Design of SMES System With Liquid Hydrogen for Emergency Purpose

Nihon University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (Impact Factor: 1.24). 07/2007; 17(2):2006 - 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2007.898177
Source: IEEE Xplore


The emergency power supply system, which is composed of a SMES system cooled by liquid hydrogen and a fuel cell (FC), is proposed as a backup for supplying electricity to hospitals, high-rise office buildings, and intelligent equipment. The capacity of the system is 2 MW for 10 hours. At a power failure, the SMES immediately functions to supply electric power at start-up for 60 seconds, and then after the FC generates electricity for 10 hours. Since the system is designed to be driven with liquid hydrogen and oxygen, it can be installed to any isolated spaces like spaceships, tunnels, and so on. The development scenario, that an 1-kW prototype, an 100-kW module as a basic unit and then a practical system will be developed step by step, is proposed. The system can be rather flexible for load requirements by adjusting the composition of the basic modules.

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    ABSTRACT: The earth faces environmental problems such as temperature increase and energy crisis. One of the solutions for the problems may be to put hydrogen energy to practical use. Superconducting devices for power applications are promising technologies for saving energy. By convergence of high temperature superconductors (HTS) or MgB<sub>2</sub> and liquid hydrogen, advanced energy systems can be introduced to power applications. We have proposed an emergency power supply system in combination with an HTS or MgB<sub>2</sub> magnet (SMES) cooled with liquid hydrogen and fuel cells for hospitals, intelligent buildings, advanced factories like semiconductor industry, and so on. The superconducting magnet has merits of fast time response and high input/output electric power. On the other hand, the liquid hydrogen can store energy with high density and the fuel cell can supply electricity with high efficiency. The combination of these devices produces synergistic effects for environmentally friendly and energy saving measures. The development schedule and design for the prototype of the emergency power supply system are described.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to use effectively renewable energy sources, we propose a new system, called Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), that is composed of SMES and Fuel Cell-Electrolyzer (FC-EL) in connection with a liquid hydrogen station for vehicles. The new system will compensate the fluctuating renewable energy sources with SMES having characteristics of quick response and large I/O power, and with FC-EL having characteristics of moderate response and large storage capacity. The SMES coil with an ${\rm MgB}_{2}$ conductor operated at 20 K is cooled with a thermo-siphon cooling system by using cryogen from the liquid hydrogen station. The necessary minimum storage capacity of SMES is estimated as 50 MJ for compensating output power of 1 MW. A four-pole SMES coil is designed by using stranded cable concept. The design study of the SMES coil composed of the ${\rm MgB}_{2}$ conductor and the thermo-siphon cooling system is reported.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
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    ABSTRACT: It is an urgent issue to reduce global carbon-dioxide in the world, and hence the renewable energy, that is environmentally friendly, should be supplied as a large amount of the electric power. Since installation of a large amount of the fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind turbine and photovoltaic, will cause the power utility network unstable, we propose an advanced superconducting power conditioning system (ASPCS) that is composed of Electrolyzer-Hydrogen-FC $({\rm EL-H}_{2}-{\rm FC})$ and SMES cooled with liquid hydrogen $({\rm LH}_{2})$ from a ${\rm LH}_{2}$ station for vehicles. The ASPCS has a function of compensating the fluctuating renewable energy with SMES that has quick response and large I/O power, and with ${\rm EL-H}_{2}-{\rm FC}$ that has moderate response and large capacity. The SMES is wound with ${\rm MgB}_{2}$ superconductor with a critical temperature of 39 K from an economical point of view, because it is cooled with ${\rm LH}_{2}$ through a thermo-siphon system to keep safety against a flammable gas. The ASPCS effectively fulfills a power balance by applying a statistical prediction method of Kalman filter algorithm. The capacity of SMES is optimized by using the trend prediction for a number of wind power data. The overall electric efficiency of the ASPCS is evaluated for a typical wind generator.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
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