Article

Risk factors for pressure ulcer development in critically Ill patients: A conceptual model to guide research

Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, 461 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37240, USA.
Research in Nursing & Health (Impact Factor: 1.27). 08/2012; 35(4):340-62. DOI: 10.1002/nur.21481
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a proposed conceptual model to guide research on pressure ulcer risk in critically ill patients, who are at high risk for pressure ulcer development. However, no conceptual model exists that guides risk assessment in this population. Results from a review of prospective studies were evaluated for design quality and level of statistical reporting. Multivariate findings from studies having high or medium design quality by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence standards were conceptually grouped. The conceptual groupings were integrated into Braden and Bergstrom's (Braden and Bergstrom [1987] Rehabilitation Nursing, 12, 8-12, 16) conceptual model, retaining their original constructs and augmenting their concept of intrinsic factors for tissue tolerance. The model could enhance consistency in research on pressure ulcer risk factors.

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    • "However, he viewed the latter as an 'intermediate variable and not a causal factor'. Benoit and Mion developed their conceptual model for critically ill patients and also incorporate pressure and tissue tolerance with the latter highlighting extrinsic factors (Braden moisture and friction and shear) and intrinsic factors (metabolic supply and demand, pressure distribution capacity and threats to skin integrity) (Benoit & Mion 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo agree a draft pressure ulcer risk factor Minimum Data Set to underpin the development of a new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Framework.BackgroundA recent systematic review identified the need for a pressure ulcer risk factor Minimum Data Set and development and validation of an evidenced-based pressure ulcer Risk Assessment Framework. This was undertaken through the Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research and incorporates five phases. This article reports phase two, a consensus study.DesignConsensus study.MethodA modified nominal group technique based on the Research and Development/University of California at Los Angeles appropriateness method. This incorporated an expert group, review of the evidence and the views of a Patient and Public Involvement service user group. Data were collected December 2010–December 2011.FindingsThe risk factors and assessment items of the Minimum Data Set (including immobility, pressure ulcer and skin status, perfusion, diabetes, skin moisture, sensory perception and nutrition) were agreed. In addition, a draft Risk Assessment Framework incorporating all Minimum Data Set items was developed, comprising a two stage assessment process (screening and detailed full assessment) and decision pathways.Conclusion The draft Risk Assessment Framework will undergo further design and pre-testing with clinical nurses to assess and improve its usability. It will then be evaluated in clinical practice to assess its validity and reliability. The Minimum Data Set could be used in future for large scale risk factor studies informing refinement of the Risk Assessment Framework.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Advanced Nursing
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    • "However, he viewed the latter as an 'intermediate variable and not a causal factor'. Benoit and Mion developed their conceptual model for critically ill patients and also incorporate pressure and tissue tolerance with the latter highlighting extrinsic factors (Braden moisture and friction and shear) and intrinsic factors (metabolic supply and demand, pressure distribution capacity and threats to skin integrity) (Benoit & Mion 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Discussion Paper. The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010-2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Advanced Nursing
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    • "patients' coping abilities. These factors have been poorly covered by established aetiological models (Benoit and Mion, 2012). Although we could not confirm this with our quantitative data due to missing corresponding predictor variables, there are confirming results from other authors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nurses' clinical judgement plays a vital role in pressure ulcer risk assessment, but evidence is lacking which patient characteristics are important for nurses' perception of patients' risk exposure. To explore which patient characteristics nurses employ when assessing pressure ulcer risk without use of a risk assessment scale. Mixed methods design triangulating observational data from the control group of a quasi-experimental trial and data from semi-structured interviews with nurses. Two traumatological wards at a university hospital. Quantitative data: A consecutive sample of 106 patients matching the eligibility criteria (age ≥18 years, no pressure ulcers category ≥2 at admission and ≥5 days expected length of stay). Qualitative data: A purposive sample of 16 nurses. Quantitative data: Predictor variables for pressure ulcer risk were measured by study assistants at the bedside each second day. Concurrently, nurses documented their clinical judgement on patients' pressure ulcer risk by means of a 4-step global judgement scale. Bivariate correlations between predictor variables and nurses' risk estimates were established. Qualitative data: In interviews, nurses were asked to assess fictitious patients' pressure ulcer risk and to justify their risk estimates. Patient characteristics perceived as relevant for nurses' judements were thematically clustered. Triangulation: Firstly, predictors of nurses' risk estimates identified in bivariate analysis were cross-mapped with interview findings. Secondly, three models to predict nurses' risk estimates underwent multiple linear regression analysis. Nurses consider multiple patient characteristics for pressure ulcer risk assessment, but regard some conditions more important than others. Triangulation showed that these are measures reflecting patients' exposure to pressure or overall care dependency. Qualitative data furthermore indicate that nurses are likely to trade off risk-enhancing conditions against conditions perceived to be protective. Here, patients' mental capabilities like willingness to engage in one owns care seem to be particularly important. Due to missing information on these variables in the quantitative data, they could not be incorporated into triangulation. Nurses' clinical judgement draws on well-known aetiological factors, and tends to expand conditions covered by risk assessment scales. Patients' care dependency and self-care abilities seem to be core concepts for nurses' risk assessment.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · International journal of nursing studies
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