Knottnerus BJ, Grigoryan L, Geerlings SE, et al. Comparative effectiveness of antibiotics for uncomplicated urinary tract infections: network meta-analysis of randomized trials
Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam.Family Practice (Impact Factor: 1.86). 04/2012; 29(6). DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cms029
BACKGROUND: The efficacies and adverse effects of different antibiotics for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been studied by standard meta-analytic methods using pairwise direct comparisons of antimicrobial treatments: the effects of one treatment are compared to those of either another treatment or placebo. However, for clinical decisions, we need to know the effectiveness of each possible treatment in comparison with all relevant alternatives, not with just one. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacies and adverse effects of all relevant antibiotics for UTI treatment simultaneously by performing a network meta-analysis using direct and indirect treatment comparisons. METHODS: Using logistic regression analysis, we performed a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published after 1999 that compared different oral antibiotic or placebo regimens for UTI treatment in general practice or outpatient settings. We looked at five binary outcomes: early clinical, early bacteriological, late clinical and late bacteriological outcomes, as well as adverse effects. Consequently, a ranking of the antibiotic regimens could be composed. RESULTS: Using a network structure, we could compare and rank nine treatments from 10 studies. Overall, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin appeared the most effective treatments, and amoxicillin-clavulanate appeared the least effective treatment. In terms of adverse effects, there were no significant differences.Discussion.Network meta-analysis shows some clear efficacy differences between different antibiotic treatments for UTI in women. It provides a useful tool for clinical decision making in everyday practice. Moreover, the method can be used for meta-analyses of RCTs across primary care and beyond.
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ABSTRACT: This is the second annual summary of top research studies in primary care. In 2012, through regular surveillance of more than 100 English-language clinical research journals, seven clinicians identified 270 studies with the potential to change primary care practice, called POEMs, or patient-oriented evidence that matters. These studies were then summarized in brief, structured critical appraisals and e-mailed to subscribers, including members of the Canadian Medical Association. A validated tool was used to obtain feedback from these physicians about the clinical relevance of each POEM and the benefits the physicians expected for their practice. The 20 identified research studies rated as most relevant cover common topics such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease prevention, infectious disease, musculoskeletal disease and exercise, cancer screening, and women's health.
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ABSTRACT: Importance Urinary tract infection is among the most common reasons for an outpatient visit and antibiotic use in adult populations. The increasing prevalence of antibacterial resistance among community uropathogens affects the diagnosis and management of this clinical syndrome.Objectives To define the optimal approach for treating acute cystitis in young healthy women and in women with diabetes and men and to define the optimal approach for diagnosing acute cystitis in the outpatient setting.Evidence Review Evidence for optimal treatment regimens was obtained by searching PubMed and the Cochrane database for English-language studies published up to July 21, 2014.Findings Twenty-seven randomized clinical trials (6463 patients), 6 systematic reviews, and 11 observational studies (252 934 patients) were included in our review. Acute uncomplicated cystitis in women can be diagnosed without an office visit or urine culture. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160/800 mg twice daily for 3 days), nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals (100 mg twice daily for 5-7 days), and fosfomycin trometamol (3 g in a single dose) are all appropriate first-line therapies for uncomplicated cystitis. Fluoroquinolones are effective for clinical outcomes but should be reserved for more invasive infections. β-Lactam agents (amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefpodoxime-proxetil) are not as effective as empirical first-line therapies. Immediate antimicrobial therapy is recommended rather than delayed treatment or symptom management with ibuprofen alone. Limited observational studies support 7 to 14 days of therapy for acute urinary tract infection in men. Based on 1 observational study and our expert opinion, women with diabetes without voiding abnormalities presenting with acute cystitis should be treated similarly to women without diabetes.Conclusions and Relevance Immediate antimicrobial therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin is indicated for acute cystitis in adult women. Increasing resistance rates among uropathogens have complicated treatment of acute cystitis. Individualized assessment of risk factors for resistance and regimen tolerability is needed to choose the optimum empirical regimen.
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