The Treatment of Extensive Scalp Lesions Combining Electrons with Intensity-Modulated Photons
Dept. of Med. Phys., Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
Conference: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS '06. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE
This study was to investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of combining electrons with intensity modulated photons (IMRT+e) for patients with extensive scalp lesions. A case of a patient with an extensive scalp lesion, in which the target volume covered the entire front half of the scalp, is presented. This approach incorporated the electron dose into the inverse treatment planning optimization. The resulting doses to the planning target volume (PTV) and relevant critical structures were compared. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), diodes, and GAFCHROMIC EBT films were used to verify the accuracy of the techniques. The IMRT+e plan produced a superior dose distribution to the patient as compared to the IMRT plan in terms of reduction of the dose to the brain with the same dose conformity and homogeneity in the target volumes. This study showed that IMRT+e is a viable treatment modality for extensive scalp lesions patients. It provides a feasible alternative to existing treatment techniques, resulting in improved homogeneity of dose to the PTV compared to conventional electron techniques and a decrease in dose to the brain compared to photon IMRT alone
Available from: Martin Janich
- "Dose uniformity and target lesion coverage was superior with the IMRT approach, however, with increased but clinically acceptable doses to the eye and brain
. Chan et al. improved dose uniformity in the target volume while reducing doses to organs at risk such as the brain and eye by combination of photon IMRT with static electron fields compared to photon IMRT alone
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ABSTRACT: This clinical study compared four different cases of extensive scalp malignancies treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The merits of coplanar and non-coplanar Step-and-shoot total scalp irradiation techniques were evaluated against the background of the literature.
Four patients (angiosarcoma, n=2, cutaneous B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, B-NHL, n=1, mycosis fungoides, n=1) treated between 2008 and 2012 at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient with executed coplanar plan, a non-coplanar plan and vice versa has been calculated additionally for direct comparison. Three patients underwent limited surgery before radiotherapy. Individual adapted bolus material was used for every patient (helmet). Total scalp dose was 30 Gy (B-NHL, mycosis fungoides) and 50 Gy (angiosarcoma) with fractional doses of 2.0-2.5 Gy (without sequential local boost in three patients). Conformity and homogeneity indexes and dose volume histograms were used for treatment plan comparison.
Dose hot spots were higher in coplanar plans (110-128% Dmax). Non-coplanar plans showed a more homogeneous dose distribution (HI = .12 - .17) and superior PTV coverage (88 - 96%). Target dose coverage was 81-117% in non-coplanar and 30-128% in coplanar plans. Coplanar plans yielded a stronger dose gradient across the target (.7-1.6 Gy/mm) compared to non-coplanar plans (.8-1.3 Gy/mm). The most conformal plan was a non-coplanar plan (CI = .7). Mean and maximum brain doses were comparable and showed an almost linear decrease between min. and max. dose. The optic chiasm and brain stem was spared most with non-coplanar plans, mean doses to the lenses ranged between 4 and 8 Gy and were higher in non-coplanar plans as were doses to the optic nerves.Radiotherapy tolerance was acceptable and acute side effects included erythema, scalp pain, alopecia and radiodermatitis which all spontaneously resolved. Two patients accomplished partial response, two patients showed complete response after radiotherapy. Three patients had locally controlled tumors without recurrence until their deaths or at last follow up, one patient had local progression shortly after radiotherapy.
Photon-IMRT is an effective and feasible approach to treat extensive scalp malignancies. Non-coplanar beams could increase dose homogeneity and PTV coverage and might reduce doses particularly to the optic chiasm.
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ABSTRACT: This study compared lateral photon/electron plan (3DCRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan, and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy plan for total scalp irradiation.
The techniques were planned on a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp for a prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Conformity indexes and dose volume histograms were used for the comparison.
Clinical target volume coverage factors for 3DCRT, IMRT, and HDR were 0.976, 0.998, and 0.967, and Conformation Numbers were 0.532, 0.713, and 0.761, respectively. The dose gradient across the target was 59-136%, 91-129%, and 58-242% for 3DCRT, IMRT, and HDR techniques, respectively. The 3DCRT and IMRT techniques produced low optical structure doses. 3DCRT produced hotspots in the brain, while IMRT produced brain sparing. HDR produced the highest integral doses to the brain and optical structures.
IMRT provided the best target dose homogeneity and coverage, and delivered clinically acceptable doses to normal structures. HDR produced the most conformal plan, but the total dose delivered is limited by doses to the brain and eyes. HDR is a clinically feasible alternative for less extensive lesions, lower prescription doses, and for patients who cannot lie on the treatment table.
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ABSTRACT: Intensity-modulated photon-electron radiation therapy (IMPERT) takes advantage of the high conformity of photon intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and low distal dose of electrons to reduce the total energy delivered to healthy tissue, potentially reducing serious side effects including secondary malignancies. This theoretical study was undertaken to elucidate basic principles of IMPERT planning and to help quantify the advantage of IMPERT over photon IMRT. Plans using 6 MV x-rays alone (IMRT) or in combination with 6-21 MeV electron beams (IMPERT) were developed for digital cylindrical water phantoms that included an organ at risk (OAR) situated 0.25 cm below a 5 cm thick planning target volume (PTV), with the top of the PTV positioned up to 4 cm below the surface. Electron beam energy and percentage dose contribution of the electron beam to the total dose were investigated with a flat-bottom PTV. The effect of target shape was investigated with a concave- or convex-bottom PTV positioned at the surface. Air or bone cavities were embedded in the PTV to investigate the effect of tissue inhomogeneity. Dose variations in the electron dose distribution due to tissue inhomogeneity were accurately calculated with Monte Carlo simulation. The preferred electron dose contribution was approximately 50% of the total dose. For all the PTV-OAR scenarios, IMPERT was able to achieve comparable PTV coverage and OAR sparing as IMRT while reducing the energy deposited to the healthy tissue by 6-25%. The IMPERT technique is a clinically viable approach for reducing serious side effects in radiotherapy.
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