Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 Knockdown-mediated Liver Lysophosphatidylcholine Accumulation Promotes Very Low Density Lipoprotein Production by Enhancing Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Expression

Molecular and Cellular Cardiology Program, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn, New York 11209, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/2012; 287(24):20122-31. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.334664
Source: PubMed


After de novo biosynthesis phospholipids undergo extensive remodeling by the Lands' cycle. Enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis have been studied extensively but not those involved in reacylation of lysophosphopholipids. One key enzyme in the Lands' cycle is fatty acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), which utilizes lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) and fatty acyl-CoA to produce various phosphatidylcholine (PC) species. Four isoforms of LPCAT have been identified. In this study we found that LPCAT3 is the major hepatic isoform, and its knockdown significantly reduces hepatic LPCAT activity. Moreover, we report that hepatic LPCAT3 knockdown increases certain species of LysoPCs and decreases certain species of PC. A surprising observation was that LPCAT3 knockdown significantly reduces hepatic triglycerides. Despite this, these mice had higher plasma triglyceride and apoB levels. Lipoprotein production studies indicated that reductions in LPCAT3 enhanced assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins. Furthermore, these mice had higher microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA and protein levels. Mechanistic studies in hepatoma cells revealed that LysoPC enhances secretion of apoB but not apoA-I in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LysoPC increased MTP mRNA, protein, and activity. In short, these results indicate that hepatic LPCAT3 modulates VLDL production by regulating LysoPC levels and MTP expression.

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    • "Lpcat1 primarily reacylates lysoPC with a saturated fatty acid donor and is required for pulmonary SatPC production in fetal mice [38]. Lpcat3 also demonstrates lysoPC acyltransferase activity, is expressed in the lung and at high levels in the liver where it drives phospholipid remodeling [39], [40]. Pcyt1a, Lpcat1 and Pld4 have putative Srebp binding sites in their proximal promoters that are conserved between mouse, rat and human, suggesting that they are likely direct targets of the SCAP/SREBP/INSIG pathway (data not shown). "
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    • "Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were modestly increased, and liver TG levels were decreased (Figure S3B). These observations are consistent with prior reports that Lpcat3 and ER stress affect VLDL secretion from the liver (Li et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2012). We transduced adenoviral vectors expressing EGFP control or Lpcat3 into ob/ob mice to ask whether increased Lpcat3 activity in the liver might ameliorate lipid-induced ER stress. "
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acyl composition of phospholipids determines the biophysical character of membranes and impacts the function of membrane proteins. Here, we define a nuclear receptor pathway for the dynamic modulation of membrane composition in response to changes in cellular lipid metabolism. Ligand activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) preferentially drives the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids through induction of the remodeling enzyme Lpcat3. Promotion of Lpcat3 activity ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by saturated free fatty acids in vitro or by hepatic lipid accumulation in vivo. Conversely, Lpcat3 knockdown in liver exacerbates ER stress and inflammation. Mechanistically, Lpcat3 modulates inflammation both by regulating inflammatory kinase activation through changes in membrane composition and by affecting substrate availability for inflammatory mediator production. These results outline an endogenous mechanism for the preservation of membrane homeostasis during lipid stress and identify Lpcat3 as an important mediator of LXR effects on metabolism.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in macrophages and regulate lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Among putative LXR target genes, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) involved in the Lands cycle controls the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids and, therefore, the availability of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA), used for eicosanoid synthesis. The aim of our study was to determine whether LXRs could regulate the Lands cycle in human macrophages, to assess the consequences in terms of lipid composition and inflammatory response, and to work out the relative contribution of LPCAT3 to the observed changes. Approach and results: Transcriptomic analysis revealed that LPCAT3 was upregulated by LXR agonists in human macrophages. Accordingly, LXR stimulation significantly increased lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity catalyzed by LPCAT3. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that LXR activation increased the AA content in the polar lipid fraction, specifically in phosphatidylcholines. The LXR-mediated effects on AA distribution were abolished by LPCAT3 silencing, and a redistribution of AA toward the neutral lipid fraction was observed in this context. Finally, we observed that preconditioning of human macrophages by LXR agonist treatment increased the release of arachidonate-derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, with a significant attenuation by LPCAT3 silencing. Conclusions: Altogether, our data demonstrate that the LXR-mediated induction of LPCAT3 primes human macrophages for subsequent eicosanoid secretion by increasing the pool of AA, which can be mobilized from phospholipids.
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