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Iron deficiency is the most common deficiency state in the world, affecting more than 2 billion people globally. Although it is particularly prevalent in less-developed countries, it remains a significant problem in the developed world, even where other forms of malnutrition have already been almost eliminated. Effective management is needed to prevent adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes, including the need for red cell transfusion. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear and simple recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of iron deficiency in pregnancy and the postpartum period. This is the first such guideline in the UK and may be applicable to other developed countries. Public health measures, such as helminth control and iron fortification of foods, which can be important to developing countries, are not considered here. The guidance may not be appropriate to all patients and individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach.
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UK guidelines on the management of iron deficiency in
pregnancy
British Committee for Standards in Haematology.
Address for correspondence:
BCSH Secretary
British Society for Haematology
100 White Lion Street
London N1 9PF
e-mail bcsh@b-s-h.org.uk
Writing group:
S Pavord1, B Myers2, S Robinson3, S Allard4, J Strong5, C
Oppenheimer6
Disclaimer: While the advice and information in these guidelines is believed to be true
and accurate at the time of going to press, neither the authors, the British Society for
Haematology nor the publishers accept any legal responsibility for the content of these
guidelines.
Date of BCSH approval: July 2011
1 University Hospitals of Leicester
2 United Lincolnshire Hospitals Trust
3 Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, London
4 Bart’s and the London NHS Trust & NHS Blood and Transplant
5 Leicester Royal Infirmary
6 Leicester Royal Infirmary
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Introduction
Iron deficiency is the most common deficiency state in the world, affecting more than 2
billion people globally. Although it is particularly prevalent in less-developed countries, it
remains a significant problem in the developed world, even where other forms of
malnutrition have already been almost eliminated. Effective management is needed to
prevent adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes, including the need for red cell
transfusion. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with
clear and simple recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of iron
deficiency in pregnancy and the postpartum period. This is the first such guideline in the
UK and may be applicable to other developed countries. Public health measures, such
as helminth control and iron fortification of foods, which can be important to developing
countries, are not considered here.
The guidance may not be appropriate to all patients and individual patient
circumstances may dictate an alternative approach.
Methods
The guideline group was selected by the British Society for Haematology, Obstetric
Haematology Group (BSH OHG) and British Committee for Standards in Haematology
(BCSH), to be representative of UK-based medical experts. MEDLINE and EMBASE
were searched systematically for publications from 1966 until 2010 using the terms iron,
anaemia, transfusion and pregnancy. Opinions were also sought from experienced
obstetricians and practice development midwives. The writing group produced the draft
guideline which was subsequently considered by the members of the BSH Obstetric
Haematology Group and revised by consensus by members of the General
Haematology Task Force of the BCSH. The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding
board of approximately 50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the BSH Committee and
comments incorporated where appropriate. Criteria used to quote levels of
recommendation and grades of evidence are as outlined in the Procedure for
Guidelines Commissioned by the BCSH.
Summary of key recommendations
Anaemia is defined by Hb <110g/l in first trimester, <105g/l in second and
third trimesters and <100g/l in postpartum period
Full blood count should be assessed at booking and at 28 weeks
All women should be given dietary information to maximise iron intake and
absorption
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Routine iron supplementation for all women in pregnancy is not
recommended in the UK
Unselected screening with routine use of serum ferritin is generally not
recommended although individual centres with a particularly high
prevalence of “at risk” women may find this useful
For anaemic women, a trial of oral iron should be considered as the first
line diagnostic test, whereby an increment demonstrated at two weeks is a
positive result
Women with known haemoglobinopathy should have serum ferritin
checked and offered oral supplements if their ferritin level is <30 ug/l
Women with unknown haemoglobinopathy status with a normocytic or
microcytic anaemia, should start a trial of oral iron (1B) and
haemoglobinopathy screening should be commenced without delay in
accordance with the NHS sickle cell and thalassaemia screening
programme
Non-anaemic women identified to be at increased risk of iron deficiency
should have a serum ferritin checked early in pregnancy and be offered
oral supplements if ferritin is <30 ug/l
Systems must be in place for rapid review and follow up of blood results
Women with established iron deficiency anaemia should be given 100-
200mg elemental iron daily. They should be advised on correct
administration to optimise absorption
Referral to secondary care should be considered if there are significant
symptoms and/or severe anaemia (Hb<70 g/l) or late gestation (>34 weeks)
or if there is failure to respond to a trial of oral iron.
For nausea and epigastric discomfort, preparations with lower iron content
should be tried. Slow release and enteric coated forms should be avoided
Once Hb is in the normal range supplementation should continue for three
months and at least until 6 weeks postpartum to replenish iron stores
Non-anaemic iron deficient women should be offered 65mg elemental iron
daily, with a repeat Hb and serum ferritin test after 8 weeks
Anaemic women may require additional precautions for delivery, including
delivery in a hospital setting, available intravenous access, blood group-
and-save, active management of the third stage of labour, and plans for
excess bleeding. Suggested Hb cut-offs are <100g/l for delivery in hospital
and <95g/l for delivery in an obstetrician-led unit
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Women with Hb <100g/l in the postpartum period should be given 100-
200mg elemental iron for 3 months
Parenteral iron should be considered from the 2nd trimester onwards and
during the postpartum period for women with confirmed iron deficiency
who fail to respond to or are intolerant of oral iron
Blood transfusion should be reserved for those with risk of further
bleeding, imminent cardiac compromise or symptoms requiring immediate
attention. This should be backed up by local guidelines and effective
patient information
1. DEFINITION AND PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA IN
PREGNANCY
1.1 Definition
Iron deficiency represents a spectrum ranging from iron depletion to iron deficiency
anaemia. In iron depletion, the amount of stored iron (measured by serum ferritin
concentration) is reduced but the amount of transport and functional iron may not be
affected. Those with iron depletion have no iron stores to mobilize if the body requires
additional iron. In iron-deficient erythropoiesis, stored iron is depleted and transport iron
(measured by transferrin saturation) is reduced further; the amount of iron absorbed is
not sufficient to replace the amount lost or to provide the amount needed for growth and
function. In this stage, the shortage of iron limits red blood cell production and results in
increased erthryocyte protoporphyrin concentration. In iron-deficiency anaemia, the
most severe form of iron deficiency, there is shortage of iron stores, transport and
functional iron, resulting in reduced Hb in addition to low serum ferritin, low transferrin
saturation and increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration.
Anaemia is defined as Hb less than 2 standard deviations below the mean for a healthy
matched population. However there is variation in what are considered normal values
for pregnancy. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines anaemia in pregnancy as
a haemoglobin concentration of <11g/dL WHO, 2001) whereas large studies in
Caucasians have found a range between 10.4g/dL and 13.5g/dL in early third trimester,
in women receiving iron supplements (Milman et al, 2007). In view of the relative
plasma expansion being particularly marked in the second trimester, it would seem
reasonable to take 10.5g/dL as the cut-off from 12 weeks, as suggested by the US
Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) (Dowdle, 1989; Ramsey et al, 2000).
However there is a racial difference in normal Hb levels and the optimum Hb may be
lower in those of African origin than in Europeans (Garn et al, 1981).
The WHO defines postpartum anaemia as Hb <10.0g/dl.
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Recommendation: There is variation in definition of normal Hb levels in
pregnancy. A level of 110g/l appears adequate in the first trimester and 105g/l
in the second and third trimesters (1B).
Postpartum anaemia is defined as Hb <100g/l (2B).
1.2 Prevalence
Anaemia affects 1.62 billion people globally, corresponding to 24.8% of the world
population (McLean et al, 2009). Iron deficiency is the most common cause and even in
the developed world an estimated 30- 40% of preschool children and pregnant women
have iron depletion (WHO, 2008).
2. CLINICAL EFFECTS OF IRON DEFICIENCY
Tissue enzyme malfunction occurs even in the early stages of iron deficient
erythropoiesis and significant effects of iron deficiency anaemia have been described
on maternal morbidity and mortality, fetal and infant development and pregnancy
outcomes.
2.1 Maternal morbidity and mortality
Iron deficiency may contribute to maternal morbidity through effects on immune function
with increased susceptibility or severity of infections (Eliz et al, 2005), poor work
capacity and performance (Haas et al, 2001) and disturbances of postpartum cognition
and emotions (Beard et al, 2005). There is little information regarding the Hb thresholds
below which mortality increases, although this may be as high as 8.9g/dl, which was
associated with a doubling of the maternal death risk in Britain in a 1958 study (Brabin
et al, 2001). However severe anaemia is likely to have multiple causes and the direct
effect of the anaemia itself is unclear.
