Conference PaperPDF Available

Data collection with iPhone Web apps efficiently collecting patient data using mobile devices



The use of mobile and ubiquitous computing devices is advantageous for collecting and sharing patient data at the bedside or in hospital waiting areas. iPhone web applications - or web apps - combine the power of Internet based solutions with the simplicity of multi-touch and gesture technology, all one portable device. Since many data collection platforms have moved to an online paradigm (or are in the process of doing so), a web app is an ideal solution. In this work, we show the advantages of using a web app for patient data collection, as an imaging engine, and for patient feedback and survey systems. This can be achieved by taking advantage of simple functions available on the iPhone OS when using an online collection platform.
Data Collection with iPhone Web Apps
Efficiently Collecting Patient Data Using Mobile Devices
Ali Hamou, Stacey Guy, Benoit Lewden,
Adam Bilyea, Femida Gwadry-Sridhar
I-THINK Research, Lawson Health Research Institute
London, ON Canada
{ali.hamou, stacey.guy}
{benoit.lewden, adam.bilyea}
Michael Bauer
Department of Computer Science
The University of Western Ontario
London, ON Canada
AbstractThe use of mobile and ubiquitous computing devices is
advantageous for collecting and sharing patient data at the
bedside or in hospital waiting areas. iPhone web applications
or web apps combine the power of Internet based solutions
with the simplicity of multi-touch and gesture technology, all one
portable device. Since many data collection platforms have
moved to an online paradigm (or are in the process of doing so), a
web app is an ideal solution. In this work, we show the
advantages of using a web app for patient data collection, as an
imaging engine, and for patient feedback and survey systems.
This can be achieved by taking advantage of simple functions
available on the iPhone OS when using an online collection
Keywords-iPhone; patient data collection; imaging engine;
electronic health record; patient feedback systems
Traditional portable systems (tablets or laptop systems)
have been cumbersome and difficult for patients to use due to
their large size, clumsy interfaces and limited battery life.
Device costs were also quite expensive and difficult to replace
and maintain. The use of ubiquitous computing devices
(especially smart mobile phone technology) for collecting data
is better suited in a high tech hospital environment.
Only a handful of hospitals have migrated or adopted the
use of mobile systems (and applications). Such systems would
increase efficiency and reduce errors for a multitude of
applications. One popular system which was only introduced
in 2007 is Apple Inc’s iPhone (and iPod touch). This smart
phone has garnered great public consumer support, making it
an extremely widespread mainstream device. (1) Taking
advantage of this popularity and user understanding, helps to
create more streamlined workflows that can incorporate the
patient directly within a hospital or clinical setting. Some of
these will be outlined below.
A. Medical Applications for the iPhone
There are a growing number of medical applications
tailored for the iPhone with Apple Inc suggesting over 700 as
of January 2010. (5;10;11) Some of the available applications
border on data collection tools with features such as self-report
and sharing information with a consulting physician. Various
medical professionals are now using the iPhone to access
patient electronic records, laboratory test result values,
medication information and reference systems (such as contra-
indications), charge capture decision-support tools and medical
calculators. (7) Below we describe some applications.
FitnessBuilder, pioneered by PumpOne, is a physical
therapy tool that allows a physical therapist and the client to
communicate during therapy. This application allows the
therapist to assign exercises, and patients to report how much
of the exercise routine they have completed. The physical
therapist is then able to monitor the progress of the patient. (12)
AsthmaMD is a self-management application with features
such as a diary, graphing ability, and medication logs. This
application encourages the interaction of physician and patient
by sharing charts and information as well as sharing the user’s
information for research purposes. (15)
Hopkins Antibiotic Guide is an application for the
management and diagnosis of syndromes and pathogens with a
reference guide on antibiotics, as well as a section for
comments by the author. (5)
There are also a growing number of reference apps for the
iPhone. Epocrates is an extensive drug database for information
on dosage, interactions, laboratory tests, adverse reactions,
pharmacological information, profiles on clinical news and
conference highlights. (5;13) Attesting to the popularity of this
application is the claim that 100,000 physicians use this
application via their iPhone.(14) Similar applications are
Medilyzer, (a drug reference application with information
about side effects and dosage) and Procedures Consult (a
medical reference application, providing educational material
to students and professionals). The reference applications
generally include animation, illustrations, and video. (15)
Programs that assist decision making have become quite
prolific. KidneyCalc is an application that guides decisions
about dosage for patients with renal dysfunction. (15)
Handbook of Signs and Symptoms is a decision-tool
application whereby medical staff can identify signs and
symptoms and discover the most probable cause. (15)
Differential Diagnosis i-pocket is a similar product with over
800 sings, symptoms and abnormal findings. (15) MedMath
and MedCalc are both medical calculator applications that
include commonly used medical equations. (5)
One of the primary functions of an iPhone was the ability to
Podcast presentations, hence broadcasts of medical
presentations or conference content can also be uploaded to any
iPhone device. (5)
B. Health Projects using iPhone Technology
The Doylestown Hospital project wanted to improve clinic
workflow. In turn they gave physicians access to the hospital
electronic medical records database using the iPhone to
facilitate this. (8) A primary reason the project called for
iPhone usage is that after initial installation, the device
automatically wirelessly synchs with the hospital server. (7)
iPhones allowed physicians to access information necessary for
patient care such as laboratory results and vital signs while
enabling them to explain surgical procedures through imaging
capabilities. (8)
George Washington University Hospital developed a
project aimed at improving cardiology patient care which
enabled physicians to access EKG images from their iPhone.
