Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants and considerations in chemotherapy selection and dosing in infants
University of Toronto, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.83). 04/2012; 8(6):709-22. DOI: 10.1517/17425255.2012.680884
INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of high-quality data regarding optimal chemotherapy dosage regimens among infants. Dosing regimens for chemotherapy during the first year of life are commonly based on empiric recommendations extrapolated from older children; however, balancing efficacy and toxicity is critical as severe adverse drug reactions may lead to treatment failure or reduced adherence to needed medications. AREAS COVERED: This review describes pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic considerations when administering chemotherapeutic agents to infants. Examples of commonly used agents are provided with practical recommendations for dosing adjustments. EXPERT OPINION: Optimal chemotherapy for children and infants in particular has lagged behind the remarkable progress in cancer treatment and it is clear that far more basic and clinical research are needed with respect to the mechanistic basis of age-dependent differences in pharmacokinetic parameters. More recent studies which have combined pharmacokinetic data with clinical toxicity and outcome data have resulted in a number of more evidence-based guidelines at least for the initial chemotherapy dosing; however, at present, the dosing of chemotherapy drugs in neonates and infants remains largely empiric.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review is focused on the special issues and challenges confronting physicians and surgeons caring for an unborn child, or a newborn with a liver tumor. Liver tumors at this age are very rare and they make it difficult for pediatric surgeons to gain experience necessary to obtain good results. On the other hand, adult hepatobiliary surgeons faced with a fetus or infant with a liver mass are ill equipped to care for the patient even if they have done a high volume of adult liver surgery and are expert in the field. Often a team approach is the best solution.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.