Total daily physical activity and the risk of AD and cognitive decline in older adults

Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 04/2012; 78(17):1323-9. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182535d35
Source: PubMed


Studies examining the link between objective measures of total daily physical activity and incident Alzheimer disease (AD) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that an objective measure of total daily physical activity predicts incident AD and cognitive decline.
Total daily exercise and nonexercise physical activity was measured continuously for up to 10 days with actigraphy (Actical®; Philips Healthcare, Bend, OR) from 716 older individuals without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a prospective, observational cohort study. All participants underwent structured annual clinical examination including a battery of 19 cognitive tests.
During an average follow-up of about 4 years, 71 subjects developed clinical AD. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, and education, total daily physical activity was associated with incident AD (hazard ratio = 0.477; 95% confidence interval 0.273-0.832). The association remained after adjusting for self-report physical, social, and cognitive activities, as well as current level of motor function, depressive symptoms, chronic health conditions, and APOE allele status. In a linear mixed-effect model, the level of total daily physical activity was associated with the rate of global cognitive decline (estimate 0.033, SE 0.012, p = 0.007).
A higher level of total daily physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of AD.

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Available from: Patricia A Boyle, Apr 02, 2014
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    • "Examples of aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services includes bicycle riding, dancing, vacuuming, walking, carrying groceries, washing windows or floors, and yard work/gardening (2008). It should be noted that these recommendations include activities that are considered " nonexercise " activities (e.g., vacuuming), which highlights the previously mentioned findings of Buchman et al. (2012). It is important to note that as the body ages, the cardiovascular system declines in maximal aerobic performance due to a decrease in cardiac output and oxygen uptake at the site of the muscles (Skinner, Tipton, & Vailas, 1982). "
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    ABSTRACT: As the world becomes more populated and more medically advanced, more people are starting to live longer. There are growing concerns for the health and well-being of an ever-growing population. Aging is accompanied by a series of changes, cognitive decline being one of them. As health becomes more challenging, physical activity may become more cumbersome. However, in many instances, physical activity has been found to prevent and delay cognitive decline. In fact, exercise may prove to be a powerful preventative measure against cognitive impairment in older adults. The aim of this chapter is to explore the evidence base of the effects of physical activity on cognitive decline prevention as well as to review the recommended guidelines for physical activity in this population based on findings in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Annual review of gerontology & geriatrics
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    • "This study has several limitations. First, information about PA was collected by a self-report questionnaire more weighted toward functionality at home and walking abilities, whereas other studies have used a daytime actigraphy to measure PA objectively (Buchman et al., 2012). Second, non-exercise PA in daily life was not measured, which may play an important role on the benefits of total activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze whether physical activity (PA) is a protective factor for the incidence of dementia after 3 years of follow-up. The Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) is a prospective population-based survey of older adults (age 65 years and older) that comprised 5278 census-based participants at baseline (1994-1995). A broad questionnaire was used to assess participants' sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and lifestyle. Subsequently, a modified version of Rosow-Breslau questionnaire was applied to classify individuals' baseline PA into groups (i.e., sedentary, light, moderate, and high). Cox regression models adjusted for several covariates (age, sex, education, previous stroke, alcohol consumption, hypertension, health related variables) were carried out to estimate the association between the PA groups and risk of dementia at the 3-year follow-up (1997-1998). A total of 134 incident dementia cases were identified among 3105 individuals (56.6% female; mean age=73.15±6.26) after 3 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) of the light, moderate, and high PA groups (vs. sedentary group) were 0.40 (95% confidence interval {CI} [0.26, 0.62]; p<.001), 0.32 (95% CI [0.20, 0.54]; p<.001) and 0.23 (95% CI [0.13, 0.40]; p<.001), respectively. Even after controlling for covariates and the exclusion of doubtful dementia cases, HRs remained significant. However, a supplementary analysis showed that the dose-effect hypothesis did not reach statistical significance. PA is a protective factor of incident dementia in this population-based cohort. (JINS, 2015, 21, 861-867).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
    • "Notably, higher levels of physical activity are associated with increased survival, better physical functioning and mobility, lower risk of frailty, and better mental health among older adults (Buchman et al., 2012; Morie et al., 2010; Santos et al., 2012; Theou et al., 2012; Vallance et al., 2011). A number of studies have documented a significant decline in the duration and intensity of physical activity with age (Brown et al., 2005; Davis and Fox, 2007; Evenson et al., 2012; Hansen et al., 2012; Westerterp and Meijer, 2001); however, most studies have used self-report data and those that use objective measures such as accelerometry or doubly labeled water (DLW) have been conducted almost exclusively among populations in high-income countries such as the United States. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Accelerometry provides researchers with a powerful tool to measure physical activity in population-based studies, yet this technology has been underutilized in cross-cultural studies of older adults. The present study was conducted among older adults in an urban setting in India with the following three objectives: (1) to compare average activity levels obtained through different durations of monitoring (1, 3, and 7 days); (2) to document differences in physical activity patterns by sex and age; and (3) to evaluate links between measures of physical activity and anthropometrics, as well as between activity parameters and measures of household size, work status, and social cohesion. Methods: The present study uses data from a physical activity substudy of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE-PA). This study of 200 older adults (49-90 years old; 72 males, 128 females) in urban India combines 7 continuous days of ActiGraph GT3X accelerometry with anthropometric and sociodemographic data. Results: Results reveal overall low activity levels, with significantly lower activity energy expenditure (AEE) among females (P < 0.05). No significant differences were documented in activity level by monitoring duration. Age was negatively correlated with AEE in men (P < 0.01) and women (P < 0.001). AEE was positively correlated with BMI in men (P < 0.01) and women (P < 0.05). Finally, women who were more socially integrated had greater AEE (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study illustrates the utility of accelerometry for quantifying activity levels in aging populations in non-Western nations. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Human Biology
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