This simplified the physician’s on-call routine decreasing the
burden on emergency room staff. This rapid access to patient
data led to improving turn-around times for patients. (7)
Utilising the iPhone as a platform for anatomical education
was found to be successful in multiple educational centres
since sources (such as imaging data and educational videos)
were effortlessly transferred to and easily accessible by the
iPhone. (1)
Memorial Hermann Healthcare System is currently drafting
systems that envision physicians using their iPhone as a
medical reference tool and to view patient information in a
secure manner with remote wipe facilities and passcode
protection. (9) This particular hospital currently makes use of
the AirStrip OB application in order to monitor labour with
delivery room data such as contraction patterns. (9)
We conducted this research with an aim to propose the use
of an iPhone application within the healthcare sector. Several
applications for the iPhone have been created in order to test
such mechanisms on real world systems for various clinics.
The application specified in this work, was designed for use in
an atheroscerlotic patient clinic (SPARC) that relies on a
MySQL backend database and a PHP front end web platform.
Each specific section of the iPhone application will be
described here.
A. Patient Demographics Acquisition
One of the foundations of any health record is patient
demographics. It represents the core data for any medical
institution. Accurate demographics equates to eventual accurate
statistical analysis. In traditional systems, a triage nurse (or
assistant) collects baseline foundation data manually. In other
words, either the patient or the nurse fills out forms by hand
which are eventually transcribed or coded to an electronic
database housing all patient records. These traditional systems
introduce a redundancy to the entry mechanism which leads to
various quality control issues. These include: errors in filling
out initial handwritten forms, errors unintentionally transcribed
to the database during coding, etc. Furthermore this process
requires two separate steps, manual collection and electronic
transcription, in order to populate the database; hence twice the
amount of time and resources are used by the clinic.
In order to alleviate such issues, a mobile web application
(web app) was designed for use with the clinic’s database. This
web app was designed for the iPhone to take advantage of the
interface features offered such as gesture support. The
acquisition tool allows for demographic data to be directly
imported into the database, which could be done by either
patient or nurse onsite. Furthermore, validation (which was
implemented using JavaScript) was applied to each field
ensuring that data was not missed or incorrectly filled. Such
techniques allowed for further increases in quality control
ensuring accurate patient record entry.
Figure 1(a) depicts a screenshot of the patient
demographics acquisition system. For this web app, detailed
history was required by the client. The web app takes
advantage of all the user interface enhancements of the iPhone
along with soft keyboard features for data input.
B. Imaging Platform
An imaging platform was created in this web app since the
use of imaging data (whether CT, Ultrasound, MRI, etc)
associated with a patient’s record was required. This is used in
two ways:
1. The first allows the clinician to analyze a complete patient
record, including all associated test results in order to
verify findings. Gesture-supported tools such as magnify
and reorient allows the clinician to highlight and focus on
various aspects of the patient images.
2. The second allows the clinician to illustrate a patient’s
condition and would help them cope with their illness.
Ultrasounds were imaged in the proposed iPhone
application such that multiple views (for instance
bifurcation, internal carotid, four-chamber, apex, etc) were
available for the user to select and magnify.
Figure 1(b) depicts an example of a four-chamber view
echocardiogram. This image can be selected and manipulated
by the user using simple hand gestures (tapping, pinching, etc)
as defined by the iPhone’s interface.
This platform is easily extended to include multimodal
datasets and simple registration and segmentation algorithms.
These are only limited by the processing power of the iPhone
as such algorithm efficiency is critical to ensuring these tools
would be used.
C. Patient Surveys and Learning Tools
Feedback mechanisms from patients provide valuable
information that can be stored and queried on the database.
Once collected, this section of the web app can also be used to
train and teach patients about various issues regarding the
effects of their medications and counter indications if stopped.
Furthermore, it can be used to collect and track patient
knowledge, their medication compliance, satisfaction and
health related quality of life.
The gesture supported interface allows for ease of data
entry of these surveys, which can be filled out while the patient
is waiting for the clinician. Several devices can be reserved for
patient waiting rooms which can collect feedback and educate
the patient about their illness simultaneously. They can also be
used to inform the patient that the clinician is ready to see
them. Furthermore, patients can provide their email address,
which would allow the system to send educational material to
the patient following their visit.