2.2 Effects on the fetus and infant
The fetus is relatively protected from the effects of iron deficiency by upregulation of
placental iron transport proteins (Gambling et al, 2001) but evidence suggests that
maternal iron depletion increases the risk of iron deficiency in the first 3 months of life,
by a variety of mechanisms (Puolakka et al, 1980, Colomer et al, 1990). Impaired
psychomotor and/ or mental development are well described in infants with iron
deficiency anaemia and may also negatively contribute to infant and social emotional
behaviour (Perez et al, 2005) and have an association with adult onset diseases,
although this is a controversial area (Beard et al, 2008; Insel et al, 2008).
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2.3 Effects on pregnancy outcome
There is some evidence for the association between maternal iron deficiency and
preterm delivery, (Scholl et al, 1994), low birth weight (Cogswell et al, 2003), possibly
placental abruption and increased peripartum blood loss (Arnold et al, 2009). However
further research on the effect of iron deficiency, independent of confounding factors, is
necessary to establish a clear causal relationship with pregnancy and fetal outcomes.
3. DIAGNOSIS OF IRON DEFICIENCY
3.1 Clinical symptoms and signs
Clinical symptoms and signs of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy are usually non-
specific, unless the anaemia is severe. Fatigue is the most common symptom. Patients
may complain of pallor, weakness, headache, palpitations, dizziness, dyspnoea and
irritability. Rarely pica develops, where there is a craving for non-food items such as ice
and dirt. Iron deficiency anaemia may also impair temperature regulation and cause
pregnant women to feel colder than normal.
Storage iron is depleted before a fall in Hb and as iron is an essential element in all
cells, symptoms of iron deficiency may occur even without anaemia: These include
fatigue, irritability, poor concentration and hair loss.
3.2 Laboratory tests
3.2.1 Full blood count, blood film and red cell indices
A full blood count is taken routinely in pregnancy and may show low Hb, mean cell
volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell haemoglobin
concentration (MCHC); a blood film may confirm presence of microcytic hypochromic
red cells and characteristic ‘pencil cells’. However, microcytic, hypochromic indices may
also occur in haemoglobinopathies. In addition, for milder cases of iron deficiency, the
MCV may not have fallen below the normal range.
Some analysers will give a percentage of hypochromic red cells present. This is said to
be a sensitive marker of functional iron deficiency, but is not available on all analysers,
and there is little information on its use in pregnancy.
Other tests either assess iron stores or the adequacy of iron supply to the tissues.
3.2.2 Serum ferritin
Serum ferritin is a stable glycoprotein which accurately reflects iron stores in the
absence of inflammatory change. It is the first laboratory test to become abnormal as
iron stores decrease and it is not affected by recent iron ingestion. It is generally
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considered the best test to assess iron-deficiency in pregnancy, although it is an acute
phase reactant and levels will rise when there is active infection or inflammation.
During pregnancy, in women with adequate iron stores at conception, the serum ferritin
concentration initially rises, followed by a progressive fall by 32 weeks to about 50%
pre-pregnancy levels. This is due to haemodilution and mobilisation of iron. The levels
increase again mildly in the third trimester (Asif et al, 2007). Even though the ferritin
level may be influenced by the plasma dilution later in pregnancy, a concentration
below 15 μg/l indicates iron depletion in all stages of pregnancy. In women of
reproductive age, a level <15 μg/l has shown specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 75%
for iron deficiency, as defined by no stainable bone marrow iron (Hallberg et al, 1993).
There are a variety of levels for treatment, quoted in different studies but in general,
treatment should be considered when serum ferritin levels fall below 30 μg/l, as this
indicates early iron depletion which will worsen unless treated. Van den Broek et al
found that serum ferritin is the best single indicator of storage iron provided a cut-off
point of 30 mg/l is used, with sensitivity of 90%, and specificity 85% (van den Broek et
al, 1998). Concurrent measurement of the C-reactive protein (CRP) may be helpful in
interpreting higher levels, where indicated. The CRP concentration seems to be
independent of pregnancy and gestational age, although some studies describe a mild
increase.
3.2.3 Serum Iron (Fe) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)
Serum Fe and TIBC are unreliable indicators of availability of iron to the tissues
because of wide fluctuation in levels due to recent ingestion of Fe, diurnal rhythm and
other factors such as infection. Transferrin saturation fluctuates due to a diurnal
variation in serum iron and is affected by the nutritional status (Adams et al,2007). This
may lead to a lack of sensitivity and specificity.
3.2.4 Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)
ZPP increases when iron availability decreases, as zinc, rather than iron, is
incorporated into the protoporphyrin ring. This gives an indication of availability of iron
to the tissues. Serum ZPP has the advantage of not being influenced by the plasma
dilution and levels rise in the third trimester. It is affected by inflammation and infection
although less so than is the serum ferritin. Red blood cell ZPP has greater sensitivity
and specificity for iron depletion (Schifman et al, 1989) but is rarely performed.
3.2.5 Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)
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Measurement of sTfR is reported to be a sensitive measure of tissue iron supply and is
not an acute-phase reactant (Choi et al, 2000). The transferrin receptor is a
transmembrane protein which transports iron into the cell. Circulating concentrations of
sTfR are proportional to cellular expression of the membrane-associated TfR and
therefore give an accurate estimate of iron deficiency. There is little change in the early
stages of iron store depletion, but once iron deficiency is established, the sTfR
concentration increases in direct proportion to total transferrin receptor concentration.
However, this is an expensive test which restricts its general availability, and there is
little data on its use in pregnancy.
3.2.6 Reticulocyte haemoglobin content and reticulocytes
Iron deficiency causes a reduction in reticulocyte number and reticulocyte haemoglobin
concentration. Using an automated flow-cytometry technique, measurements of
reticulocyte cellular characteristics allow extremely early and objective information to be
collected on erythropoietic activity in anaemia. This again is not widely available, and
there is no data in pregnancy.
3.2.7 Bone Marrow iron
A bone marrow sample stained for iron has been considered the gold standard for
assessment of iron stores; however, this test is clearly too invasive and not practical for
any but the most complicated cases in pregnancy, where the underlying cause or
causes of anaemia are not identifiable by simpler means.
3.2.8 Trial of Iron therapy
A trial of iron therapy is simultaneously diagnostic and therapeutic. Ferritin should be
checked first if the patient is known to have a haemoglobinopathy but otherwise
microcytic or normocytic anaemia can be assumed to be caused by iron deficiency until
proven otherwise. Assessment of response to iron is both cost and time effective. A rise
in Hb should be demonstrable by 2 weeks and confirms iron deficiency. If
haemoglobinopathy status is unknown, it is reasonable to start iron whilst screening is
being performed. Screening should be carried out immediately, in accordance with the
NHS sickle cell and thalassaemia screening programme guidelines. Although severe
anaemia can affect the results of haemoglobinopathy testing, with a reduction in HbA2
of up to 0.5%, there is no justification for delay (Ryan et al, 2010). An effective system
of reviewing results is imperative. If there has been no improvement in Hb by two
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weeks, referral should be made to secondary care to consider other causes of anaemia,
such as folate deficiency.
Recommendations
A trial of oral iron should be considered as the first line diagnostic test for
normocytic or microcytic anaemia. An increase in Hb must be demonstrated at 2
weeks, otherwise further tests are needed (1B).
Serum ferritin should be checked prior to starting iron in patients with known
haemoglobinopathy (1B).
Anaemic women with unknown haemoglobinopathy status should be offered a
trial of iron (1B) and haemoglobinopathy screening should be undertaken without
delay in accordance with the NHS sickle cell and thalassaemia screening
programme guidelines (1A) but with awareness that iron deficiency can cause
some lowering of the haemoglobin A2 percentage.
The serum ferritin level is the most useful and easily available parameter for
assessing iron deficiency. Levels below 15 μg/l are diagnostic of established iron
deficiency. A level below 30 μg/l in pregnancy should prompt treatment (2A).
Where available, ZPP or sTfR measurements may be helpful adjuncts. Serum C-
reactive protein levels may facilitate assessment when inflammatory or infective
processes are suspected/present (2B).
4. MANAGEMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY
4.1 Dietary Advice
The average daily iron intake from food for women in Great Britain is 10.5mg (Gregory
et al, 1990). Approximately 15% of dietary iron is absorbed. Physiological iron
requirements are 3 times higher in pregnancy than they are in the menstruating women
(Tapiero et al, 2001), with increasing demand as pregnancy advances. The
recommended daily intake (RDA) of iron for the latter half of pregnancy is 30mg.
Absorption of iron increases three-fold by the third trimester, with iron requirements
increasing from 1-2mg to 6mg per day (Bothwelll, 2000).
