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Assessing the Impact of Smart Building Techniques: a Prospective Study for France


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Saving energy is an essential lever in cutting our greenhouse gases emissions. Worldwide, the building sector is responsible for 40% of energy consumption. We focus on the French commercial sector in order to assess the gains that could be made by using smart building techniques over the long term (2030-2050). We use a long-term planning model based on a Markal/Times approach. We develop a specific way of modeling energy savings potential and energy conservation techniques. The commercial sectors energy consumption, sorted by energy carrier, sub-sector and end-use, is determined for the baseline year (2000). It is then extrapolated to 2050, using existing French prospective studies. Assumptions are made on the value of other external parameters, such as energy prices, technological evolution, etc. The model shows that smart building helps to reduce the commercial sectors overall consumption by 8%. This result remains stable when external parameters are modified: smart building solutions are robust. These solutions are complementary to passive (insulation) solutions, and they result in a reduction of the global cost of the energy system.
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... Maximum daily water demand for different premises Figure 1. Climatic zone map of South Africa due to these infrastructures far outweighs the electrical input needed to run these systems (Malidin et al., 2008). It is also acknowledged by Maı €zi et al. (2006) that reduction of consumption due to smart infrastructure would inevitably reduce the management cost of a building. ...
... The characteristics relevant to this research only exist in a small selection of buildings that have The use of smart technologies in buildings been chosen as case studies. Also, previous studies (such as Malidin et al., 2008) in this area made use of the qualitative research approach. A qualitative long-term saving research approach enables the researchers to develop an in-depth understanding of how smart infrastructure technologies, in a building's management system, impact the circular economy performance of the built assets. ...
... Higher efficiency means lower energy demand for the same utilisation level through technological advancement. The overall statistics deduced fromMalidin et al. (2008) study, show that there is a reduction in energy demand when smart technologies are implemented, and similarly, the cost to satisfy that demand is also lowered. Although smart technologies such as sensors and monitoring systems make use of electrical energy, the electrical saving ...
Purpose This paper examines the use of intelligent technologies in buildings and whether the use of smart technologies impacts the circular economy performance of buildings in terms of energy and water consumption, their marginal cost and the management decision time and quality, for building management companies. Design/methodology/approach The study is initiated through the detailed build-up of the proposition that employs a systematic literature review and adopts the case study research design to make a cross-case analysis of the information extracted from data. The data are derived from the operating costs of two buildings in which most advanced smart technologies are used in Cape Town and interviews with their facility managers. These data provide two research case studies. The results of the investigation are then analysed and linked back to the literature. Findings The results of the research suggest that the implementation of smart technologies to create intelligent infrastructure is beneficial to the circular economy performance of buildings and the time taken for management decisions. The results of the study have proven that the impact of smart technologies on the circular economy performance of buildings is positive, as it lowers the cost of utilities and decreases the time required for management decisions. Research limitations/implications The research reported in this paper is exploratory, and due to its limited sample size, its findings may not be statistically generalizable to the population of high-occupancy buildings in Cape Town, which incorporate smart infrastructure technologies within their building management systems (BMSs). Also, the empirical data collected were limited to the views and opinions of the interviewees, and the secondary data were obtained from the selected buildings. Practical implications The findings suggest that investment in smart technologies within buildings is of significant value and will improve the circular economy performance of buildings in terms of low energy and water use, and effective management decisions. Social implications The results imply that there would be more effective maintenance decisions taken by facilities managers, which will enable the maintenance of equipment to be properly monitored, problems with the building services and equipment to be identified in good time and in improved well-being and user satisfaction. Originality/value The study provides evidence to support the concept that advanced smart technologies boost performance, the time required for management decisions and that they enable circularity in buildings. It supports the proposition that investment in the more advanced smart technologies in buildings has more positive rewards.
... Methods that can be used to save energy in buildings are grouped into two methods, namely active and passive. Passive measures include permanent methods on the building envelope or facade such as insulation, glazing, ventilation while active methods refer to automated systems that allow comfort applications such as heating, cooling, lighting, elevators, and others [4][5] [6] [7]. Buildings constitute 32% of the world's total final energy consumption [1] and are the world's largest emitters of carbon, so building businesses have a responsibility to contribute to reducing carbon emissions. ...
... The energy saving solutions in building sector could be divided into passive and active. The passive includes lasting solutions, such as insulation of the building's envelope and using double or multiple glazing, while the active indicates automated systems which allow to control or program the comfort applications like lighting, cooling and heating, etc [5]. these types of buildings are then called the smart buildings. ...