Figure 1(c) depicts an example of a patient survey and
feedback form. Patient lifestyle habits allowed the clinic to
make more accurate decisions on diagnosis and future
outcomes. These feedback systems provided a means for the
clinic to improve their workflow and operations center.
Many advantages have already been mentioned as to using
smart mobile systems (direct entry, portable, relatively
inexpensive, remote wipe features, etc), however many specific
reasons exist for utilizing Apple Inc’s iPhone platform:
The iPhone allows for adaptation and flexibility at each
level of its operating system. (2)
The iPhone can be easily sterilised for use with patients by
means of a standard alcohol wipes. (3) This can prevent
the possible spread of microbes or other germs present
within the hospital environment.
With specific functions such as an accelerometer and
microphone, multimodal data can be collected or captured.
o Given the motion sensors embedded in the iPhone, it
could allow for the possibility of monitoring a person’s
agility and movement (possibly monitoring various
movement based disorders).
o Accelerometers may aid in mental health i.e. many
disorders are accompanied by physical signs and
symptoms (physical movement as well as activity levels)
such as frenetic motions which aid in diagnosis of a
mental condition. (4)
Data that can be potentially mined from the iPhone could
provide rich, dynamic information in a second-by-second
account of the patient’s experience. (4) Although this is an
intervention, the patient may consider this as part of their
daily routine as the device is not overly intrusive and is
enjoyable to use.
The iPhone as a data collection tool could help monitor the
patient’s response to a given treatment (be it medication
compliance or based on behaviour change). (4)
The touch-screen and gesture support allows for easy and
familiar user interaction, as well as panning images with a
finger tip - essentially interacting with the phone. (1;5)
This is particularly relevant where older patients are
concerned. The touch facility requires less agility then
using a point and click device.
The built in GPS could provide, with patient consent,
tracking of patient location and geographical patterns that
could be useful in diet and nutrition initiatives. (4)
The wireless and 3G capabilities allow for easy and
seamless access to the internet. (1;6)
A. User Interface and Mainstream Proliferation
Touch screen interfaces have traditionally suffered from
cramped layouts and poor displays. This has led them to rely on
soft pens for navigation. The iPhone user interface relies
primarily on finger based navigation, and a minimalist layout
paradigm. In other words, screens must be kept simple and
focused, relating only to the operations desired.
Application features are structured at a very high level. This
ensures that application abide by the standards outlined by the
provided libraries. These standards provide, hierarchical levels
that are easily retractable, which allow for switching between
main functionality without losing your position, editing of
information while maintaining context, etc. The simple and
intuitive layout of the interface allows for natural
understanding of programs running on the iPhone, which
allows users to take full advantage of the application without a
learning curve.
The rapid adoption rate and popularity of the iPhone (and
iPhone OS devices) have made the use of such systems
advantageous, as most clinicians and patients have access to
them and are familiar to use such systems. This makes them
ideal for small clinic use that sees a high throughput of patients.
For instance a clinic could purchase several iPod Touch
devices (instead of iPhones) for a relatively inexpensive
amount and they would not require mobile phone plans.
These devices can communicate with the database via a
wireless network or Bluetooth connection rather than a mobile
data plan.
B. Rapid Development Model
Apple Inc. has provided several tutorials and an extremely
comprehensive literature set on its iPhone development
platform. Furthermore, examples and drag-and-drop interfaces
for creating web apps (or fully flanked iPhone applications)
facilitate rapid development times. Each section of the iPhone
application designed took minimal development time since
current PHP pages were simply adapted to the mobile screen
size and various gesture features were added.
Since iPhone development is carried out using xCode
(Apple Inc’s integrated development environment) and
involves similar methods and library calls as writing standard
Mac OS X applications, there was virtually no learning curve
for our current developers. Those that had no prior experience
with Objective-C (the language used for Mac OS X
development), followed Apple Inc’s online tutorials and were
creating example programs extremely quickly. The relatively
low learning curve for development created great excitement
and drove rapid development times.
C. Security
In general, when dealing with any patient record or
information, all data must be secured and housed behind a
hospital firewall system. One of the main objectives in using a
web app was to build a system without breaking this
imperative. The use of web apps provided this functionality,
since any data would be accessed through the secure site
already established by the current database.
Current PHP pages that were retooled for the iPhone
leveraged the same security protocols on the original website
accessing patient data. Furthermore, all of the actions taken by
any user of the web app was logged and stored on the database.
Hence any malicious attempts to circumvent security or corrupt
data are quickly detected and access is revoked (reinstating the
original data if changes that did occur become trivial).
In order to improve efficiency in collecting patient data,
tablet systems or lightweight client computers have been
adopted by various clinics for use in patient waiting rooms.