The amount of iron absorption depends upon the amount of iron in the diet, its
bioavailability and physiological requirements. The main sources of dietary haem iron
are haemoglobin and myoglobin from red meats, fish and poultry. Haem iron is
absorbed 2-3 fold more readily than non-haem iron. Meat also contains organic
compounds which promote the absorption of iron from other less bioavailable non-haem
iron sources (Skikne et al, 1994). However approximately 95% of dietary iron intake is
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from non-haem iron sources (Ryan et al, 2010). Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) significantly
enhances iron absorption from non-haem foods (Lynch, 1997), the size of this effect
increasing with the quantity of vitamin C in the meal. Germination and fermentation of
cereals and legumes improve the bioavailability of non-haem iron by reducing the
content of phytate, a food substance that inhibits iron absorption. Tannins in tea and
coffee inhibit iron absorption when consumed with a meal or shortly after (Table 1).
Education and counselling regarding diet may improve iron intake and enhance
absorption but the degree of change achievable, especially in poorer individuals,
remains in question.
Recommendation: All women should be counselled regarding diet in pregnancy
including details of iron rich food sources and factors that may inhibit or promote
iron absorption and why maintaining adequate iron stores in pregnancy is
important. This should be consolidated by the provision of an information leaflet
in the appropriate language (1A).
4.2 Oral Iron Supplements
4.2.1.Oral iron preparations
Once women become iron deficient in pregnancy it is not possible to ensure repletion
through diet alone and oral supplementation is needed.
Oral iron is an effective, cheap and safe way to replace iron. Ferrous salts show
only marginal differences between one another in efficiency of absorption of iron.
Ferric salts are much less well absorbed. The recommended dose of elemental
iron for treatment of iron deficiency is 100-200mg daily. Higher doses should not
be given, as absorption is saturated and side effects increased.
Available ferrous salts include ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulphate and ferrous
gluconate. The amount of elemental iron in each salt varies as detailed in the
Table 2. Combined iron and folic acid preparations may also be used (Table 3)
but it should be noted that use of these preparations does not obviate the need
to take the recommended dose of folic acid for prevention of neural tube defects
preconception and during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
Oral iron supplementation should be taken on an empty stomach, as absorption
is reduced or promoted by the same factors that affect absorption of dietary non-
haem iron.
Recommendation:
Dietary changes alone are insufficient to correct iron deficiency anaemia
and iron supplements are necessary. Ferrous iron salts are the preparation
of choice. The oral dose for iron deficiency anaemia should be 100-200mg
of elemental iron daily (1A).
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Women should be counselled as to how to take oral iron supplements
correctly. This should be on an empty stomach, 1 hour before meals, with a
source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) such as orange juice to maximise
absorption. Other medications or antacids should not be taken at the same
time (1A).
4.2.2 Indications for oral iron supplementation
In keeping with the NICE guidance for routine antenatal care, all women should have a
full blood count taken at the booking appointment and at 28 weeks (NICE, 2008). This
enables selective iron supplementation early in pregnancy but depends on effective
systems in place for rapid review of blood results and appropriate follow up to avoid
delays in management.
Women with a Hb < 110g/l up until 12 weeks or <105g/l beyond 12 weeks should be
offered a trial of therapeutic iron replacement. In the presence of known
haemoglobinopathy, serum ferritin should be checked and women offered therapeutic
iron replacement if the ferritin is <30 µg/l.
Treatment must begin promptly in the community. Referral to secondary care should be
considered if there are significant symptoms and/or severe anaemia (Hb<70g/l) or
advanced gestation (>34 weeks) or if there is no rise in Hb at 2 weeks.
Women with a Hb >110g/l up until 12 weeks gestation and Hb >105g/l beyond 12
weeks are not anaemic. However experience in the UK suggests iron store depletion
without anaemia is not well identified. In non-anaemic women at increased risk of iron
depletion such as those with previous anaemia, multiple pregnancy, consecutive
pregnancies with less than a year’s interval between and vegetarians, a serum ferritin
should be considered (Table 4). Other patients to consider include pregnant teenagers,
women at high risk of bleeding and Jehovah’s witnesses.
If the ferritin is <30 µg/l, 65mg elemental iron once a day should be offered. FBC and
ferritin should be checked 8 weeks later.
Unselected screening with routine use of serum ferritin is generally not recommended,
as this is an expensive use of resources, may be misused to exclude iron deficiency
and may cause delay in response to blood count results. However local populations
should be considered and where there is a particularly high prevalence of “at-risk”
women, this practice may be helpful.
Recommendation:
Full blood count should be assessed at booking and at 28 weeks (1A).
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Women with a Hb <110 g/l before 12 weeks or <105 g/l beyond 12 weeks are
anaemic and should be offered a trial of therapeutic iron replacement, unless
they are known to have a haemoglobinopathy (1B).
Women with known haemoglobinopathy should have serum ferritin checked and
offered therapeutic iron if the ferritin is <30 µg/l (1B).
Treatment should start promptly in the community and referral to secondary care
should be considered if anaemia is severe (Hb <70 g/l) and/or associated with
significant symptoms or advanced gestation (>34 weeks) (2B). In these cases the
starting dose should be 200mg elemental iron daily.
In non-anaemic women at increased risk of iron depletion, serum ferritin should
be checked. If the ferritin is <30 µg/l, 65mg elemental iron once a day should be
offered (1B).
Unselected screening with routine use of serum ferritin is generally not
recommended although it may be useful for centres with a particularly high
prevalence of “at-risk” women (2B).
Systems must be in place for rapid review and follow up of blood results (1A).
Whenever iron tablets are supplied, the importance of keeping them out of the
reach of children must be stressed (1A).
4.2.3 Response to oral iron
The haemoglobin concentration should rise by approximately 20 g/l over 3-4
weeks (British National Formulary, 2010). However, the degree of increase in
Hb that can be achieved with iron supplements will depend on the Hb and iron
status at the start of supplementation, ongoing losses, iron absorption and other
factors contributing to anaemia, such as other micronutrient deficiencies,
infections and renal impairment.
Compliance and intolerance of oral iron preparations can limit efficacy. Iron salts
may cause gastric irritation and up to a third of patients may develop dose
limiting side effects (Breymann, 2002), including nausea and epigastric
discomfort. Titration of dose to a level where side effects are acceptable or a trial
of an alternative preparation may be necessary. Enteric coated or sustained
release preparations should be avoided as the majority of the iron is carried past
the duodenum, limiting absorption (Tapiero, 2001). The relationship between
dose and altered bowel habit (diarrhoea and constipation) is less clear (Tapiero
et al, 2001) and other strategies, such as use of laxatives are helpful.
A repeat Hb at two weeks is required to assess response to treatment. The
timing of further checks will depend upon the degree of anaemia and period of
gestation. Once the Hb is in the normal range, treatment should be continued for
a further 3 months and at least until 6 weeks postpartum to replenish iron stores.
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Recommendation:
For nausea and epigastric discomfort, preparations with lower iron content
should be tried. Slow release and enteric coated forms should be avoided (1A).
Repeat Hb testing is required 2 weeks after commencing treatment for
established anaemia, to assess compliance, correct administration and response
to treatment (1B).
Once the haemoglobin concentration is in the normal range replacement should
continue for three months and until at least 6 weeks postpartum to replenish iron
stores (1A).
In non-anaemic women repeat Hb and serum ferritin is required after 8 weeks of
treatment to confirm response (2B).
If response to oral iron replacement is poor, concomitant causes which may be
contributing to the anaemia, such as folate deficiency or anaemia of chronic
disease, need to be excluded and the patient referred to secondary care (1A).
4.2.4 Postnatal anaemia
The WHO define postnatal anaemia as Hb <10g/dl. FBC should be checked
within 48 hours of delivery in all women with an estimated blood loss greater
than 500ml and in women with uncorrected anaemia in the antenatal period or
symptoms suggestive of postpartum anaemia.
Women with Hb<100 g/l, who are haemodynamically stable, asymptomatic, or
mildly symptomatic, should be offered elemental iron 100-200mg daily for at
least 3 months and a repeat FBC and ferritin to ensure Hb and iron stores are
replete.
Recommendation:
Postpartum women with estimated blood loss >500ml, uncorrected
anaemia detected in the antenatal period or symptoms suggestive of
anaemia postnatally should have Hb checked within 48 hours (1B).
Women who are haemodynamically stable, asymptomatic or mildly
symptomatic, with Hb <100 g/l should be offered elemental iron 100-200mg
daily for 3 months with a repeat FBC and ferritin at the end of therapy to
ensure Hb and iron stores are replete (1B).
4.3 Parenteral Iron Therapy
4.3.1 Parenteral iron therapy is indicated when there is absolute non-compliance with,
or intolerance to, oral iron therapy or proven malabsorption (RCOG, 2007). It
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circumvents the natural gastrointestinal regulatory mechanisms to deliver non-protein
bound iron to the red cells.
