Ambulatory Measurement and Analysis of the Lower Limb 3D Posture Using Wearable Sensor System
An original approach for ambulatory measurement and analysis of lower limb 3D gait posture was presented, and a wearable sensor system was developed according to the approach. To explicate the lower limb posture, thigh orientation angles were calculated based on a virtual sensor at the hip joint and double analog inertial sensors (MAG<sup>3</sup>) on the thigh; Knee joint angle in sagittal plane was calculated with combination of angular accelerations and angular velocities measured by two MAG<sup>3</sup> on the thigh and shank on the basis of the virtual-sensor based algorithm. The developed wearable sensor system was evaluated on the lower limb. Without integration of angular acceleration or angular velocity for the thigh orientation angles and the knee joint angle, the calculated result was not distorted by offset and drift. Using virtual sensors at the hip joint and the knee joint were more simple, practical and effective than fixing physical sensors at these joints. Compared with the result from the reference system, the measured result with the developed wearable sensor system was feasible to do gait analysis for the patients in the daily life, and the method can also be used in other conditions such as measuring rigid segment posture with less sensors and high degree of accuracy.