have been proven to be good sources of biologically active compounds with medicinal properties, such as reducing fever, treating digestive and respiratory disorders and strengthening the immune system, in addition to its impact on anxiety and depression.This review paperis highlighting on some essential oils extracted from its medicinal plants and the methods of its extraction including the chemical structure of its most important components that give the therapeutic properties reflecting ongeneral healthand safet
Article
Importance Migraine is common and can be associated with significant morbidity, and several treatment options exist for acute therapy. Objective To evaluate the benefits and harms associated with acute treatments for episodic migraine in adults. Data Sources Multiple databases from database inception to February 24, 2021. Study Selection Randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews that assessed effectiveness or harms of acute therapy for migraine attacks. Data Extraction and Synthesis Independent reviewers selected studies and extracted data. Meta-analysis was performed with the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model with Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman variance correction or by using a fixed-effect model based on the Mantel-Haenszel method if the number of studies was small. Main Outcomes and Measures The main outcomes included pain freedom, pain relief, sustained pain freedom, sustained pain relief, and adverse events. The strength of evidence (SOE) was graded with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Findings Evidence on triptans and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was summarized from 15 systematic reviews. For other interventions, 115 randomized clinical trials with 28 803 patients were included. Compared with placebo, triptans and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used individually were significantly associated with reduced pain at 2 hours and 1 day (moderate to high SOE) and increased risk of mild and transient adverse events. Compared with placebo, calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists (low to high SOE), lasmiditan (5-HT1F receptor agonist; high SOE), dihydroergotamine (moderate to high SOE), ergotamine plus caffeine (moderate SOE), acetaminophen (moderate SOE), antiemetics (low SOE), butorphanol (low SOE), and tramadol in combination with acetaminophen (low SOE) were significantly associated with pain reduction and increase in mild adverse events. The findings for opioids were based on low or insufficient SOE. Several nonpharmacologic treatments were significantly associated with improved pain, including remote electrical neuromodulation (moderate SOE), transcranial magnetic stimulation (low SOE), external trigeminal nerve stimulation (low SOE), and noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (moderate SOE). No significant difference in adverse events was found between nonpharmacologic treatments and sham. Conclusions and Relevance There are several acute treatments for migraine, with varying strength of supporting evidence. Use of triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, dihydroergotamine, calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists, lasmiditan, and some nonpharmacologic treatments was associated with improved pain and function. The evidence for many other interventions, including opioids, was limited.
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The history of aroma and fragrance dates back through several ages and civilizations. The sagacity of smell plays a remarkable role for human being to recognize right food. Best fruits can be judged when they are ripe and fit for consumption emitting lovely smell or aroma. The same attribute from flowers attract insects leading to cross-pollination. India has enjoyed a paramount place in the fabrication of quality perfumes and aromatics since prehistoric era. The celebrated Chinese voyager Fa-Hien described India as the land of aromatic plants. Visitors, at Nawabi banquets, were welcomed essentially with attar. Indian cities like Delhi, Agra, Kannauj, Lucknow, Jaunpur, Ghazipur, Aligarh, Bharatpur, Mysore, and Hyderabad, emerged as centers of the national and international trade in perfumery and other aromatic compounds, and were known for their quality across Asia, Europe and Africa. Aromatic plants precisely possess odorous volatile substances in root, wood, bark, stem, foliage, flower and fruit. The typical aroma is due to an assortment of composite chemical compounds. At present, information on the chemistry and properties of essential oils of only about 500 aromatic plants species is known in some detail out of a total of about 1500. Of these, about 50 species find use as commercial source of essential oils and aroma chemicals. It is realized now that perfumes are not the essentials of sumptuousness as they were in the past. It has given birth to new streams of medicinal therapy, aromatherapy, involving the use of essential oils and aromatics derived from plants to treat diseases. Essential oils are also reported to be better than antibiotics due to their safety and broad spectrum activity. Natural essential oils are also potentially safe insecticides. The essential oil obtained from Acorus calamus having ß-asarone as an active principle, produces sterility among a variety of insects of either sex. It has, therefore, been found very useful and secure for the storage of food grains. However, there is still very inadequate research for the cultivation of aromatic crops and extraction of essential oils across the globe. This book has been designed to highlight the associated issues of aromatic plants including the aspects of their classification, importance, uses and applications for human wellbeing, botany, agrotechniques, major bioactive constituents, post harvest extraction, chemistry and biochemistry of aroma compounds alongwith an informative modern global research on these plants throughout the world. Hope this book will cater the scholastic services and rewards to diverse professionals and stakeholders and serve as an informative handbook for theoretical as well as practical purposes.