Several authors have now reported on their experience with use of parenteral iron
therapy for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy, with faster increases in Hb and better
replenishment of iron stores in comparison with oral therapy, particularly demonstrated
for iron sucrose (Al et al, 2005; Bhandal et al, 2006) and iron (III) carboxymaltose (Van
Wyk et al, 2007; Breymann et al, 2007). A large retrospective study reported fewer
postpartum transfusions in the group treated with intravenous (IV) iron (Broche, 2005).
However, there is a paucity of good quality trials that assess clinical outcomes and
safety of these preparations (Reveiz et al, 2007).
As free iron may lead to the production of hydroxyl radicals with potential toxicity to
tissues, iron deficiency should be confirmed by ferritin levels before use of parenteral
preparations. Contraindications include a history of anaphylaxis or reactions to
parenteral iron therapy, first trimester of pregnancy, active acute or chronic infection
and chronic liver disease (Perewusnyk et al, 2002). Facilities and staff trained in
management of anaphylaxis should be available.
The intravenous iron preparations currently available in the UK and their properties are
summarised in Table 5 (British National Formulary, 2010). The different preparations
have not been compared to each other in pregnancy. Iron sucrose has a higher
availability for erythropoiesis than iron dextran and experience suggests a good safety
profile in pregnancy (Bayoumeu et al, 2005). Its use is limited by the total dose that can
be administered in one infusion, requiring multiple infusions. The newer preparations,
iron III carboxymaltose and Iron III isomaltoside aim to overcome this problem, with
single dose administration in an hour or less (Lyseng-Williamson et al, 2009; Gozzard,
2011).
4.3.2 Fast acting intravenous iron preparations
Iron III carboxymaltose (Ferrinject) is a ferric hydroxide carbohydrate complex, which
allows for controlled delivery of iron within the cells of the reticuloendothelial system
(primarily bone marrow) and subsequent delivery to the iron binding proteins ferritin and
transferrin. It is administered intravenously, as a single dose of 1000mg over 15
minutes (maximum 15mg/kg by injection or 20 mg/kg by infusion). Randomised
controlled trials have shown non-inferiority (Van Wyk et al, 2007; Breymann et al, 2007)
and superiority (Seid et al, 2008) to oral ferrous sulphate in the treatment of iron
deficiency anaemia in the postpartum period, with rapid and sustained increases in Hb.
Animal studies have shown it to be rapidly eliminated from the plasma, giving minimal
risk of large amounts of ionic iron in the plasma. By 28 days, in iron deficient rats most
of the iron has been incorporated into new erythrocytes (Funk et al, 2010).
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Iron III isomaltoside (Monofer) is an intravenous preparation with strongly bound iron in
spheroid iron-carbohydrate particles, providing slow release of bioavailable iron to iron
binding proteins. There is rapid uptake by the reticuloendothelial system and little risk of
release of free iron. An erythropoietic response is seen in a few days, with an increased
reticulocyte count. Ferritin levels return to the normal range by 3 weeks as iron is
incorporated into new erythrocytes. Doses >1000mg iron can be administered in a
single infusion (Gozzard, 2011), although there is little data on its use in the obstetrics
setting (Table 5).
4.3.3 Intramuscular preparations
The only preparation available in the UK that may be given intramuscularly (IM) is low
molecular weight iron dextran. Compared with oral iron, IM iron dextran has been
shown in a randomised controlled trial to reduce the proportion of women with anaemia
(Komolafe et al, 2003). However injections tend to be painful and there is significant risk
of permanent skin staining. Its use is therefore generally discouraged (Pasriche et al,
2010, Solomons et al, 2004) but if given, the Z-track injection technique should be used
to minimise risk of iron leakage into the skin. The advantage of IM iron dextran is that,
following a test dose, it can be administered in primary care, although facilities for
resuscitation should be available as there is a small risk of systemic reaction.
4.3.4 Other considerations
A recent Cochrane review on treatments for iron deficiency in anaemia (Reviez et al,
2007) highlighted the need for good quality randomised controlled trials in this setting,
in particular to assess clinical outcomes and adverse events. Pending further good
quality evidence, there is a need for centres to review their policies and systems for use
of parenteral therapy in iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy.
Recommendations:
Parenteral iron should be considered from the 2nd trimester onwards and
postpartum period in women with iron deficiency anaemia who fail to respond to
or are intolerant of oral iron (1A).
The dose of parenteral iron should be calculated on the basis of pre-pregnancy
weight, aiming for a target Hb of 110 g/l (1B).
The choice of parenteral iron preparation should be based on local facilities,
taking into consideration not only drug costs but also facilities and staff required
for administration.
All centres should undertake audit of utilisation of intravenous iron therapy with
feedback of results and change of practice where needed (1A).
15|Page
Women should be informed of potential side effects and written information
should be provided.
5. MANAGEMENT OF DELIVERY IN WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA
With good practice this situation should generally be avoided; however there are
instances when women book late, have recently come from abroad or have not
engaged with antenatal care. In these situations it may be necessary to take active
measures to minimise blood loss at delivery. Considerations should be given to delivery
in hospital, intravenous access and blood group and save. Whilst this should be done
on an individual basis, a suggested cut off would be Hb <100g/l for delivery in hospital,
including hospital-based midwifery-led unit and <95 g/l for delivery in an obstetrician-
led unit, with an intrapartum care plan discussed and documented.
Clear evidence from randomised trials supports active management of the third stage of
labour as a method of decreasing postpartum blood loss (Prendiville et al, 1988; Rogers
et al, 1988). This should be with intramuscular syntometrine/syntocinon and in the
presence of additional risk factors such as prolonged labour or instrumental delivery, an
intravenous infusion of high dose syntocinon continued for 2-4 hours to maintain uterine
contraction. Where injectable uterotonics are not available, misoprostol may be a useful
alternative (Alfirevic et al, 2007).
Recommendations:
Women still anaemic at the time of delivery may require additional precautions
for delivery, including delivery in an hospital setting, available intravenous
access, blood group-and-save, active management of the third stage of labour
and plans to deal with excessive bleeding. Suggested Hb cut-offs are <100g/l for
delivery in hospital and <95g/l for delivery in an obstetrician-led unit (2B).
6 INDICATIONS FOR AND RISKS OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION
Concerns about safety, high costs and availability of donor blood have promoted
greater scrutiny of blood transfusion practice (Dept of Health, 2007). Potential dangers
of transfusion are numerous but most commonly arise from clinical and laboratory
errors. In addition, specific risks for women in child-bearing years include the potential
for transfusion- induced sensitisation to red cell antigens, conferring a future risk of fetal
haemolytic disease.
Massive Obstetric Haemorrhage (MOH) is widely recognised as an important cause of
morbidity and mortality and requires prompt use of blood and components as part of
appropriate management (Lewis, 2007). The RCOG green top guidelines (RCOG,
16|Page
2009) comprehensively cover the multidisciplinary approach required, together with the
implementation of intra-operative cell salvage in this setting as a transfusion sparing
strategy. However outside the massive haemorrhage setting, audits indicate that a high
proportion of blood transfusions administered in the postpartum period may be
inappropriate, with underutilisation of iron supplements (Parker et al, 2009; Butwick et
al, 2009; So-Osman et al, 2010).
Clinical assessment and haemoglobin concentration is necessary postpartum to
consider the best method of iron replacement. Where there is no bleeding, the decision
to transfuse should be made on an informed individual basis. In fit, healthy,
asymptomatic patients there is little evidence of the benefit of blood transfusion
(ASATF, 1996), which should be reserved for women with continued bleeding or at risk
of further bleeding, imminent cardiac compromise or significant symptoms requiring
urgent correction.
If, after careful consideration, elective transfusion is required, women should be fully
counselled about potential risks, including written information and consent should be
obtained.
Recommendation:
Blood and components in massive obstetric haemorrhage should be used as
indicated in a local multidisciplinary guideline and this should also include
provision of intra-operative cell salvage where appropriate to reduce the use of
donor blood (1A).
In addition to guidelines for MOH, obstetric units should have guidelines for
criteria for red cell transfusion in anaemic women who are not actively bleeding
(1A).
The decision to transfuse women in the postpartum period should be based on
careful evaluation including whether or not there is risk of bleeding, cardiac
compromise or symptoms requiring urgent attention, considering oral or
parenteral iron therapy as an alternative (1A).
Women receiving red cell transfusion should be given full information regarding
the indication for transfusion and alternatives available. Consent should be
sought and documented in the clinical notes (1A).
Prompt recognition of iron deficiency in the antenatal period followed by iron
therapy may reduce the subsequent need for blood transfusions (1A).
