External validity: We cannot tell if all the listed AKM
practices will be effective for all global teams. As noted by
Herbsleb , many authors propose plausible rules of
thumb but we need future research to validate whether
these views apply to all situations. We have tried to keep
the practices generic, but it is possible that they don’t all
apply; for example, some organisations may prefer to use a
purpose-built system as opposed to a WIKI 
In this paper, we presented a summary of the Global
Teaming Model (GTM) – a model that represents the key
practices that software organizations should consider when
operating in a geographically distributed environment. The
GTM is derived from both direct empirical evidence and an
extensive review of the literature. The GTM is a descriptive
process model, so to implement the practices would require
organizations to tailor them to their own specific needs.
In order to show how this can be achieved, we have
taken a specific area of project management, Architectural
Knowledge Management (AKM) and have applied the
practices to the GTM. Many organizations neglect their
systems software architecture due to the fact that AKM is
difficult and costly to maintain. Since software architecture
is not only used to bridge requirements and implementation
but also can be a coordination tool in a global context, we
believe that it is important to be applied using our GTM. We
believe that mapping AKM practices to our GTM will
motivate practitioners to use our model and will provide
them with specific recommended AKM practices.
This study therefore contributes to the more general
research in GSD, as practitioners and researchers can now
view the key AKM practices in context with all other
processes required when working with teams across
multiple sites. We take a critical look at the practices
associated with AKM in a Global Software Development
context. We have therefore shown that the Global Teaming
Model has the flexibility to be used as a framework for more
specific and prescriptive practices. Future work includes
applying the model to solve problems associated with the
Requirements Process in GSD, and how to manage the
Testing function in a global environment. We are currently
validating the Global Teaming Model in industry and plan
to publish the results in due course.
This research is supported by Science Foundation
Ireland through Grant No. 03/CE2/I303.1 within Lero - the
Irish Software Engineering Research Centre
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