Article

Compact Planar Magic-T Using E-Plane Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Power Divider and Slotline Transition

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Abstract

A novel planar magic-T using an E-plane substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) power divider and a SIW-slotline transition is proposed in this letter. Due to the metal ground between the two input/output ports, the E-plane SIW power divider has a 180?? reverse phase characteristic. A SIW-slotline transition is utilized to realize the H-plane input/output port of the magic-T. Good agreement between the measured and simulated results indicate that the planar magic-T has a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 18% (13.2-15.8 GHz), and the amplitude and phase imbalances are less than 0.24 dB and 1.5??, respectively.

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... In this paper, a high selectivity wideband SIW balun bandpass filter using SIW power divider [17] is proposed. Eight complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) [18,19] defected in the upper and bottom metal layers of the SIW power divider are used to realize the sharp rejection upper stopband with |S 21 |/|S 31 | greater than 40 dB (12.2-13.6 ...
... c 0 is the light speed in free space and ε r the permittivity of the dielectric substrate Figures 1(a) and (b) illustrate the 3-D view and the top view of the wideband balun bandpass filter, consisting of three layers with a metal ground located in the middle of the structure with two ports (port 2, 3) on top and bottom planes. Eight complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) are defected in the upper and bottom layer of the SIW power divider [17]. As discussed in [17], when the signals are transmitted from port 1 to ports 2, 3, due to the 180 • phase difference of the electric field at A-A plane (as shown in Fig. 1(c)), an equal out-of-phase power division can be realized in the balanced output ports 2, 3. ...
... Eight complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) are defected in the upper and bottom layer of the SIW power divider [17]. As discussed in [17], when the signals are transmitted from port 1 to ports 2, 3, due to the 180 • phase difference of the electric field at A-A plane (as shown in Fig. 1(c)), an equal out-of-phase power division can be realized in the balanced output ports 2, 3. ...
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In this article, a novel method for high-precision time-delay estimation (TDE) of narrow-band signals is proposed. It is based on a cross-correlation function, phase spectrum, long short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural network to unwrap the phase transform (PHAT) spectrum of the cross-correlation function. The PHAT-LSTM architecture consists of three parts. The first part is a wrapping parameter estimator (WPE) used to estimate the wrapping parameter of the base-band phase spectrum. The second part, a wrapping classifier (WCF), is a single output network used to compensate the drawbacks of the WPE. The third part, a synthesize and fine estimator, synthesizes the information from the WPE and WCF to unwrap the phase and estimate the delay according to the phase-delay model. The input of the PHAT-LSTM are fast Fourier transforms of snapshot data from two receiving channels. In addition, the dimension of the input signals was dramatically decreased compared with other deep learning-based TDE methods. Simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the PHAT-LSTM is decreased in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with traditional TDE methods. When the SNR = 10 dB or 0 dB, the RMSE of TDE was about ten times smaller than that of traditional methods.
... For a magic-T, the input port of the structure that operates as the power divider (PD) is named the sum port, while the input port of the structure that acts as the reverse-phase PD (balun) is called the difference port. Owing to the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) with the advantages of easy integration with planar structures, high power capacity, and low insertion loss, researchers present multiple SIW and half mode SIW (HMSIW) magic-Ts by using slotline-to-SIW transition [4,5] and stripline-to-SIW transition techniques [6]. However, these SIW magic-Ts do not integrate with bandpass filters (BPFs), so it is hard to exclude unwanted signals. ...
... At 8.7 GHz, the FMT achieves a nearly 50% longitudinal size reduction and higher electric-field constraints than the HMT, which verifies the propagation constant's properties of the HMSIW and DCLSG HMSIW-SSPP structure described in Figure 2a. [4,5], the proposed FMT realizes bandpass filtering response and miniaturization attributed to the bandpass characteristic and SW effect of the HMSIW-SSPP structure, and we can easily control the upper and lower cut-off frequencies of the passband by altering the structural parameters. Moreover, compared to the reported stateof-the-art FMT based on SIW technology [8][9][10][12][13][14]17], our proposed FMT exhibits the unique advantages of the wide operating bandwidth and wide stopband performance while maintaining a relatively compact size. ...
... Moreover, compared to the reported stateof-the-art FMT based on SIW technology [8][9][10][12][13][14]17], our proposed FMT exhibits the unique advantages of the wide operating bandwidth and wide stopband performance while maintaining a relatively compact size. 5], the proposed FMT realizes bandpass filtering response and miniaturization attributed to the bandpass characteristic and SW effect of the HMSIW-SSPP structure, and we can easily control the upper and lower cut-off frequencies of the passband by altering the structural parameters. Moreover, compared to the reported stateof-the-art FMT based on SIW technology [8][9][10][12][13][14]17], our proposed FMT exhibits the unique advantages of the wide operating bandwidth and wide stopband performance while maintaining a relatively compact size. ...
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A novel filtering magic-T (FMT) with a compact size, a broad bandwidth, and a wide stopband rejection based on the dielectric-covered L-shaped groove (DCLSG) half-mode substrate integrated waveguide and the spoof surface plasmon polariton (HMSIW-SSPP) structure is proposed for the first time. A HMSIW magic-T (HMT) based on dual-layer substrates is first designed. Then, we construct the proposed FMT by periodically etching the subwavelength DCLSG SSPP structure into the HMT. The proposed FMT achieves a bandpass filtering response and a nearly 50% reduction of longitudinal dimension attributed to the bandpass characteristics and strong slow-wave property of the DCLSG HMSIW-SSPP structure. In addition, beneficial from the regulable cut-off frequencies of the DCLSG HMSIW-SSPP structure, the proposed FMT provides a wide impedance bandwidth and independently adjustable lower and upper cut-off frequencies of the passband. Finally, a prototype of the proposed FMT is fabricated to validate this design idea. The measured results illustrate that the FMT has a 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 40.23% and a 20-dB stopband rejection up to 2.12 f0 (f0: center frequency of the passband).