These systems have been found to improve workflow, increase
the accuracy of data acquisition systems, and streamline patient
feedback mechanisms. The use of ubiquitous mobile devices
(such as iPhone OS technology, which further supports future
platforms such as the iPad) allows to further improve such
practices. The proliferation of these mainstream devices has
encouraged a strong paradigm shift in the consumer space
which encourages their adoption in an ever growing e-health
We have shown that it is possible to use of iPhones for
collecting patient data, displaying various imaging modalities,
and collecting feedback is advantageous when used in a clinical
setting. Our future research will involve pilot work with
patients evaluating the applications in order to improve
adherence to lifestyle, diet and medication use changes. We
aim to do this through a cross-over trial where patients are
initially given traditional care interventions followed by the use
of our iPhone application. We will also conduct focus groups
with our patients to ensure that we are responsive to their needs
and preferences in future development.
The web app created for this project will be extended to be
used in other clinical centres which would aim to improve their
respective workflows and data collection systems. There are
implications to both individual health (where the application
can be personalized based on patient preferences and needs) as
well as at the population level (where these devices can be used
to reach different age cohorts). Although cardiovascular disease
is very prevalent, the emerging diseases such as childhood
obesity and type 2 diabetes in these patients is equally
Figure 1. iPhone web app screenshots. (a) Detailed patient demographics acquisition platform, (b) Imaging platform, (c) Patient
survey and feedback platform.
compelling and requires new media to engage patients. We
believe the iPhone provides a unique opportunity achieve this.
No financial support was received for this work. This work
was made possible by Dr. David Spence and his clinic that
provided the platform to create our applications from. This
work was partially supported by Apple Canada Inc and Philip
Hume (higher education representative) by providing the
necessary equipment and tools.
[1] Trelease R. Diffusion of innovations: Smartphones and wireless
anatomy learning resources. Anatomical Sciences Education
[2] Walker G, Stanton N, Jenkins D, Salmon P. From telephones to iPhones:
Applying systems thinking to networked, interoperable products.
Applied Ergonomics 2009;40:206-15.
[3] Low D, Pittaway A. The 'iPhone' induction - a novel use for the Apple
iPhone. Pediatric Anesthesia 2010;18:573-4.
[4] Pentland A, Lazer D, Brewer D, Heibeck T. Using reality mining to
improve public health and medicine. Stud Health Technol Inform
[5] Burdette S, Herchline T, Oehler R. Practicing medicine in a
technological age: using Smartphones in clinical practice. Clinical
Infectious Disease 2008;47:117-22.
[6] Abdullah Humayun M, Dang T, Himawan A, Koirala Y, Ridwan R,
Wibiyanto D. The future trajectory of google android: a study from
operating system, application stores and handset manufacturers 2009.
[7] Gamble K. Beyond phones. Healthcare Informatics 2009;26(8):23-6.
[8] Apple. Always on call: iPhone 3G. http://www apple
com/iphone/business/profiles/doylestown/ 2010 [cited 20100 Jan 19];
[9] Apple. Advancing health care with iPhone. http://www apple
com/iphone/business/profiles/memorial-hermann/ 2010 [cited 20100 Jan
[10] Goncharuk V. Voalte's view on the present and the future of the iPhone
platform for the medical sector. http//iphonemedicalapps com/ 2010
[cited 20100 Jan 19];
[11] Falchuk B. Visual and interaction design themes in mobile healthcare.
2009; 2009.
[12] FitnessBuilder monitors at-home physical therapy
progress. http://www medgadget com/archives/print/008884print html
2010 [cited 20100 Jan 19];
[13] Apple. Using iPhone to improve patient care. http://www apple
com/iphone/business/profiles/diamond/ 2010 [cited 20100 Jan 19];
[14] SYS-CON Media Inc. 100,000 physicians actively use Epocrates on the
iPhone. http://au sys-con com/node/1045098/print 2010 [cited 20100 Jan
[15] New and noteworthy iPhone medical apps released last week in app
store. http://iphonemedicalapps com/ 2010 [cited 20100 Jan
20];Available from: URL:
... The mHealth apps available on Apple app and Google play stores can be broadly categorised into patient care and monitoring; health apps for the layperson; communication, education, and research apps; and physician or student reference apps (Ozdalga et al. 2012). Most mHealth apps are designed for health and wellness management, such as cardio fitness, diet, medication adherence, women's health, strength training, stress, smoking cessation, mental health, parental and infant care, and chronic disease management (Apple 2015; Google 2015). These apps make use of the in-built features and capabilities of mobile devices to monitor user's physiological and health conditions, e.g. ...
... In our case study, we examined 40 popular free Android mHealth apps available on Google Play store (Google 2015). We installed and registered the apps on a Google Nexus 4 phone (Android version 5.0.1). ...