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Essential oils or volatile oils are natural products that have a large series of uses in the food and cosmetic sectors. According to their intended use, essential oils are subjected to various European guidelines that aim to protect the health and safety of consumers. Volatile oils present important biological activities, some of the most known being their antimicrobial properties, but other potential therapeutic indications for such products have been more recently suggested, as well. However, they are not necessarily harmless and can present an important sensitizing potential. Essential oils have been administered through different routes, including inhalations and skin applications, in the treatment of stress and anxiety. Regardless of the route of administration, aromatherapy deeply relies on the sense of smell and its connection with the limbic system. Nevertheless, outside of the principles of aromatherapy, numerous scientific studies have revealed their potential beneficial implications in Alzheimer’s and other neurological disorders. © 2020, Romanian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
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The first 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' by The International Headache Society (1988) was a major landmark document. It helped develop a common language for understanding headaches and advanced research in this neglected field. It was found to be useful, but because it was complex and cumbersome, it remained underutilised in practice. An evidence-based revised second edition was launched in 2004. This article analyses the Contributions and Limitations of this Classification. The important changes that pertain to 'Migraine' in the revised 2004 Classification have been listed. It is hoped that this Classification will be used more often in practice not only by Neurologists but by all who see headache patients in their routine practice.
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Folk and traditional therapeutic use of the essential oil of English lavender for pain, infection, relaxation, and sedation dates back centuries. Current research focusing on the inherent synergism of Lavandula angustifolia Miller demonstrates great potential for future applications. Today's investigations may provide the key to eradicating degenerative inflammatory disease, infectious disease, and carcinogenesis.
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The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs. In particular the correlation of the motility of the animals to linalool in serum is experimentally proven, thus furnishing evidence of the aromatherapeutical use of herbal pillows employed in folk medicine since ancient times in order to facilitate falling asleep or to minimize stressful situations of man.
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Although the migraine clinical trials literature is enormous, we identified only nine published double-blind studies which compare an oral triptan with a non-triptan acute treatment. Of the nine comparative trials that met inclusion criteria for this review, six compared sumatriptan with other drugs, zolmitriptan was studied in two trials and eletriptan in one trial. In seven of the nine studies reviewed herein, differences between active treatments on the primary endpoints were not dramatic. Experience in clinical practice suggests that, for many patients, oral triptans are superior to non-specific acute treatments, creating a discrepancy between clinical trials results and clinical practice experience. Four possible explanations for the disparities between clinical trials and clinical practice are likely: (i) statistically significant differences may not have emerged because the studies lack adequate statistical power; (ii) patients treated with triptans in clinical practice may be relatively more responsive to triptans and relatively less responsive to other agents than those who participate in clinical trials (patient selection); (iii) headache response at 2 h, as measured in clinical trials, may not fully capture the benefits of triptans relative to other therapies, as assessed in clinical practice; (iv) waiting until pain is moderate or severe, as required in clinical trials, may disadvantage triptans relative to comparators.
