ARRIpede: A stick-slip micro crawler/conveyor robot constructed via 2 ½D MEMS assembly
Autom. & Robot. Res. Inst. (ARRI), Univ. of Texas at Arlington, Fort Worth, TX
DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2008.4651181 Conference: Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2008. IROS 2008. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
Recent advances in 2frac12D and 3D hybrid microassembly using MEMS snap fasteners and die-level bonding for interconnects, makes possible the miniaturization of exciting new small robots configured for various functions, such as flying, crawling, or jumping. ARRIpede is one example of a ldquodie-sizerdquo crawling microrobot constructed by assembly and die stacking. It consists of a MEMS die ldquobodyrdquo, in-plane electrothermal actuators, vertically assembled legs, and an electronic ldquobackpackrdquo to generate the necessary gait sequence. The robot has been designed using a stick-slip simulation model for a target volume of 1.5 cm times 1.5 cm times 0.5 cm, a 3.8 g mass, and velocities up to 3 mm/s. Even though work remains to be completed in packaging the robot, we demonstrated that the robot design is sound by experimentally evaluating the leg actuation force, the payload carrying capacity, the power consumption, and the manipulation ability of an inverted ARRIpede prototype. A configuration that carries a payload approximately equal to its own weight shows excellent steering ability. A reasonable match between simulations and experiments is noted, for example, when the legs are actuated at 45 Hz and 10 V, the crawling velocity of the microrobot was experimentally measured to be 0.84 mm/s or 18.7 mum per step, while the simulated leg displacement was 18.5 mum per step. The prototyped ldquoconveyorrdquo mode had a maximum measured linear velocity in excess of 1.5 mm/s, while consuming approximately 500 mW of power. We expect that for achieving lower speeds, such as 0.15 mm/s, the power consumption can be reduced to a few mW, enabling untethered operation.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a unique four-axis articulated MEMS robot, constructed by microassembly, targeting micro and nano scale manipulation and probing applications. The first version of this microrobot has a 2P2R (Prismatic Prismatic Revolute Revolute) kinematic configuration, occupies a total volume of 3mm × 2mm × 1mm, and operates within a workspace envelope of 50µm × 50µm × 75µm. This is by far the largest operating envelope of any independent micropositioner with non-planar dexterity. As a result, it can be classified as a new type of dimensional miniaturized top-down assembly robot with dimensions smaller than 1 cm. The robot incorporates a combination of miniature flexures and cables to drive its joints from high force MEMS actuators. Actuation is accomplished via two banks of in-plane electrothermal actuators, one coupled through an out of plane compliant socket, and the other one coupled remotely via a 30 µm diameter Cu wire. In this paper, we decouple the motion of the robot joints by identifying the robot Jacobian, and we offer preliminary experimental characterization of the microrobot repeatability. Results show that the robot is repeatable to under 0.5 µm along XY and 0.015 degrees along pitch and yaw degrees of freedom.
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ABSTRACT: Current top down manipulation systems used in micro and nanomanufacturing are many orders of magnitude larger than the parts being handled, leading to difficult tradeoffs between their precision, throughput and cost. This paper presents recent research progress in the manufacturing of millimeter sized robotic positioning technology that allows combining high precision with high throughput along with other application-specific requirements such as strength, dexterity, and work volume. The first robot type is the ARRIpede microcrawler, and we describe recent progress in microrobot packaging and backpack electronics leading to its untethered operation. Precision measurements describing the ARRIpede motion resolution and repeatability are reported. The second microrobot called the Articulated Four Axes Microrobot (AFAM) is a 3D dexterous micromanipulator robot, and we describe nanoindentation experiments using SPM tips mounted on the microrobot. By combining positioning data obtained using laser interferometers and SEM imaging of nanoindentation data, precision metrics such as accuracy, repeatability and resolution of the AFAM robot are determined. Using these two microrobots as basic positioning and manipulation units, we propose a concept for a nanoassembly module, or a so-called wafer-level factory.
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