Article

H1N1 Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy and Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes

Better Outcomes Registry & Network (BORN) Ontario, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 04/2012; 102(6):e33-40. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300606
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the relationship between maternal H1N1 vaccination and fetal and neonatal outcomes among singleton births during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic.
We used a population-based perinatal database in Ontario, Canada, to examine preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, 5-minute Apgar score below 7, and fetal death via multivariable regression. We compared outcomes between women who did and did not receive an H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy.
Of the 55,570 mothers with a singleton birth, 23,340 (42.0%) received an H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy. Vaccinated mothers were less likely to have an SGA infant based on the 10th (adjusted risk ratio [RR]=0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.85, 0.96) and 3rd (adjusted RR=0.81; 95% CI=0.72, 0.92) growth percentiles; PTB at less than 32 weeks' gestation (adjusted RR=0.73; 95% CI=0.58, 0.91) and fetal death (adjusted RR=0.66; 95% CI=0.47, 0.91) were also less likely among these women.
Our results suggest that second- or third-trimester H1N1 vaccination was associated with improved fetal and neonatal outcomes during the recent pandemic. Our findings need to be confirmed in future studies with designs that can better overcome concerns regarding biased estimates of vaccine efficacy.

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    • "preterm birth <32 weeks (risk ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53–0.91), or fetal death (risk ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47–0.91).48 "
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza poses unique risks to pregnant women, who are particularly susceptible to morbidity and mortality. Historically, pregnant women have been overrepresented among patients with severe illness and complications from influenza, and have been more likely to require hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. An increased risk of adverse outcomes is also present for fetuses/neonates born to women affected by influenza during pregnancy. These risks to mothers and babies have been observed during both nonpandemic and pandemic influenza seasons. During the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, pregnant women were more likely to be hospitalized or admitted to intensive care units, and were at higher risk of death compared to nonpregnant adults. Vaccination remains the most effective intervention to prevent severe illness, and antiviral medications are an important adjunct to ameliorate disease when it occurs. Unfortunately, despite national guidelines recommending universal vaccination for women who are pregnant during influenza season, actual vaccination rates do not achieve desired targets among pregnant women. Pregnant women are also sometimes reluctant to use antiviral medications during pregnancy. Some of the barriers to use of vaccines and medications during pregnancy are a lack of knowledge of recommendations and of safety data. By improving knowledge and understanding of influenza and vaccination recommendations, vaccine acceptance rates among pregnant women can be improved. Currently, the appropriate use of vaccination and antiviral medications is the best line of defense against influenza and its sequelae among pregnant women, and strategies to increase acceptance are crucial. This article will review the importance of influenza in pregnancy, and discuss vaccination and antiviral medications for pregnant women.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Women's Health
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    • "Protection from influenza during pregnancy may provide unique health benefits during the perinatal period. Among infants born during influenza season, maternal vaccination has been associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational age at birth, and fetal death [15] [16]. Further, maternal influenza infection has been linked to increased risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring [17] [18] [19], a risk that vaccination could mitigate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Vaccine
    • "Several hypotheses could explain this difference, such as lack of homogeneity in the definition of the disorder, difficulty in diagnosing the disorder, and the fact that some regional pharmacovigilance centres might have not taken the usual pathologies observed in neonates into account, such as neonatal jaundice (0.2 % in our study vs 9.2 % in Audipog). This study aimed to gain knowledge about any possible repercussions of mass vaccination against A(H1N1)v2009 influenza in a particular population, that of pregnant women, since data on the clinical safety of vaccines in this population are often sparse2627282930313233 . It entails certain limitations . "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In October 2009, in the context of an A(H1N1)v2009 influenza pandemic, a vaccination campaign was launched in France, in which one of the priority groups was pregnant women, on account of the high risk of developing complications following infection by this virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this multicentric, prospective, observational study was to assess safety and pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women when receiving the A(H1N1)v2009 influenza pandemic vaccine. METHODS: This was a prospective study that followed up pregnant women recruited mainly in vaccination centres and maternity departments. Following the expected delivery date, follow-up data were collected concerning the delivery, the infant, and, if appropriate, the reasons why the pregnancy did not reach its term. RESULTS: Between 1 November 2009 and 31 March 2010, 2,415 pregnant women were included at the time of vaccination; 97.6 % of women received a vaccine without adjuvant and 2.4 % received an adjuvanted vaccine. Ninety-two (3.9 %) women were vaccinated during the first trimester of pregnancy, 1,090 (46.5 %) during the second trimester, and 1,162 (49.6 %) during the third trimester. One hundred and thirty-three adverse events (5.5 % of women) were reported, of which 12 were unexpected or serious. There were 2,246 (93.0 %) known pregnancy outcomes with 12 spontaneous abortions (0.5 %), 6 stillbirths (0.3 %), and 4 therapeutic abortions (0.2 %). There were 65 neonates with congenital anomalies, among which 31 were major. But only one congenital malformation (1.4 %) was reported for the 92 women vaccinated in their first trimester. Of the women, 93.3 % were delivered full term and 6.7 % preterm. For 96 (4.2 %) neonates, a disorder was reported in the neonatal period and 130 (5.6 %) were transferred to the neonatology department. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exposure to the A(H1N1)v2009 pandemic influenza vaccine during pregnancy does not increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, because of the relatively small number of women exposed during the first trimester, other studies are needed to exclude an increased risk of malformation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Drug Safety
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