7. PREVENTION OF IRON DEFICIENCY
17|Page
7.1 Universal supplementation
Two groups, the International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG) and the
World Health Organization (WHO) recommend universal supplementation with 60 mg/d
of elemental iron, from booking, (WHO) or from the second trimester (INACG) (Stolzfus
et al, 1998; WHO, 2001). Evidence for this approach was first provided by the
MotherCare Project in 1993, who reviewed the results of 24 well conducted world-wide
trials (Sloan et al, 1995). Virtually all studies demonstrated a positive effect of
supplementation on maternal iron status. The Cochrane database confirmed these
results, reviewing 49 trials involving 23,200 pregnant women. Although heterogeneity
made results difficult to quantify between the studies, relative risk-reduction of anaemia
at term was 30-50% for those receiving daily iron supplements, with or without folic acid
(Pena-Rosas et al, 2006; Pena-Rosas et al, 2009).
However the studies reviewed in the Cochrane database provided insufficient
information to draw conclusions about the impact on maternal and fetal outcomes and
randomised controlled studies have found conflicting evidence that maternal or
neonatal health will benefit from correcting these deficits (Palma et al, 2008; Cogswell
et al, 2003).
There are also other potential downsides to routine supplementation, to consider:
7.1.1. Non-compliance
Whilst studies of routine iron supplementation have shown improvements in Hb and
ferritin, at present there is no good evidence of benefit when implemented as a large-
scale program through the primary health care system. Significant discrepancy exists
between the impact of iron supplementation reported in the clinical trials’ setting and
that observed in large-scale public health programs. This is likely to be a combination of
patients’ and carers’ behaviour; with, respectively, poor compliance due to lack of
patient knowledge and concern about maternal anaemia and inadequate counselling
about the need for iron supplementation and its potential benefits and side-effects.
Research has shown that drug compliance is inconsistent and often poor, despite
relatively simple regimes and even where there is obvious life-threatening disease. It is
worse in situations where there is no obvious ill health. In contrast, during clinical trials,
patients are closely supervised, counselled and non-compliance kept to a minimum.
7.1.2. Clinical hazards of routine supplementation
18|Page
There are potential clinical hazards of iron supplemention in already iron replete
women, including raised Hb with risk of placental insufficiency and secondary
haemochromatosis in women with iron loading states. However these are mainly
theoretical rather than practical considerations for short term iron administration.
Raised Hb
The rheological status (haemoconcentration and elevated red cell aggregation) appears
to have an important influence on the outcome of pregnancy (Heilmann, 1987, Sagen
et al, 1982). There is a risk of elevated Hb, with the use of iron supplements in non-
anaemic women and particularly those given daily regimes from an early gestational
age <20 weeks (Pena-Rosas et al, 2009). This could represent excessive
erythropoiesis but may have more to do with changes in plasma volume than with iron
therapy. A U-shaped association has been observed between maternal Hb
concentrations and birth weight. A large observational study of 54,382 pregnancies
showed higher rates of perinatal death, low birth weights and preterm delivery in
women with high (Hb >13.2g/dl) compared to intermediate Hb levels, at 13-19 weeks'
gestation (Murphy et al, 1986). Furthermore, a booking Hb of >14.5g/dl was associated
with a 42% risk of subsequent hypertension in primiparips.
Oxidant stress
When products of oxygen are brought into contact with transition metals capable of
changing valence, such as iron (Fe2+ Fe3+), reactive free radicals, the hydroxyl radicals
are formed, which have the potential to damage cells and tissues (Halliwell et al, 1999).
Thus tissue iron excess contributes to producing and amplifying the injury caused by
free radicals as well as to modulating various steps involved in the inflammatory lesion.
The placenta is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, being rich in mitochondria
and highly vascular. Markers of oxidant stress (such as malondialdehyde) have been
found to be significantly elevated in the placenta of women with regular iron
supplementation in pregnancy (Devrim et al, 2006).
The intestinal mucosa is also vulnerable to oxidative damage, caused by the continuous
presence of a relatively small amount of excess iron intake (Lund et al, 2001) and iron
accumulation leading to intestinal abnormalities and injury has been observed in
patients receiving therapeutic iron (Abraham et al, 1999). Previously iron-deficient
pregnant women are potentially more susceptible, due to excessive iron absorption,
particularly when given daily pharmacological doses of iron (Viteri, 1997).
7.1.3. Practical difficulties
There are clear logistical problems associated with widespread use. These include cost
and supply of iron tablets, cost and ability to deliver adequate supportive care and the
19|Page
potential risk of accidental overdose by children in the home. Iron ingestion has been
the most common cause of paediatric poisoning deaths and doses as low as 60 mg/kg
have proved fatal (Baker, 1989).
7.2 Alternative regimens
To avoid constant exposure of the intestinal mucosal cells to unabsorbed iron excess
and oxidative stress and the risk of side effects and raised Hb with daily iron
supplements, researchers have considered intermittent regimes, taken weekly or on
alternate days. These appear to be as efficacious as daily regimes (Institute of
Medicine, 1993; Anderson, 1991). However the extent to which these findings can be
generalized needs to be determined and it may be that the response is not the same for
all locations, depending upon variability in other background factors. Success has also
been obtained with low dose daily regimes, such as 20mg elemental iron (Makrides et
al, 2003) given under controlled trial conditions.
Recommendations:
Routine iron supplementation for all women in pregnancy is not recommended in
the UK (1B).
An individual approach is preferable, based on results of blood count screening
tests as well as identification of women at increased risk (1A).
Acknowledgements and declarations of interest
All authors have contributed to the guideline and none have declared a conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements also to Filipa Barroso, Clinical Research Fellow at Barts and the London &
NHSBT and to Pauline Coser, Obstetric Haematology Midwife at University Hospitals of
Leicester, who made contributions to the guideline.
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Table 1 Factors influencing the absorption of Iron
Factors that inhibit iron absorption Factors that enhance iron absorption
Foods rich in calcium Heme iron
Tannins in tea Ferrous iron (Fe2+)
Phytates in cereals Ascorbic acid
28|Page
Table 2 Dose and elemental iron content per tablet of oral iron preparations
Iron Salt Dose per tablet Elemental iron
Ferrous Fumarate 200mg 65mg
Ferrous Gluconate 300mg 35mg
Ferrous Sulphate
(dried)
200mg 65mg
Ferrous Sulphate 300mg 60mg
FerrousFeredetate
(Sytron)
190mg / 5ml elixir 27.5 mg / 5ml
Table adapted from BNF 2010
Table 3 Dose and elemental iron content per tablet of combined oral iron and folate preparations
Combined iron
and folate
preparation
Iron salt and
dose per tablet
Elemental iron
content
per tablet
Folic acid
content
per tablet
Pregaday Fumarate
305mg
100 mg 350 mcg
Fefol Sulphate 325
mg
47 mg 500 mcg
Galfer FA Fumarate 305
mg
100 mg 350 mcg
29|Page
Table 4 Indications for assessment of serum ferritin
Anaemic women where estimation of iron stores is necessary
Known Haemoglobinopathy
Prior to parenteral iron replacement
Non-anaemic women with high risk of iron depletion
Previous anaemia
Multiparity P3
Consecutive pregnancy <1year following delivery
Vegetarians
Teenage pregnancies
Recent history of bleeding
Non-anaemic women where estimation of iron stores is necessary
High risk of bleeding
Jehovah’s witnesses
30|Page
Table 5 Summary of intravenous iron preparations available in the UK
Cosmofer
iron (III) hydroxide
dextran complex
Venofer
iron (III) hydroxide
sucrose complex
Ferinject
Iron(III)
carboxymaltose
Monofer
Iron (III) isomaltoside
Dose of elemental
iron
50mg/ml 20mg/ml 50mg/ml 100mg/ml
Test dose required as
per manufacturer
Yes, before every
intravenous dose, once
before intramuscular
treatment
First dose new
patients only
No No
Routes of
administration
Slow intravenous
injection
Intravenous infusion of
total dose
Intramuscular injection
total dose
Slow intravenous
injection
Intravenous infusion
Slow intravenous
injection
Intravenous infusion
Slow intravenous injection
Intravenous infusion
Able to administer
total dose
Yes (up to 20mg/kg
body weight over 4-6
hours)
No Yes (up to 20mg/kg
body weight maximum
of 1000mg/week over
15mins)
Yes (up to 20mg/Kg body
weight over 1 hour)
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Half life 5 hours 20 hours 7-12 hours 5 hours
Dosage 100-200mg per IV
injection up to 3 times
a week.
Total dose infusion up
to 20mg/kg body
weight over 4-6 hours)
(100mg IM into
alternate buttocks daily
in active patients in bed
ridden up to 3 times a
week)
Total IV single dose no
more than 200mg, can
be repeated up to 3
times in 1 week
1000mg by IV injection
up to 15mg/kg/week.
Total dose infusion up
to 20mg/kg body
weight. Maximum
weekly dose of 1000mg
that can be
administered over
15mins.
100-200mg per IV injection
up to 3 times a week.
Total dose infusion up to
20mg/Kg body weight per
week.
