An examination of the Clinical Impairment Assessment among women at high risk for eating disorder onset

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Bethesda, MD 20815, USA.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 03/2012; 50(6):407-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.009
Source: PubMed


Identifying measures that reliably and validly assess clinical impairment has important implications for eating disorder (ED) diagnosis and treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) in women at high risk for ED onset. Participants were 543 women (20.6 ± 2.0 years) who were classified into one of three ED categories: clinical ED, high risk for ED onset, and low risk control. Among high risk women, the CIA demonstrated high internal consistency (α = 0.93) and good convergent validity with disordered eating attitudes (rs = 0.27-0.68, ps < 0.001). Examination of the CIA's discriminant validity revealed that CIA global scores were highest among women with a clinical ED (17.7 ± 10.7) followed by high risk women (10.6 ± 8.5) and low risk controls (3.0 ± 3.3), respectively (p < 0.001). High risk women reporting behavioral indices of ED psychopathology (objective and/or subjective binge episodes, purging behaviors, driven exercise, and ED treatment history) had higher CIA global scores than those without such indices (ps < 0.05), suggesting good criterion validity. These data establish the first norms for the CIA in a United States sample. The CIA is psychometrically sound among high risk women, and heightened levels of impairment among these individuals as compared to low risk women verify the relevance of early intervention efforts.

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Available from: Anna Vannucci, Mar 21, 2014
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    • "The CIA is used on patients of 18 years and older. The CIA has shown good psychometric properties in clinical (Bohn et al., 2008; Bohn and Fariburn, 2008), high risk (Vannucci et al., 2012) and community samples (Reas et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing clinically meaningful change is valuable for treatment planning, monitoring course of illness and evaluating outcome. Although DSM eating disorder (ED) diagnoses have been criticized for poor clinical utility, instability, and uncertainty, remission/change of diagnosis is often the standard for evaluating outcome. We tested the validity of the clinically significant reliable change index (CS/RCI) compared to change in DSM-IV ED-diagnoses. We investigated if CS/RCI was concordant to diagnostic change and compared explained variance on measures at follow-up. Using a database for specialized ED treatment in Sweden the sample contained 1042 female patients (246 adolescents/796 adults). CS/RCI was calculated for the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). CS/RCI explained more variance in gain scores for psychopathology measures than diagnostic change (DSM-IV). Average agreement between diagnostic change and CS/RCI were 62% and 60% for CIA and EDE-Q, respectively. Diagnostic change always resulted in more positive outcome than CS/RCI. Together with clinical judgment, CS/RCI is a valuable method for determining clinically significant changes in clinical practice and research. It is economically sound and results are easily interpreted and communicated to patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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    • "Cronbach’s alpha for the present sample was 0.92. The CIA has shown good psychometric properties in clinical [36,37], high risk [38] and community samples [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses have been criticized for lack of clinical utility, diagnostic instability, and over-inclusiveness of the residual category “ED not otherwise specified” (EDNOS). Revisions made in DSM-5 attempt to generate a more scientifically valid and clinically relevant system of ED classification. The aim with the present study was to examine clinical characteristics and distinctiveness of the new DSM-5 ED diagnoses, especially concerning purging disorder (PD). Methods Using a large naturalistic Swedish ED database, 2233 adult women were diagnosed using DSM-5. Initial and 1-year follow-up psychopathology data were analyzed. Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Structural Eating Disorder Interview, Clinical Impairment Assessment, Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Results Few meaningful differences emerged between anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype (ANB/P), PD, and bulimia nervosa (BN). Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorders (UFED) showed significantly less severity compared to other groups. Conclusions PD does not appear to constitute a distinct diagnosis, the distinction between atypical AN and PD requires clarification, and minimum inclusion criteria for UFED are needed. Further sub-classification is unlikely to improve clinical utility. Instead, better delineation of commonalities is important.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Eating Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators. The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview. Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience—and possibly the indicators of impaired control—may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating. © 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013)
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · International Journal of Eating Disorders
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