... For example, a number of hospitals (e.g. Doylestown Hospital and George Washington University Hospital) have developed several projects to give physicians secure access to medical databases using smartphones (Hamou et al. 2010). ...
Mobile health applications (or mHealth apps, as they are commonly known) are increasingly popular with both individual end users and user groups such as physicians. Due to their ability to access, store and transmit personally identifiable and sensitive information (e.g. geolocation information and personal details), they are potentially an important source of evidentiary materials in digital investigations. In this paper, we examine 40 popular Android mHealth apps. Based on our findings, we propose a taxonomy incorporating artefacts of forensic interest to facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from mobile devices involving the use of such apps. Artefacts of forensic interest recovered include user details and email addresses, chronology of user locations and food habits. We are also able to recover user credentials (e.g. user password and four-digit app login PIN number), locate user profile pictures and identify timestamp associated with the location of a user.
... There are obstacles though. People who live in rural areas are more likely to have lower incomes and therefore less likely to have access to mobile technology in the form of a smartphone [36]. ...
... Although there are obstacles to their implementation, these devices are being used in our healthcare delivery system. As of 2009, two thirds of all physicians used some type of mobile technology in their J Health Med Informat ISSN:2157-7420 JHMI, an open access journal Virtualized Medical Systems practice of medicine, and there are over 1,500 healthcare related apps offered in Apple's Appstore for the iPhone [36]. Healthcare apps can assist healthcare professionals with access to patient electronic medical records, access to reference systems, access to decision support systems, and to provide a way for providers to interact with patients [37]. ...
Due to the unique population characteristics of Rural America, the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions is a challenge. This is especially true when specialists are needed, in particular for mental health care including psychiatry. Provision of care often falls to primary care providers, who may fail to recognize symptoms or misdiagnose a condition. In addition, a stigma is often attached to mental health issues and precludes many people from seeking treatment, particularly due to embarrassment and perceived confidentiality issues. This paper will describe the rural population and mental health issues faced by patients and providers. Challenges will be explored from a systems theory viewpoint, as well as from community development perspectives. Solutions will be offered ranging from the broad theoretical perspective including policy options, and specific solutions for practitioners in various settings. Of particular focus is telemedicine in the form of telepsychiatry. This option is mentioned throughout this paper in terms of current usage in specific settings as well as provider and patient acceptance of the technology.
... According to literature, mHealth has a crucial role to play since it can improve communication and enhance the integration of care processes [6,7]. Looking at the internal processes in use at health care organizations, mHealth can increase the productivity of health care providers, and consequently may even improve the productivity of health care systems [8][9][10][11]. Focusing on the external relations of health care organizations, mHealth can enhance transparency [12,13] and so increase the accountability of health care providers and systems, but it can also empower patients [14][15][16]. Finally, the greatest promise of mHealth is to enhance the quality of life and the appropriateness of care [17][18][19]. ...
... Mobile technology should be introduced in line with the activities it aims to support. It first supports automation [27], data collection [10,28], and then operations. However, it can also support clinical decision making [29], especially monitoring (eg, pain monitoring) [30], and the planning of activities. ...
Full-text available
Health care systems are gradually moving toward new models of care based on integrated care processes shared by different care givers and on an empowered role of the patient. Mobile technologies are assuming an emerging role in this scenario. This is particularly true in care processes where the patient has a particularly enhanced role, as is the case of cancer supportive care. This paper aims to review existing studies on the actual role and use of mobile technology during the different stages of care processes, with particular reference to cancer supportive care. We carried out a review of literature with the aim of identifying studies related to the use of mHealth in cancer care and cancer supportive care. The final sample size consists of 106 records. There is scant literature concerning the use of mHealth in cancer supportive care. Looking more generally at cancer care, we found that mHealth is mainly used for self-management activities carried out by patients. The main tools used are mobile devices like mobile phones and tablets, but remote monitoring devices also play an important role. Text messaging technologies (short message service, SMS) have a minor role, with the exception of middle income countries where text messaging plays a major role. Telehealth technologies are still rarely used in cancer care processes. If we look at the different stages of health care processes, we can see that mHealth is mainly used during the treatment of patients, especially for self-management activities. It is also used for prevention and diagnosis, although to a lesser extent, whereas it appears rarely used for decision-making and follow-up activities. Since mHealth seems to be employed only for limited uses and during limited phases of the care process, it is unlikely that it can really contribute to the creation of new care models. This under-utilization may depend on many issues, including the need for it to be embedded into broader information systems. If the purpose of introducing mHealth is to promote the adoption of integrated care models, using mHealth should not be limited to some activities or to some phases of the health care process. Instead, there should be a higher degree of pervasiveness at all stages and in all health care delivery activities.