Doses up to 10mg/Kg body
weight can be administered
over 30mins, doses greater
than 10mg/kg body weight
should be administerd over
60 mins.
Use in pregnancy No adequate data for
use in pregnant
women, contra-
indicated in first
trimester thereafter risk
benefit based on
clinical need
Not in first trimester Avoid use in first
trimester
No adequate data for use in
pregnant women, contra-
indicated in first trimester
thereafter risk benefit
based on clinical need
Lactation Risk not known Unlikely to pass to
maternal milk no
clinical trials
<1% iron passed into
milk unlikely to be
significant
Risk not known
Adverse drug related
events
5% patients may
experience minimal
adverse events (dose
0.5-1.5% of patients
may experience
adverse events.
3% of patients may
experience adverse
events.
More than 1% of patients
may experience adverse
events
32|Page
related)
Risk of severe
anaphylaxis <1/10 000
Risk of anaphylactoid
symptoms
>1/1000<1/100
Risk of anaphylactoid
reaction
>1/10 000 <1/1000
Risk of anaphylactoid
reaction
>1/1000 <1/100
Risk of anaphylaxis <1/10
000
>1/1000 to <1/100
Anaphylactoid reactions
33|Page
34|Page
... In addition, the American College of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommend low-dose iron supplementation in the first trimester for all women, regardless of their iron status [9]. Women with non-anemic iron deficiency should also be treated with 65 mg iron / day according to the United Kingdom guidelines [10]. ...
... Screening for iron deficiency should be considered before anemia occurs, as it occurs prior to anemia. International guidelines agree that all pregnant woman should be screened for anemia using a complete blood count during the first trimester and at 28 weeks of gestation (WG) [10,89,90]. A Hb concentration below 11 g/dL defines anemia during pregnancy. ...
... Recommendations for iron supplementation during pregnancy[9,10]. UK: United Kingdom; ACOG: American College of Obstetrician and Gynecologist. ...
Article
Full-text available
Iron is required for energy production, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation, mainly as a component of the prosthetic group in hemoproteins and as part of iron-sulfur clusters. Iron is also a critical component of hemoglobin and plays an important role in oxygen delivery. Imbalances in iron metabolism negatively affect these vital functions. As the crucial barrier between the fetus and the mother, the placenta plays a pivotal role in iron metabolism during pregnancy. Iron deficiency affects 1.2 billion individuals worldwide. Pregnant women are at high risk of developing or worsening iron deficiency. On the contrary, in frequent hemoglobin diseases, such as sickle-cell disease and thalassemia, iron overload is observed. Both iron deficiency and iron overload can affect neonatal development. This review aims to provide an update on our current knowledge on iron and heme metabolism in normal and pathological pregnancies. The main molecular actors in human placental iron metabolism are described, focusing on the impact of iron deficiency and hemoglobin diseases on the placenta, together with normal metabolism. Then, we discuss data concerning iron metabolism in frequent pathological pregnancies to complete the picture, focusing on the most frequent diseases.
... Anemia in women pregnant with twins occurs 2.4-4 times more frequently than in women with a singleton pregnancy and affects 30-45% of pregnant women in the third trimester [3,68,89]. Anemia in pregnancy is generally defined as a hemoglobin concentration below 11.0 g/dL in the first and third trimester of pregnancy and ≤10.5 g/dL in the second trimester [3], although according to some experts, the limit hemoglobin concentration in the third trimester is 10.5 g/dL [87,90]. Publications usually do not touch upon the issues of separate criteria for anemia in women pregnant with twins [91,92], but Shinar et al., suggest that in the second trimester, the cut-off point for hemoglobin concentration should be 9.7 g/dL because it is the best prognostic indicator for anemia [93]. ...
... According to British experts, non-anemic women who are at a higher risk of iron deficiency, should be checked for the ferritin concentra-tion already in early pregnancy and, if the concentration is lower than 30 µg/L, dietary supplementation needs to be started. Women with diagnosed iron-deficiency anemia should receive 100-200 mg of elemental iron per day [90]. In Poland, according to the latest recommendations of the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (2020) that take into account the scientific findings about the adverse impact of excessive iron intake, this element should only be taken by anemic women, while in non-anemic women with low ferritin, dietary supplementation with low iron doses can be recommended from the 16th week of pregnancy (up to 30 mg per day). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recommendations for nutrition and the use of dietary supplements for pregnant women are updated on regular basis but it remains to be seen to what extent they may be applicable in twin pregnancies. The aim of this narrative review is to present the current state of knowledge about the energy and nutrient demand in twin pregnancy. There is general consensus in literature that the energy demand is higher than in a singleton pregnancy, but there is a lack of position statements from scientific societies on specific energy intake that is required. In turn, recommended maternal weight gain, which favors the normal weight of the neonate, has been determined. There is even a larger knowledge gap when it comes to vitamins and minerals, the body stores of which are theoretically used up faster. The greatest number of studies so far focused on vitamin D, and most of them concluded that its concentration in maternal blood is lower in twin as compared to singleton pregnancy. Few randomized studies focus on iron supplementation and there are no other studies that would assess dietary interventions. In light of a growing incidence of multiple pregnancies, more studies are necessary to establish the nutritional demands of the mother and the course of action for adequate supplementation.
... As a result, recommendations are inconsistent around the world. Countries such as the UK and Australia only recommend iron supplementation for women who show symptoms of ID or IDA (12,13) . A Danish RCT found that 40 mg/d is enough to prevent ID or IDA in 90 and 95 %, respectively, of all pregnancies in Denmark (14) . ...
... However, our findings also suggest that the potential risk of developing ID or IDA during pregnancy needs to be addressed before conception, and preconception counselling interventions targeted at all women of reproductive age are required. In addition, as prophylactic iron supplementation during pregnancy is still a subject of international disagreement (11)(12)(13) , further research to examine the effect on ID and IDA in pregnant women should be undertaken. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2013, the Danish Health Authorities recommended a change in prophylactic iron supplementation to 40–50 mg/d from gestational week 10. Hence, the aims of the present study were (1) to estimate the prevalence of women who follow the Danish recommendation on iron supplementation during the last 3 weeks of the first trimester of pregnancy and (2) to identify potential sociodemographic, reproductive and health-related pre-pregnancy predictors for iron supplementation during the first trimester. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data from the hospital-based Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Characteristics were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between predictors and iron supplementation during the last 3 weeks of the first trimester. The study population consisted of 23 533 pregnant women attending antenatal care at Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet from October 2013 to May 2019. The prevalence of iron supplementation according to recommendations was 49⋅1 %. The pre-pregnancy factors of ≥40 years of age, the educational level below a higher degree and a vegetarian or vegan diet were identified as predictors for iron supplementation during the first trimester of pregnancy. Approximately half of the women were supplemented with the recommended dose of iron during the first trimester of pregnancy. We identified pre-pregnancy predictors associated with iron supplementation. Interventions that target women of reproductive age are needed. An enhanced focus on iron supplementation during pregnancy should be incorporated in pre-pregnancy and interpregnancy counselling.