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An evidence-based systematic review including scientific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
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The antifungal activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil) and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, was investigated against 50 clinical isolates of Candida albicans (28 oropharyngeal strains, 22 vaginal strains) and C. albicans ATCC 3153. Growth inhibition, killing time and inhibition of germ tube formation were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lavender oil inhibited C. albicans growth: mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.69% (vol./vol.) (vaginal strains) and 1.04% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 1.1% (vaginal strains) and 1.8% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalool was more effective than essential oil: mean MIC of 0.09% (vaginal strains) and 0.29% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 0.1% (vaginal strains) and 0.3% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalyl acetate was almost ineffective. Lavender oil (2%) killed 100% of the C. albicans ATCC 3153 cells within 15 min; linalool (0.5%) killed 100% of the cells within 30 s. The essential oil inhibited germ tube formation (mean MIC of 0.09%), as did the main components (MIC of 0.11% for linalool and 0.08% for linalyl acetate). Both the essential oil and its main components inhibited hyphal elongation of C. albicans ATCC 3153 (about 50% inhibition at 0.016% with each substance). Lavender oil shows both fungistatic and fungicidal activity against C. albicans strains. At lower concentrations, it inhibits germ tube formation and hyphal elongation, indicating that it is effective against C. albicans dimorphism and may thus reduce fungal progression and the spread of infection in host tissues.
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Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.
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This review provides a comprehensive selection of the latest clinical trial results in antimigraine treatment. The oral calcitonine gene-related peptide antagonist telcagepant is efficacious in acute treatment. Compared to triptans, its efficacy is almost comparable but its tolerance is superior. The same is true for the 5HT-1F agonist lasmiditan, another agent devoid of vascular effects. Triptans, as other drugs, are more efficient if taken early but nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics remain useful for acute treatment, according to several meta-analyses. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation during the aura rendered more patients pain-free (39%) than sham stimulation (22%) in one study. Topiramate could be effective for migrainous vertigo, but it did not prevent transformation to chronic migraine in patients with high attack frequency. Onabotulinumtoxin A was effective for chronic migraine and well tolerated, but the therapeutic gain over placebo was modest; the clinical profile of responders remains to be determined before widespread use. Occipital nerve stimulation was effective in intractable chronic migraine with 39% of responders compared to 6% after sham stimulation. This and other neuromodulation techniques, such as sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, are promising treatments for medically refractory patients but large controlled trials are necessary. One study suggests that outcome of patent foramen ovale closure in migraine might depend on anatomic and functional characteristics. Drugs with a better efficacy or side-effect profile than triptans may soon become available for acute treatment. The future may also look brighter for some of the very disabled chronic migraineurs thanks to novel drug and neuromodulation therapies.
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Episiotomy is the most common perineal incision in obstetric and midwifery. Nowadays alternative and complementary methods such as Aromatherapy using essential oils are established as an alternative therapy. This research was carried out to assess the effect of lavender oil in wound healing. This randomized control trial was conducted on 120 primiparous women with singleton pregnancy, without any acute and chronic disease and allergy who had undergone normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and episiotomy. They were randomly allocated in case and control groups. Case group received lavender oil and controls received povidone-iodine. Incision sites were assessed on the 10th day postpartum. 25 out of 60 women in lavender group and 17 mothers in control group had no pain (p = 0.06). There was no significant difference between two groups in surgery site complications. However, redness in lavender group was significantly less than controls (p < 0.001). This study suggests application of lavender essential oil instead of povidone-iodine for episiotomy wound care.
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An otherwise healthy 23-year-old woman presents to her internist with a report of headaches and associated symptoms that occur twice a month. A diagnosis of migraine without aura is made. The patient's headaches last up to a day and cause her to miss work. The headaches have not responded reliably to analgesics or to combinations of analgesics with caffeine. Her internist has previously recommended the combination of aspirin and metoclopramide, which usually diminishes but does not eliminate her headache pain. On one occasion, her headache progressed despite treatment, and the patient went to the emergency department. She received subcutaneous sumatriptan for a presumptive diagnosis of migraine. Her headache and nausea resolved, but she had a sensation of mild chest pressure for about 5 minutes, without associated symptoms. Her internist refers her to a headache specialist with the question of what therapy should be used to treat her headache episodes.