... Overall, our study findings establish chatbots as a modern, friendly, and intuitive approach to health data collection compared to traditional online forms or the conventional use of chatbots as therapy or education delivery mechanisms in healthcare. With the growing use of mobile devices to obtain health information, this approach can help collect high-quality, complete, more accurate data from patients, thereby enhancing the processes and workflows of health data collection (39,40). ...
Full-text available
Objective: Virtual conversational agents, or chatbots, have emerged as a novel approach to health data collection. However, research on patient perceptions of chatbots in comparison to traditional online forms is sparse. This study aimed to compare and assess the experience of completing a health assessment using a chatbot vs. an online form. Methods: A counterbalanced, within-subject experimental design was used with participants recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk). Participants completed a standardized health assessment using a chatbot (i.e., Dokbot) and an online form (i.e., REDCap), each followed by usability and experience questionnaires. To address poor data quality and preserve integrity of mTurk responses, we employed a thorough data cleaning process informed by previous literature. Quantitative (descriptive and inferential statistics) and qualitative (thematic analysis and complex coding query) approaches were used for analysis. Results: A total of 391 participants were recruited, 185 of whom were excluded, resulting in a final sample size of 206 individuals. Most participants (69.9%) preferred the chatbot over the online form. Average Net Promoter Score was higher for the chatbot (NPS = 24) than the online form (NPS = 13) at a statistically significant level. System Usability Scale scores were also higher for the chatbot (i.e. 69.7 vs. 67.7), but this difference was not statistically significant. The chatbot took longer to complete but was perceived as conversational, interactive, and intuitive. The online form received favorable comments for its familiar survey-like interface. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that a chatbot provided superior engagement, intuitiveness, and interactivity despite increased completion time compared to online forms. Knowledge of patient preferences and barriers will inform future design and development of recommendations and best practice for chatbots for healthcare data collection.
... Hamou et al. [14] performed a study where iPhone web apps were used to collect patient data. Their results showed such web applications were viable replacements for equivalent functionality from websites and were successful in both consuming and creating content by collecting patient data. ...
Full-text available
The extensive growth and expansion of smartphones and tablets and therewith the use of mobile web applications that utilize HTML5 and related technologies are frequently discussed and debated in media as possible replacements for native applications. The aim of this study was to explore the viability of replacing native applications with mobile web applications in a developing country setting. Two mobile web applications were developed. The first mobile web application tracked runs and the second mobile web application was a booking system for scheduling â??slum runsâ?. The subjects who tested these apps were elite, semi-professional Kenyan runners primarily from the Kibera slum area outside of Nairobi. After a 6-month test period the participants concluded and results indicated that the mobile web application for tracking runs performed poorly compared to native applications due to poor GPS performance, while the mobile web application for booking slum runs performed well. The conclusion from this study is that mobile web applications that require hardware interaction such as using the GPS, GPU, or camera are not yet viable alternatives for native applications. However, mobile applications that only require a native interface and content consumption are suitable substitutes for native applications.
Full-text available
This book gathers selected research papers presented at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Machine Learning, IOT, Smart Cities & Applications (ICMISC 2020), held on 29–30 March 2020 at CMR Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Discussing current trends in machine learning, Internet of things, and smart cities applications, with a focus on multi-disciplinary research in the area of artificial intelligence and cyber-physical systems, this book is a valuable resource for scientists, research scholars and PG students wanting formulate their research ideas and find the future directions in these areas. Further, it serves as a reference work anyone wishing to understand the latest technologies used by practicing engineers around the globe.
Conducting and monitoring skill training programs for rural population always involves a huge amount of administrative tasks and tracking processes. To ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the program it is mandatory to implement a proper tracking and monitoring system. In this paper, we present a software application suite for monitoring and tracking of the PMKVY (Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana) training programs in the rural settlements of India conducted by an NGO. We discuss the common challenges and the design considerations that were used while designing and implementing the application. Sentiment analysis was applied on the feedback received through the mobile application and it was observed that 66% of the feedback were of positive polarity. Also, the word frequency analysis on the same data revealed that the feedback was mostly about the students and that too on a daily basis. With these observations, the potential to apply NLP in the future is also discussed.
In this paper, we developed mobile application framework which manages the hydrogen skin moisturizing device. We use react native framework for developing the mobile application. It allows us to manage and control the hydrogen skin device. Our hydrogen skin moisturizing device is based on PCB boards. We were connecting to PCB boards by Bluetooth communication methods. React native is a framework that provides the same results as a native application developed by a mobile application. It’s just enough to save time and money for converting the one written code into other platforms.