... Most infants and children with mild anemia do not exhibit overt clinical signs and symptoms. Initial evaluation should include a thorough history, such as questions to determine prematurity, low birth weight, diet, chronic diseases, family history of anemia, and ethnic background [11,12]. A complete blood count is the most common initial diagnostic test used to evaluate for anemia, and it allows differentiating microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anemia based on the mean corpuscular volume [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent in infants and children worldwide. Characterizing anemia as microcytic and normocytic depends on the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), which is an important parameter in differentiating many types of anemia. Microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia in children. In this study, we aimed to assess the Mentzer index used by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Palestine as a useful tool in differentiating between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia. We assessed for the prevalence of IDA among infants at the age of one year visiting the mother centers from seven West Bank provinces in Palestine. Medical records and hematology laboratory data of 3262 infants were retrospectively analyzed from the years of 2018 to 2020. The Mentzer index applied to all population by dividing mean corpuscular volume (MCV, in fL) by the red blood cell count (RBC, in millions per microliter). A corrected Mentzer index was further calculated among anemic infants to include only microcytic (MCV with less than 72 fl) and hypochromic (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) with less than 32 g/L) indices. Mentzer index calculations for the whole population showed that 29.1% were anemic (hemoglobin (HGB) less than 11 g/dl): 21.1% had mild anemia, 7.6% had moderate anemia, while 0.2% had severe anemia. The corrected Mentzer index calculations showed a prevalence of 5.9% and 3.2% among IDA and thalassemia infants, respectively. Severity of anemia was correlated with low body weight and infants born through cesarean mother birth with no interference with gender influence. CBC indices of RBC count, HGB, MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) showed a significant difference (p values
... Another randomized controlled trial (RCT) also reported that 20 mg of iron daily is an effective strategy for preventing ID or IDA without significant side effects. To date, iron supplements are mostly used to treat diagnosed ID or IDA (20)(21)(22), though WHO has underlined the benefits of early prevention, and that a depleted iron store could be diagnosed long before the occurrence of ID or IDA. Iron supplementation from early pregnancy through IRFs intake may be an effective strategy for ID or IDA prevention among pregnant women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Limited evidence supports the efficacy of iron-rich foods (IRFs) in improving iron status during pregnancy. Objective: The study aims to evaluate the effect of IRFs on iron status and biomarkers of iron metabolism in the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: A total of 240 pregnant women at 11-13 weeks' gestation without iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in South China were recruited to this single-blind clinical trial [non-IDA referred to both hemoglobin (Hb)≥110g/L and serum ferritin (SF)≥15ng/mL], randomly assigned to 1) Control, 2) IRFs containing 20 mg iron/day (IRF-20), or 3) IRFs containing 40 mg iron/day (IRF-40). The IRFs were consumed three days a week including pork liver, chicken/duck blood, soybean, and agaric. The IRFs started at recruitment and ended in the predelivery room. Primary outcome included anemia (Hb<110g/L), iron deficiency (ID, definition1: SF<15ng/mL; definition2: SF<12ng/mL), and IDA (ID and Hb<110g/L). Secondary outcome was plasma Hb and iron indices including SF, serum hepcidin, and iron. Results: All participants who completed the trial with full data (n = 170) were included in the analysis. At the end-line, both intervention groups showed lower ID and IDA rates than Control. Specifically, IRF-40 showed lower ID (SF<12ng/mL) rate than Control (9.0%vs.22.8%, P = 0.022). For IDA by definition1, the incidence in IRF-40 was lower than that in Control (1.9%vs.8.9%, P = 0.045). For IDA by definition2, the incidence in IRF-20 was lower than that in Control (3.9%vs.17.9%, P = 0.049). Moreover, IRF-20 showed higher SF levels than Control (P = 0.039). No effects of IRFs on anemia (P = 0.856), plasma Hb (P = 0.697), serum hepcidin (P = 0.311), and iron (P = 0.253) levels were observed. The assessed iron intakes were 22.2 mg/d in IRF-20 and 25.0 mg/d in IRF-40, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal IRFs reduce the risk of ID and IDA in late pregnancy, though the present results are inadequate to confirm an ideal dosage. (No.ChiCTR1800017574).
... Anemia during pregnancy was defined by international guidelines as a hemoglobin concentration (Hb) of 11.0 g/dL in the first trimester, 10.5 g/dL in the second and third trimesters, and 10.0 g/dL postpartum [23]. We also assessed the serum ferritin as an excellent measure of the body's iron storage, and its level during early pregnancy is typically a solid predictor of iron deficiency, having a reference range of 10 to 200 ng/mL in women [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anemia is a very common occurrence during pregnancy, with important variations during each trimester. Anemia was also considered as a risk factor for severity and negative outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic poses a significant threat for pregnant women in terms of infection risk and access to care, we developed a study to determine the impact of nutritional supplementation for iron deficiency anemia in correlation with the status of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a case-control design, we identified 446 pregnancies that matched our inclusion criteria from the hospital database. The cases and controls were stratified by SARS-CoV-2 infection history to observe the association between exposure and outcomes in both the mother and the newborn. A total of 95 pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID-19, having a significantly higher proportion of iron deficiency anemia. Low birth weight, prematurity, and lower APGAR scores were statistically more often occurring in the COVID-19 group. Birth weight showed a wide variation by nutritional supplementation during pregnancy. A daily combination of iron and folate was the optimal choice to normalize the weight at birth. The complete blood count and laboratory studies for iron deficiency showed significantly decreased levels in association with SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Puerperal infection, emergency c-section, and small for gestational age were strongly associated with anemia in patients with COVID-19. It is imperative to screen for iron and folate deficiency in pregnancies at risk for complications, and it is recommended to supplement the nutritional intake of these two to promote the normal development and growth of the newborn and avoid multiple complications during pregnancy in the COVID-19 pandemic setting.
... Serum ferritin concentrations were determined using an immunoenzymometric assay. Serum ferritin levels less than 30 ng/mL were considered low and those less than 15 ng/mL were considered as the cutoff for iron deficiency [6]. Vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed if serum B12 levels were less than 150 ng/L while levels between 150-200 ng/L were considered as borderline deficiency. ...
Article
Background and objective Anemia during pregnancy is a major cause of maternal and fetal complications including mortality. A study of the etiology of anemia is required to formulate guidelines for the prevention and treatment of the condition. To this end, we conducted a study among anemic women in northern India. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among anemic antenatal women attending the outpatient department at a tertiary care hospital in Himachal Pradesh, India, involving 172 participants. Complete blood count, serum ferritin level, serum B12, serum folate levels, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liver function tests, and renal function tests were performed. Results The mean hemoglobin level among the subjects was 8.87 g/dl with a standard deviation of 0.79; 50% of women had serum ferritin levels of less than 15 ng/ml, 48.8% had serum B12 levels of less than 150 pg/ml. and 33.72% of women had serum folate levels of less than 3 ng/ml. Of note, 13.37% of women had either low or deficient levels for all three parameters; 14 women had abnormal results on HPLC. All nutrient deficiencies (ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12) were found in all morphological types of anemia. Significantly, 73.26% of iron-deficient anemic women had additional folate or vitamin B12 deficiencies, suggesting that additional methods would be required to decrease the prevalence of anemia. Two-thirds of the women in our study were vegetarians, a contributing factor towards a high percentage of vitamin B12 deficiency among women. ß-thalassemia trait was the most common abnormality found, consistent with the high prevalence of ß-thalassemia in north India. Conclusion Multiple deficiencies should be treated simultaneously in anemic women. Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important contributor to anemia, in addition to iron and folate deficiency.
... Even though the ferritin levels suggest a comparatively low prevalence of iron deficiency, the majority of the participants have microcytic anaemia (35.9% when high RCC is excluded) and normocytic hypochromic anaemia (18.4%). These indicators are usually attributed to iron deficiency [60]. Previous studies in this population also have shown that the Serum ferritin based iron deficiency prevalence is lower than suggested by other evidence such as red cell indices and peripheral blood film analysis [61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Sustainable development goals, which focus strongly on equity, aim to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030. However, a significant cause of intergenerational transfer of malnutrition, anaemia in pregnancy, is still a challenge. It is especially so in the low- and middle-income settings where possible context-specific aetiologies leading to anaemia have been poorly explored. This study explores the prevalence of etiological factors significantly contributing to anaemia in pregnancy in Sri Lanka, a lower-middle-income country with a high prevalence of malnutrition albeit robust public health infrastructure. Methods All first-trimester pregnant women registered in the public maternal care programme in the Anuradhapura district from July to September 2019 were invited to participate in Rajarata Pregnancy Cohort (RaPCo). After a full blood count analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, peripheral blood film examination, serum B12 and folate levels were performed in anaemic participants, guided by an algorithm based on the red cell indices in the full blood count. In addition, serum ferritin was tested in a random subsample of 213 participants. Anaemic women in this subsample underwent B12 and folate testing. Results Among 3127 participants, 14.4% (95%CI 13.2–15.7, n = 451) were anaemic. Haemoglobin ranged between 7.4 to 19.6 g/dl. 331(10.6%) had mild anaemia. Haemoglobin ≥13 g/dl was observed in 39(12.7%). Microcytic, normochromic-normocytic, hypochromic-normocytic and macrocytic anaemia was observed in 243(54%), 114(25.3%), 80(17.8%) and two (0.4%) of full blood counts in anaemic women, respectively. Microcytic anaemia with a red cell count ≥5 * 10⁶ /μl demonstrated a 100% positive predictive value for minor haemoglobinopathies. Minor hemoglobinopathies were present in at least 23.3%(n = 105) of anaemic pregnant women. Prevalence of iron deficiency, B12 deficiency and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis among the anaemic was 41.9% (95%CI 26.4–59.2), 23.8% (95%CI 10.6–45.1) and 0.9% (95%CI 0.3–2.3%), respectively. Folate deficiency was not observed. Conclusion Even though iron deficiency remains the primary cause, minor hemoglobinopathies, B 12 deficiency and other aetiologies substantially contribute to anaemia in pregnancy in this study population. Public health interventions, including screening for minor hemoglobinopathies and multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy, should be considered in the national programme for areas where these problems have been identified.