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Multiple parenteral medications are used to treat migraine and other acute primary headaches in the emergency department (ED). Regardless of specific headache diagnosis, no medication eliminates the frequent recurrence of primary headache after ED discharge. It is uncertain which medication primary headache patients should be given on discharge from an ED. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of oral sumatriptan with naproxen for treatment of post-ED recurrent primary headache. This was a randomized, double-blind efficacy trial. We randomized patients to either naproxen 500 mg or sumatriptan 100 mg for headache recurrence after ED discharge. Patients were eligible if they received parenteral therapy for an acute exacerbation of a primary headache in the ED. Patients who met established criteria for migraine without aura were designated a priori as a homogenous subgroup of interest. We followed all patients by telephone 48 hours after ED discharge. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in change in pain intensity during the 2-hour period after ingestion of either 500 mg naproxen or 100 mg sumatriptan. This difference was measured on a validated 11-point (0 to 10) verbal numeric rating scale (NRS). Satisfaction with the medication and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients who met criteria for migraine without aura were analyzed twice according to a priori design: once as a homogenous subgroup and then again combined with all other primary headaches. Of 410 patients randomized, 383 (93%) had outcome data available for analysis. Two hundred eighty (73%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 68% to 77%) reported headache post-ED discharge and 196 (51%; 95% CI 44% to 58%), including 88 with migraine, took the investigational medication provided to them. The naproxen group improved by a mean of 4.3 NRS points, whereas the sumatriptan group improved by 4.1 points (95% CI for difference of 0.2 points: -0.7 to 1.1 points). Findings were virtually identical among the migraine subset (4.3 versus 4.2 NRS points; 95% CI for difference of 0.1 points: -1.3 to 1.5 points). Seventy-one percent (95% CI 62% to 80%) of naproxen patients and 75% (95% CI 66% to 84%) of sumatriptan patients would want to take the same medication the next time. Adverse effect profiles were also comparable. In this trial, nearly three quarters of patients reported headache recurrence within 48 hours of ED discharge. Naproxen 500 mg and sumatriptan 100 mg taken orally relieve post-ED recurrent primary headache and migraine comparably. Clinicians should be guided by medication costs, contraindications, and a patient's previous experience with the medication.
Article
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acetaminophen 1000 mg for the treatment of episodic migraine headache. While acetaminophen is commonly used to treat migraine, there have been limited published clinical trial efficacy results. Ten investigators at 13 private, ambulatory, primary care sites in the United States enrolled and treated 346 outpatient adults 18-72 years of age with migraine headache of moderate to severe intensity into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of 6 hours duration. Each patient was randomly assigned to a single dose of study medication of acetaminophen 1000 mg (n = 177) or placebo (n = 169). The percentage of patients with a reduction in baseline headache pain intensity from severe or moderate to mild or none 2 hours after treatment and the headache pain intensity difference from baseline at 2 hours were the primary efficacy measures. Other measures of pain relief, severity differences from baseline for migraine-associated symptoms of nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and functional disability, and percentage of patients with migraine-associated symptoms reduced to none were also assessed. Significantly (P = .001) more patients treated with acetaminophen 1000 mg reported mild to no pain after 2 hours (52.0%) compared with those treated with placebo (32.0%). The mean pain intensity difference from baseline measured at 2 hours was significantly (P < .001) greater for patients treated with acetaminophen 1000 mg (0.82) compared with those treated with placebo (0.46). A significant difference in favor of acetaminophen 1000 mg over placebo was also observed at 1 hour after treatment for the percentage of patients with mild to no pain and for mean pain intensity difference from baseline. Acetaminophen 1000 mg was significantly more effective than placebo for all but 1 (pain reduced to none at 2 hours) clinically important secondary pain relief outcomes. Mean severity changes from baseline in migraine-associated symptoms of nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and functional disability at 2 and 6 hours were significantly (P < .001) in favor of acetaminophen over placebo; the percentage of patients with no symptoms at 2 and 6 hours statistically significantly favored acetaminophen in 6 of 8 comparisons. Adverse events, overall, and specifically for nausea, were reported more frequently in the placebo group. Acetaminophen 1000 mg, a nonprescription drug, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for episodic and moderate migraine headache. In addition, acetaminophen generally provided a beneficial effect on associated symptoms of migraine including nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and functional disability.