Full-text available
The educational landscape is changing and a variety of technologies and techniques are blurring the lines between traditional and non-traditional learning. This change is substantial in low-income countries: individuals in developing countries have a great desire to educate themselves and improve their quality of life. Kenyans are adequately literate and accustomed to mobile technology despite being a largely impoverished, poorly educated populace. Kenya represents an optimal setting in which to research the use and feasibility of modern mobile and educational technologies. The broad aim of this dissertation is to explore how mobile devices can catalyze and enhance both informal and non-formal learning. In particular, this dissertation explores how technologies and concepts such as mobile web apps, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and learning incentives via a smartphone specifically affect informal and non-formal learning in Kenya. The primary research question is how can learning efforts that utilize mobile learning, MOOCs, and learning incentives combine non-formal and informal learning to develop and contribute to a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to learning in Kenya? The primary method is action research. The first contribution of this dissertation is the finding that mobile web apps are currently better suited for data exchange than producing new content. The second contribution is the finding that a smartphone can enhance informal learning in a developing country with little or no scaffolding. The third contribution is the finding that non-formal learning efforts as a MOOC are shown to be a viable means of delivering non-formal learning in a developing country via a smartphone. The fourth contribution is the finding that the use of incentives such as digital badges provide a means by which to validate non-formal learning and contribute to a DIY attitude towards learning creation, where individuals can freely complement or replace a traditional curriculum.
Full-text available
Background: Since the advent of smartphones, mHealth has risen to the attention of the health care system as something that could radically change the way health care has been viewed, managed, and delivered to date. This is particularly relevant for cancer, as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and for cancer supportive care, since patients and caregivers have key roles in managing side effects. Given adequate knowledge, they are able to expect appropriate assessments and interventions. In this scenario, mHealth has great potential for linking patients, caregivers, and health care professionals; for enabling early detection and intervention; for lowering costs; and achieving better quality of life. Given its great potential, it is important to evaluate the performance of mHealth. This can be considered from several perspectives, of which organizational performance is particularly relevant, since mHealth may increase the productivity of health care providers and as a result even the productivity of health care systems. Objective: This paper aims to review studies on the evaluation of the performance of mHealth, with particular focus on cancer care and cancer supportive care processes, concentrating on its contribution to organizational performance, as well as identifying some indications for a further research agenda. Methods: We carried out a review of literature, aimed at identifying studies related to the performance of mHealth in general or focusing on cancer care and cancer supportive care. Results: Our analysis revealed that studies are almost always based on a single dimension of performance. Any evaluations of the performance of mHealth are based on very different methods and measures, with a prevailing focus on issues linked to efficiency. This fails to consider the real contribution that mHealth can offer for improving the performance of health care providers, health care systems, and the quality of life in general. Conclusions: Further research should start by stating and explaining what is meant by the evaluation of mHealth's performance and then conduct more in-depth analysis in order to create shared frameworks to specifically identify the different dimensions of mHealth's performance.
Full-text available
We live our lives in digital networks. We wake up in the morning, check our e-mail, make a quick phone call, commute to work, buy lunch. Many of these transactions leave digital breadcrumbs--tiny records of our daily experiences. Reality mining, which pulls together these crumbs using statistical analysis and machine learning methods, offers an increasingly comprehensive picture of our lives, both individually and collectively, with the potential of transforming our understanding of ourselves, our organizations, and our society in a fashion that was barely conceivable just a few years ago. It is for this reason that reality mining was recently identified by Technology Review as one of "10 emerging technologies that could change the world". Many everyday devices provide the raw database upon which reality mining builds; sensors in mobile phones, cars, security cameras, RFID ('smart card') readers, and others, all allow for the measurement of human physical and social activity. Computational models based on such data have the potential to dramatically transform the arenas of both individual and community health. Reality mining can provide new opportunities with respect to diagnosis, patient and treatment monitoring, health services planning, surveillance of disease and risk factors, and public health investigation and disease control. Currently, the single most important source of reality mining data is the ubiquitous mobile phone. Every time a person uses a mobile phone, a few bits of information are left behind. The phone pings the nearest mobile-phone towers, revealing its location. The mobile phone service provider records the duration of the call and the number dialed. In the near future, mobile phones and other technologies will collect even more information about their users, recording everything from their physical activity to their conversational cadences. While such data pose a potential threat to individual privacy, they also offer great potential value both to individuals and communities. With the aid of data-mining algorithms, these data could shed light on individual patterns of behavior and even on the well-being of communities, creating new ways to improve public health and medicine. To illustrate, consider two examples of how reality mining may benefit individual health care. By taking advantage of special sensors in mobile phones, such as the microphone or the accelerometers built into newer devices such as Apple's iPhone, important diagnostic data can be captured. Clinical pilot data demonstrate that it may be possible to diagnose depression from the way a person talks--a depressed person tends to speak more slowly, a change that speech analysis software on a phone might recognize more readily than friends or family do. Similarly, monitoring a phone's motion sensors can also reveal small changes in gait, which could be an early indicator of ailments such as Parkinson's disease. Within the next few years reality mining will become more common, thanks in part to the proliferation and increasing sophistication of mobile phones. Many handheld devices now have the processing power of low-end desktop computers, and they can also collect more varied data, due to components such as GPS chips that track location. The Chief Technology Officer of EMC, a large digital storage company, estimates that this sort of personal sensor data will balloon from 10% of all stored information to 90% within the next decade. While the promise of reality mining is great, the idea of collecting so much personal information naturally raises many questions about privacy. It is crucial that behavior-logging technology not be forced on anyone. But legal statutes are lagging behind data collection capabilities, making it particularly important to begin discussing how the technology will and should be used. Therefore, an additional focus of this chapter will be the development of a legal and ethical framework concerning the data used by reality mining techniques.