Article
This overview analyzes the data on the controversial therapy of iron substitution during pregnancy, the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and the indication-related therapy, and is the first recommendation issued by the OEGGG on the appropriate therapy. The effects of anemia during pregnancy on postnatal outcomes have been intensively investigated with heterogeneous results. A final scientific conclusion with regards to the “optimal” maternal hemoglobin level is limited by the heterogeneous results of various studies, many of which were conducted in emerging nations (with different dietary habits and structural differences in the respective healthcare systems). The current literature even suggests that there may be a connection between both decreased and increased maternal serum hemoglobin concentrations and unfavorable short-term and long-term neonatal outcomes. In Austria, 67 percent of pregnant women take pharmacological supplements or use a variety of dietary supplements. Clinically, the prevalence of maternal anemia is often overestimated, leading to overtreatment of pregnant women (iron substitution without a medical indication). To obtain a differential diagnosis, a workup of the indications for treatment should be carried out prior to initiating any form of iron substitution during pregnancy. If treatment is medically indicated, oral iron substitution is usually sufficient. Because of the restricted approval and potential side effects, medical indications for intravenous iron substitution should be limited. Intravenous iron substitution without a prior detailed diagnostic workup is an off-label use and should only be used in very limited cases, and women should be advised accordingly.
Article
A pregnant woman in her 20s presented with an excessive desire to smell a specific household cleaning product. She was found to have severe iron deficiency anaemia and her symptoms resolved following intravenous iron supplementation. She described symptoms of fatigue, shortness of breath and olfactory cravings. The specific scent could not be replicated with other smells and the woman had to significantly modify her lifestyle to accommodate the excessive desire. She had a similar experience during her prior pregnancy which resolved after the correction of severe iron deficiency anaemia. This unique symptom has been described as desiderosmia: iron deficiency manifesting as olfactory cravings. This underappreciated but useful symptom is defined as a separate entity to pica, as there is an absence of desire to ingest the product. Desiderosmia can harm mother and baby through inhalation of potentially harmful fumes; hence, women who describe this symptom should be assessed for iron deficiency anaemia.
Article
Iron requirements are greater in pregnancy than in the nonpregnant state. Although iron requirements are reduced in the first trimester because of the absence of menstruation, they rise steadily thereafter; the total requirement of a 55-kg woman is ≈1000 mg. Translated into daily needs, the requirement is ≈0.8 mg Fe in the first trimester, between 4 and 5 mg in the second trimester, and >6 mg in the third trimester. Absorptive behavior changes accordingly: a reduction in iron absorption in the first trimester is followed by a progressive rise in absorption throughout the remainder of pregnancy. The amounts that can be absorbed from even an optimal diet, however, are less than the iron requirements in later pregnancy and a woman must enter pregnancy with iron stores of ≥300 mg if she is to meet her requirements fully. This is more than most women possess, especially in developing countries. Results of controlled studies indicate that the deficit can be met by supplementation, but inadequacies in health care delivery systems have limited the effectiveness of larger-scale interventions. Attempts to improve compliance include the use of a supplement of ferrous sulfate in a hydrocolloid matrix (gastric delivery system, or GDS) and the use of intermittent supplementation. Another approach is intermittent, preventive supplementation aimed at improving the iron status of all women of childbearing age. Like all supplementation strategies, however, this approach has the drawback of depending on delivery systems and good compliance. On a long-term basis, iron fortification offers the most cost-effective option for the future.
Article
In 1994, the American Society of Anesthesiologists established the Task Force on Blood Component Therapy to develop evidence-based indications for transfusing red blood cells, platelets, fresh-frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate in perioperative and peripartum settings. The guidelines were developed according to an explicit methodology. The principal conclusions of the task force are that red blood cell transfusions should not be dictated by a single hemoglobin 'trigger' but instead should be based on the patient's risks of developing complications of inadequate oxygenation. Red blood cell transfusion is rarely indicated when the hemoglobin concentration is greater than 10 g/dL and is almost always indicated when it is less than 6 g/dL. The indications for autologous transfusion may be more liberal than for allogeneic (homologous) transfusion. The risks of bleeding in surgical and obstetric patients are determined by the extent and type of surgery, the ability to control bleeding, the actual and anticipatedrate of bleeding, and the consequences of uncontrolled bleeding. Prophylactic platelet transfusion is ineffective when thrombocytopenia is due to increased platelet destruction. Surgical and obstetric patients with microvascular bleeding usually require platelet transfusion if the platelet count is less than 50 x 109/l and rarely require therapy if it is greater than 100 x 109/l. Fresh- frozen plasma is indicated for urgent reversal of warfarin therapy, correction of known coagulation factor deficiencies for which specific concentrates are unavailable, and correction of microvascular bleeding when prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times are > 1.5 times normal. It is contraindicated for augmentation of plasma volume or albumin concentration. Cryoprecipitate should be considered for patients with yon Willebrand's disease unresponsive to desmopressin, bleeding patients with von Willebrand's disease, and bleeding patients with fibrinogen levels below 80-100 mg/dL. The task force recommends careful adherence to proper indications for blood component therapy to reduce the risks of transfusion.
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Article
Ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject®), a novel iron complex that consists of a ferric hydroxide core stabilized by a carbohydrate shell, allows for controlled delivery of iron to target tissues. Administered intravenously, it is effective in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia, delivering a replenishment dose of up to 1000 mg of iron during a minimum administration time of ≤15 minutes. Results of several randomized trials have shown that intravenously administered ferric carboxymaltose rapidly improves haemoglobin levels and replenishes depleted iron stores in various populations of patients with iron-deficiency anaemia, including those with inflammatory bowel disease, heavy uterine bleeding, postpartum irondeficiency anaemia or chronic kidney disease. It was well tolerated in clinical trials. Ferric carboxymaltose is, therefore, an effective option in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in patients for whom oral iron preparations are ineffective or cannot be administered. Pharmacological Properties Ferric carboxymaltose is a macromolecular ferric hydroxide carbohydrate complex, which allows for controlled delivery of iron within the cells of the reticuloendothelial system and subsequent delivery to the iron-binding proteins ferritin and transferrin, with minimal risk of release of large amounts of ionic iron in the serum. Intravenous administration of ferric carboxymaltose results in transient elevations in serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, and, ultimately, in the correction of haemoglobin levels and replenishment of depleted iron stores. The total iron concentration in the serum increased rapidly in a dose-dependent manner after intravenous administration of ferric carboxymaltose. Ferric carboxymaltose is rapidly cleared from the circulation and is distributed primarily to the bone marrow (≈80%) and also to the liver and spleen. Repeated weekly administration of ferric carboxymaltose does not result in accumulation of transferrin iron in patients with iron-deficiency anaemia. Therapeutic Efficacy Intravenously administered ferric carboxymaltose was effective in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in several 6- to 12-week, randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre trials in various patient populations, including those with inflammatory bowel disease, heavy uterine bleeding or postpartum irondeficiency anaemia, and those with chronic kidney disease not undergoing or undergoing haemodialysis. In most trials, patients received either ferric carboxymaltose equivalent to an iron dose of ≤1000mg (or 15mg/kg in those weighing <66kg) administered over ≤15 minutes (subsequent doses administered at 1-week intervals) or oral ferrous sulfate at a dose equivalent to 65 mg iron three times daily or 100mg iron twice daily. In one trial, patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis received 200 mg of iron intravenously either as ferric carboxymaltose or iron sucrose administered into the haemodialysis line two to three times weekly. In all trials, ferric carboxymaltose was administered until each patient had received his or her calculated total iron replacement dose. Haemoglobin-related outcomes improved in patients with iron-deficiency anaemia receiving ferric carboxymaltose. Treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was associated with rapid and sustained increases from baseline in haemoglobin levels. Ferric carboxymaltose was considered to be as least as effective as ferrous sulfate with regard to changes from baseline in haemoglobin levels or the proportion of patients achieving a haematopoietic response at various timepoints. In general, improvements in haemoglobin levels were more rapid with ferric carboxymaltose than with ferrous sulfate. In patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis, ferric carboxymaltose was at least as effective as iron sucrose. Ferric carboxymaltose also replenished depleted iron stores and improved health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL) in patients with iron-deficiency anaemia. Recipients of ferric carboxymaltose demonstrated improvements from baseline in serum ferritin levels and transferrin saturation, as well as improvements from baseline in HR-QOL assessment scores. Ferric carboxymaltose was at least as effective as ferrous sulfate with regard to endpoints related to serum ferritin levels, transferrin saturation and HR-QOL. Tolerability Ferric carboxymaltose was well tolerated in clinical trials in patients with irondeficiency anaemia, with most drug-related adverse events considered to be mild to moderate in severity. Commonly reported drug-related adverse events include headache, dizziness, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, rash and injection-site reactions. The incidence of drug-related adverse events in patients receiving intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was generally similar to that in patients receiving oral ferrous sulfate. In general, rash and local injection-site reactions were more common with ferric carboxymaltose, whereas gastrointestinal adverse events were more frequent with ferrous sulfate. In patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis, a lower proportion of ferric carboxymaltose than iron sucrose recipients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event.