Article
This article is based on work into the sexual health needs of people with learning disabilities, carried out by a working group of the RCN Family Planning Forum. Literature searches were conducted, and local initiatives, specialist services and information sources for training and education for clients and staff were identified. The authors' aim in this article is to increase awareness among those involved in the care of people with learning disabilities and those providing family planning and sexual health services, so that these services are appropriate, accessible and sensitive to the needs of this vulnerable client group.
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In an attempt to redress the lack of research into the use of complementary therapy in the nursing care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the author studied the effects of massage and aromatherapy on patients' wellbeing.
Article
The antibacterial activity of 14 essential oils and their major constituents in the gaseous state was evaluated against Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. For most essential oils examined, H. influenzae was most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, and then S. aureus. Penicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae were comparable in susceptibility. Escherichia coli, which was used as a control, showed least susceptibility. A minimal inhibitory dose (MID) was introduced as a measure of the vapour activity. Among 14 essential oils, cinnamon bark, lemongrass and thyme oils showed the lowest MID, followed by essential oils containing terpene alcohols as major constituents. The essential oils containing terpene ketone, ether and, in particular, hydrocarbon had high MIDs. The vapour activity on short exposure was comparable to that following overnight exposure, and rapid evaporation was more effective than slow evaporation of essential oils. The vapour concentration and absorption into agar of essential oils reached a maximum 1 or 2 h after rapid evaporation. These results indicate that the antibacterial action of essential oils was most effective when at high vapour concentration for a short time.
Article
The triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are very effective acute migraine drugs. Soon, seven different triptans will be clinically available at 13 different oral doses, making evidence-based selection guidelines necessary. Triptan trials have similar designs, facilitating meta-analysis. We wished to provide an evidence-based foundation for using triptans in clinical practice, and to review the methodological issues surrounding triptan trials. We asked pharmaceutical companies and the principal investigators of company-independent trials for the ‘raw patient data’ of all double-blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trials with oral triptans in migraine. All data were cross-checked with published or presented data. We calculated summary estimates across studies for important efficacy and tolerability parameters, and compared these with those from direct, head-to-head, comparator trials. Out of 76 eligible clinical trials, 53 (12 not yet published) involving 24 089 patients met the criteria for inclusion. Mean results (and 95% confidence intervals) for sumatriptan 100 mg, the first available and most widely prescribed oral triptan, are 59% (57–60) for 2 h headache response (improvement from moderate or severe to mild or no pain); 29% (27–30) for 2 h pain free (improvement to no pain); 20% (18–21) for sustained pain free (pain free by 2 h and no headache recurrence or use of rescue medication 2–24 h post-dose), and 67% (63–70) for consistency (response in at least two out of three treated attacks); placebo-subtracted proportions for patients with at least one adverse event (AE) are 13% (8–18), for at least one central nervous system AE 6% (3–9), and for at least one chest AE 1.9% (1.0–2.7). Compared with these data: rizatriptan 10 mg shows better efficacy and consistency, and similar tolerability; eletriptan 80 mg shows better efficacy, similar consistency, but lower tolerability; almotriptan 12.5 mg shows similar efficacy at 2 h but better sustained pain-free response, consistency, and tolerability; sumatriptan 25 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and eletriptan 20 mg show lower efficacy and better tolerability; zolmitriptan 2.5 mg and 5 mg, eletriptan 40 mg, and rizatriptan 5 mg show very similar results. The results of the 22 trials that directly compared triptans show the same overall pattern. We received no data on frovatriptan, but publicly available data suggest substantially lower efficacy. The major methodological issues involve the choice of the primary endpoint, consistency over multiple attacks, how to evaluate headache recurrence, use of placebo-subtracted proportions to control for across-study differences, and the difference between tolerability and safety. In addition, there are a number of methodological issues specific for direct comparator trials, including encapsulation and patient selection. At marketed doses, all oral triptans are effective and well tolerated. Differences among them are in general relatively small, but clinically relevant for individual patients. Rizatriptan 10 mg, eletriptan 80 mg and almotriptan 12.5 mg provide the highest likelihood of consistent success. Sumatriptan features the longest clinical experience and the widest range of formulations. All triptans are contra-indicated in the presence of cardiovascular disease.