Full-text available
Mobile technology has the potential to revolutionize how physicians practice medicine. From having access to the latest medical research at the point of care to being able to communicate at a moment's notice with physicians and colleagues around the world, we are practicing medicine in a technological age. During recent years, many physicians have been simultaneously using a pager, cellular telephone, and personal digital assistant (PDA) to keep in communication with the hospital and to access medical information or calendar functions. Many physicians have begun replacing multiple devices with a “smartphone,” which functions as a cellular telephone, pager, and PDA. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the currently available platforms that make up the smartphone devices and the available medical software. Each platform has its unique advantages and disadvantages, and available software will vary by device and is in constant flux.
Conference Paper
The opening-up of mobile application development has enabled the launches of successful ldquoapp storesrdquo for iPhone, Android, Blackberry and others, from which innovative mobile applications are available. The healthcare realm is not left out; scores of health and wellness-related apps are available, though most (but not all) are simplistic, highly derivative or not overly compelling from graphical, creative, or usability points of view. In this paper we take a broader look at mobile platforms, enablers, and example healthcare applications that are noteworthy or representative in one way or another - these include some of the authors own research. We look at a series of exemplary and topical real-world examples to help us identify and support several overarching themes salient to mobile healthcare services. These themes include: the use of novel interaction techniques, the use of human-computer interface to encourage and mitigate movement and activity, and the use of graphics to improve the representation and understanding of medical, wellness, and life information. This paper, then, serves as a brief survey of existing health-related applications as well as an introduction to a few thought-provoking applications that ldquoare not here yetrdquo but promise to have an impact on mobile healthcare.
Smartphone use is gaining traction among clinicians, with products like the iPhone and the BlackBerry supporting the display of drug references, medical calculators, decision support and EMR access. It is critical that a sound wireless infrastructure is in place to support smartphones and ensure connectivity. By tying in smartphones to the electronic record, CIOs can help to improve clinician workflow and maximize EMR use. Some clinicians will resist smartphone use; therefore, CIOs should continue to offer a variety of devices including COWs, tablets, laptops and wired PCs.
The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular attention has been directed to the anticipated integration of PDA functions into popular cellular telephones. However, limited distribution of early "smartphones" (e.g., Palm Treo and Blackberry) has provided few potential users for anatomical learning resources. In contrast, iPod media players have been self-adopted by millions of students, and "podcasting" has become a popular medium for distributing educational media content. The recently introduced Apple iPhone has combined smartphone and higher resolution media player capabilities. The author successfully tested the iPhone and the "work alike" iPod touch wireless media player with text-based "flashcard" resources, existing PDF educational documents, 3D clinical imaging data, lecture "podcasts," and clinical procedure video. These touch-interfaced, mobile computing devices represent just the first of a new generation providing practical, scalable wireless Web access with enhanced multimedia capabilities. With widespread student self-adoption of such new personal technology, educators can look forward to increasing portability of well-designed, multiplatform "learn anywhere" resources.
An expanding array of consumer products have the facility to have things added in and plugged on, their firmware upgraded, and as yet un-thought of future capability supported. In short, more and more products can be connected to something and/or someone, and in doing so are slowly adapting to the current day state of modernity that is called 'the information age'. Inevitably, this brings with it changes in the way that products should be thought about and designed. The purpose of this paper is to try and help product designers and Ergonomists to get a grip on all the complexity and non-linearity that the information age brings with it, and help make themselves and their increasingly networked and interoperable products at home in it. Our case study, Apple's new iPhone, serves as a pertinent example.
Visual and interaction design themes in mobile healthcare. 2009; 2009. [12] FitnessBuilder monitors at-home physical therapy progress
  • B Falchuk
Falchuk B. Visual and interaction design themes in mobile healthcare. 2009; 2009. [12] FitnessBuilder monitors at-home physical therapy progress. http://www medgadget corn!archives/printl008884print html 2010 [cited 20100 Jan 19];
Using iPhone to improve patient care
  • Apple
Apple. Using iPhone to improve patient care. http://www apple com/iphone/business/profiles/diamond/ 2010 [cited 20100 Jan 19];
Inc. 100, 000 physicians actively use Epocrates on the IPhone
  • Sys-Con Media