Design and implementation of a full profile sub-cm ruby laser based Thomson scattering system for MAST

Department of Physics, University College Cork, Association Euratom-DCU, Cork, Ireland
Review of Scientific Instruments (Impact Factor: 1.61). 01/2011; 81(12):123508 - 123508-7. DOI: 10.1063/1.3511556
Source: IEEE Xplore


A major upgrade to the ruby Thomson scattering (TS) system has been designed and implemented on the Mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST). MAST is equipped with two TS systems, a Nd:YAG laser system and a ruby laser system. Apart from common collection optics each system provides independent measurements of the electron temperature and density profile. This paper focuses on the recent upgrades to the ruby TS system. The upgraded ruby TS system measures 512 points across the major radius of the MAST vessel. The ruby laser can deliver one 10 J 40 ns pulse at 1 Hz or two 5 J pulses separated by 100–800 μs. The Thomson scattered light is collected at F/15 over 1.4 m. This system can resolve small (7 mm) structures at 200 points in both the electron temperature and density channels at high optical contrast; ∼50% modulated transfer function. The system is fully automated for each MAST discharge and requires little adjustment. The estimated measurement error for a 7 mm radial point is <4% of Te and <3% of ne in the range of 40 eV to 2 keV, for a density of ne=2×1019 m -3 . The photon statistics at lower density can be increased by binning in the radial direction as desired. A new intensified CCD camera design allows the ruby TS system to take two snapshots separated with a minimum time of 230 μs. This is exploited to measure two density and temperature profiles or to measure the plasma background light.

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Available from: Graham Naylor, Feb 05, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l∕mm VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (∼2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ∼45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The Review of scientific instruments