Article
Two important aspects of psychological well-being are positive mood state and a positive outlook with respect to the future. This study investigates the use of lavender baths to improve these aspects of psychological well-being. A single blind, randomised control trial. The participants' home and interview rooms at the University of Wolverhampton. Eighty women not receiving treatment for psychological disorders who were staff or students at the University of Wolverhampton. Forty participated in Study 1 and 40 in Study 2. Participants were randomly allocated to use either grapeseed oil or 80% grapeseed oil and 20% lavender oil in their bath for 14 days. In Study 1, the UWIST mood adjective checklist. In Study 2, the MacLeod and Byrne Future Events procedure. In Study 1 psychologically positive mood changes were found after the bathing regimen for energetic arousal, tense arousal, hedonic tone and anger-frustration. Only anger-frustration showed a selective effect for lavender oil. In the second study negative responses about the future were selectively reduced after lavender oil baths. These results are encouraging and suggest further investigation using potential patients may result in the development of a useful procedure for improving psychological well-being.
Article
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil, chiefly composed of linalyl acetate (51%) and linalool (35%), is considered to be one of the mildest of known plant essential oils and has a history in wound healing. Concerns are building about the potential for irritant or allergenic skin reactions with the use of lavender oil. This study has demonstrated that lavender oil is cytotoxic to human skin cells in vitro (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v) in all cell types tested (HMEC-1, HNDF and 153BR). The major components of the oil, linalyl acetate and linalool, were also assayed under similar conditions for their cytotoxicity. The activity of linalool reflected that of the whole oil, indicating that linalool may be the active component of lavender oil. Linalyl acetate cytotoxicity was higher than that of the oil itself, suggesting suppression of its activity by an unknown factor in the oil. Membrane damage is proposed as the possible mechanism of action.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of olfactory absorption of two commonly used therapeutic essential oils on sensory and affective responses to experimentally induced pain. A sex-balanced (13 men and 13 women) randomized crossover design was used to obtain pre- and posttreatment change scores for quantitative sensory ratings of contact heat, pressure, and ischemic pain across separate inhalation treatment conditions using essential oil of lavender, essential oil of rosemary, and distilled water (control). Subjective reports of treatment-related changes in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were obtained for each condition using a visual analog scale. We interpret our findings with respect to the separate dimensions of sensory and affective processing of pain. Analyses revealed the absence of changes in quantitative pain sensitivity ratings between conditions. However, retrospectively, subjects' global impression of treatment outcome indicated that both pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were reduced after treatment with lavender and marginally reduced after treatment with rosemary, compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that aromatherapy may not elicit a direct analgesic effect but instead may alter affective appraisal of the experience and consequent retrospective evaluation of treatment-related pain.
Article
To assess the efficacy of acupressure using an aromatic essential oil (lavender) as an add-on treatment for pain relief and enhancing physical functional activities among adults with sub-acute non-specific neck pain. Experimental study design. The Telehealth clinic and the community centre, Hong Kong. A course of 8-session manual acupressure with lavender oil over a 3 week period. Changes from baseline to the end of treatment were assessed on neck pain intensity [by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)]; stiffness level; stress level; neck lateral flexion, forward flexion and extension in cm, and interference with daily activities. The baseline VAS score for the intervention and control groups were 5.12 and 4.91 out of 10, respectively (P = 0.72). One month after the end of treatment, compared to the control group, the manual acupressure group had 23% reduced pain intensity (P = 0.02), 23% reduced neck stiffness (P = 0.001), 39% reduced stress level (P = 0.0001), improved neck flexion (P = 0.02), neck lateral flexion (P = 0.02), and neck extension (P = 0.01). However, improvements in functional disability level were found in both the manual acupressure group (P = 0.001) and control group (P = 0.02). Our results show that eight sessions of acupressure with aromatic lavender oil were an effective method for short-term neck pain relief.