Building sector is one of the biggest consumers of energy. In order to improve the energy efficiency in the building, an energy management operation is required. In this thesis, a smart building (microgrid), according to a designed practical project, is supplied by different energy sources such as diesel generators, renewable energy source (PV), energy storage system (battery), and connected to the utility grid so it can purchase or sell power. The research objective is to manage these resources in order to minimize the total cost of electricity in the building which operates over a time horizon. This operation will be done while satisfying many constraints. In the proposed energy management operation, many points related to the dispatch interval and the type of power from utility grid and air temperature impact will be further discussed. First, according to the theory of day-ahead dispatching, the mathematical model of building microgrid’s energy management is established, which aims to minimize the operation cost and incorporates fixed and variable power curves from utility grid so the exchange power between microgrid and utility grid will be explained. Furthermore, the energy management model will be presented for a shorter dispatch interval of 5 minutes. Secondly, this research will also study the impact of air temperature on the energy management of microgrid including the impact on the required power for heating and cooling loads. In the aforementioned model, the operation will be done while satisfying the energy balance and indoor temperature constraint and other constraints in the system. In addition, the economic index of the above energy management operations and the battery effects on the operations cost will be declared. In this research, a mixed integer optimization problem is formulated and solved by GAMS. Finally, this thesis gives a comprehensive analysis on smart grid system of commercial building. The results of ten case studies under different conditions are presented. Six of them discuss basic results under different dispatch intervals (5 minutes or day ahead ED) and interconnect requirements (fixed or variable power curve of utility grid). The other four case studies analyze improved model with other impact factor (air temperature impact on energy management of microgrid) based on computation. The results indicate: i) The dispatching of microgrid with variable curve of utility grid will be more economic. Beside, the batteries and PV play essential roles in the ED operation. ii) That shorter dispatching interval time will improve the whole economic efficiency of the system. iii) By adjusting the desired temperature at 24 (°C), the thermal load power is achieved, which affects the dispatching of microgrid directly and indicates that the air temperature is a very indispensable factor in the commercial building’s microgrid.
... The passive solutions conclude permanent ways of energy efficiency like insulating the building envelope and using double or multiple glazing. On the other hand, the active solutions contain automated systems like lighting system with natural sunlight control, the thermal load which follows the desired internal temperature, etc. [1]. These types of buildings are then called the smart buildings. ...
... As the building sector evolves, with the development of positive and low-energy buildings, grid-building interaction increases in complexity. Buildings now produce electricity (Crawford et al. 2006;Guiavarch and Peuportier 2006;Vuillecard et al. 2011), and new design approaches integrate demand control and load shifting technology (Favre and Peuportier 2014;Halvgaard et al. 2012;Malidin et al. 2008;Malisani et al. 2011). ...
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The need for a building with a green building concept is now very important for environmental conservation. The concept of green building is to design a building that has a more efficient consumption of electrical energy. The Energy Consumption Intensity (ECI) of a building in Indonesia with a tropical climate is regulated in INS no 03-0196: 2010. In this standard, the ECI of an air-conditioned building is said to be efficient if it has a consumption of 7.93-12.08 kWh/M2/month. Meanwhile, according to the Indonesian Green Building Council (GBCI), the ECI in Green Building is 50% of a conventional building. In this study, electrical energy consumption was measured for at least 1 year. The research location is the Head Office Building of PT Indonesia Asahan Aluminium (Persero), a State-Owned Enterprise located in Batubara Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. According to the results of the analysis of existing data, it can be concluded that the Inalum Building has an efficient electricity consumption intensity according to INS standards, with a value of 78.34 kWh/m2/year or 6.53 kWh/m2/month. However, as a green building, the existing air-conditioned space still has an ECI value that exceeds the specified standard. According to the Indonesian National Standard classification, this building is still considered energy-intensive because the ECI value of an air-conditioned room is 243.56 kWh/m2/year or 20.29 kWh/m2/month.
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The economic dispatch (ED) operation is based on determining the optimal output of all the distributed energy resources (DERs) of a microgrid to meet the load demand at the lowest cost. In this paper, a smart commercial building model is supplied by several distributed generations (DGs), for example, PV power plants, diesel generators, and energy storage system (ESS). In addition, the microgrid is connected to the main grid (grid-connected mode), which allows the system to trade power with the main grid. The aim of this paper is managing DERs that operate over a time horizon and satisfy several key constraints at the lowest possible cost. Therefore, an improved energy management (EM) operation is proposed to achieve a better energy efficiency in the building. In the proposed EM operation, the ED problem is investigated according to several aspects, such as the impact of air temperature, thermal resistance (R) of the building envelope, time horizon (day-ahead ED and five-minute-ahead ED), etc. Finally, the results of general algebraic modeling system (GAMS) are used to validate the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed EM operation.
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