Article
In a preliminary experiment, we found that lavender essential oil relaxes vascular smooth muscle. Thus, the present experiments were designed to investigate the relaxation mechanism of linalyl acetate as the major ingredient of lavender essential oil in rabbit carotid artery specimens. Linalyl acetate produced sustained and progressive relaxation during the contraction caused by phenylephrine. The relaxation effect of linalyl acetate at a concentration near the EC50 was partially but significantly attenuated by nitroarginine as an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one as an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, or by the denudation of endothelial cells. In specimens without endothelium, the phenylephrine-induced contraction and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) were significantly attenuated after the pretreatment with linalyl acetate. The relaxation caused by linalyl acetate in the endothelium-denuded specimens was clearly inhibited by calyculin A as an inhibitor of MLC phosphatase, although not by ML-9 as an inhibitor of MLC kinase. Furthermore, suppression of the phenylephrine-induced contraction and MLC phosphorylation with linalyl acetate was canceled by the pretreatment with calyculin A. These results suggest that linalyl acetate relaxes the vascular smooth muscle through partially activation of nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, and partially MLC dephosphorylation via activating MLC phosphatase.
Article
Randomized clinical trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of a back support plus education versus education alone in promoting recovery from a work-related low back disorder (WR-LBD) while simultaneously considering personal, health, and occupational factors and the impact of occupational factors on recovery. No randomized studies of active industrial workers with low back disorders exist regarding the effectiveness of back supports plus education. A total of 433 actively employed hourly union workers who had a recent diagnosis of a WR-LBD: 1) those who wore a specially designed back support plus received education on back health; and 2) those who received education on back health only. Demographic, health, medical, and occupational factors were obtained through interview or abstraction of computer files; individual ergonomic exposures were measured with a lumbar motion monitor. Outcomes evaluated over a 12-month period included: self-reported measures of back pain, back pain disability level, physical health, mental health, and administrative measures of recurrence, lost work time, and medical care utilization. There was no difference between the study groups with respect to mental or physical health, low back pain, back pain disability, neurogenic symptoms, lost work time, likelihood of recurrence of an episode of a back disorder, or other administrative measures of healthcare utilization or lost work time. However, significant decreases in low back pain, low back pain disability, neurogenic symptoms, and an increase in physical health were observed over the 12 months of observation in both study groups. The only occupational variable found to influence was plant group whereby service parts operations workers in the back support plus education group experienced a lower likelihood of WR-LBD recurrence. Although there was no overall effect on self-reported recovery or administrative measures or lost work time between the study groups, a back support plus health education may have some value in preventing recurrent WR-LBD in industrial workers who work in psychosocial environments and perform manual material handling tasks similar to those found in parts distribution centers.
Article
Extracts obtained from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. For evaluation of its probable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, hydroalcoholic extract, polyphenolic fraction and essential oil of the leaves of the herb were prepared and their analgesic effects were studied in mice using formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Carrageenan test in rats was used for assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of above-mentioned fractions. Results showed that while the hydroalcoholic extract (400-1600 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited only the second phase of formalin test, the polyphenolic fraction (800 and 1600 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) suppressed both phases. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, polyphenolic fraction (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal constrictions. Essential oil at a dose of 200mg/kg also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results of the present study confirm the traditional use of Lavandula angustifolia for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions and calls for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s).
) -contributions, limitations and suggestions
  • K Ravishankar
Ravishankar K: The 'IHS' Classification (1988, 2004) -contributions, limitations and suggestions. J Assoc Physicians India 2010; 58(suppl):7-9.
  • Basch E