... In this paper, a high selectivity wideband SIW balun bandpass filter using SIW power divider [17] is proposed. Eight complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) [18,19] defected in the upper and bottom metal layers of the SIW power divider are used to realize the sharp rejection upper stopband with |S 21 |/|S 31 | greater than 40 dB (12.2-13.6 ...
... c 0 is the light speed in free space and ε r the permittivity of the dielectric substrate Figures 1(a) and (b) illustrate the 3-D view and the top view of the wideband balun bandpass filter, consisting of three layers with a metal ground located in the middle of the structure with two ports (port 2, 3) on top and bottom planes. Eight complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) are defected in the upper and bottom layer of the SIW power divider [17]. As discussed in [17], when the signals are transmitted from port 1 to ports 2, 3, due to the 180 • phase difference of the electric field at A-A plane (as shown in Fig. 1(c)), an equal out-of-phase power division can be realized in the balanced output ports 2, 3. ...
... Eight complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) are defected in the upper and bottom layer of the SIW power divider [17]. As discussed in [17], when the signals are transmitted from port 1 to ports 2, 3, due to the 180 • phase difference of the electric field at A-A plane (as shown in Fig. 1(c)), an equal out-of-phase power division can be realized in the balanced output ports 2, 3. ...
Article
A high selectivity wideband balun bandpass filter based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs) is proposed. 180˚ reverse phase characteristic between the two output ports can be easily realized by the multi-layer SIW power divider. Eight complementary split rings resonators are used to achieve the sharp rejection upper stopband. The proposed wideband balun filter exhibits a fractional bandwidth of 37% centered at 9.45 GHz and amplitude and phase imbalance less than 0.5 dB and 1˚.
... They belong to a wider group of passive components that allow for signal division . The magic-Ts are four-port devices that offer in-phase and outof-phase signal division between their two output ports [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. They are constructed with many different integrated planar circuits such as branch-line, rat-race or directional couplers [11]. ...
... They are constructed with many different integrated planar circuits such as branch-line, rat-race or directional couplers [11]. In order to improve their performances, double-sided and two-layer magic-T components have been proposed in [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. These configurations using coplanar [12], microstrip [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] or substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) [22][23][24][25] to slotline field conversion broaden the bandwidth of magic-Ts. ...
... In order to improve their performances, double-sided and two-layer magic-T components have been proposed in [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. These configurations using coplanar [12], microstrip [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] or substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) [22][23][24][25] to slotline field conversion broaden the bandwidth of magic-Ts. Such configurations are mostly composed of a microstripslotline transition and a tee-junction circuit. ...
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... In the authors' previous works [5,6], two planar substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) magic-T structures with wide band and simple design based on E-plane power dividers were proposed. Compared with the T/Y-junction planar SIW power divider structures [7], the size reduction of the circuits is almost 50 and 75%, respectively. ...
... Compared with the T/Y-junction planar SIW power divider structures [7], the size reduction of the circuits is almost 50 and 75%, respectively. In this Letter, a compact balun bandpass filter with four inductive posts based on the multilayer SIW power divider [5] is designed. A high-order passband (centre frequency 12.5 GHz, bandwidth 4.8%) with high selectivity and extended stopband for the balun filter can be achieved. ...
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A compact multilayer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) balun bandpass filter is proposed. A 180° reverse phase characteristic between the input/output ports can be easily achieved by the middle metal-ground of the SIW power divider. Four inductive posts are added to the multilayer SIW power divider to realise a passband. Good in-band balance performance (amplitude and phase imbalance are less than 0.35°dB and 2°) over the passband are achieved for the balun bandpass filter.
... However, available SIW power dividers [7][8][9] in the multi-way port environment suffer from large size due to the lateral port distribution and loss problems. In the available SIW power dividers [10][11][12][13], the size problem has been improved by stacking the layers, but the loss problem still exists. In our proposed PSIW power divider, both problems have been investigated and improved. ...
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A method for decreasing the loss in substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) structures is introduced. In this method, the dielectric substrate is partially removed. Accordingly, dielectric loss reduction has been explicated analytically. Its equivalence to the rectangular waveguide of solid walls which is partially filled with dielectric has been identified. A novel topology for demonstrating the idea is established and a low loss three port substrate integrated waveguide power divider is presented. This SIW power divider shows lower loss than conventional SIW power dividers. Proper TRL standards are realized for removing the effect of transition and/or matching sections in measurement process. For a low-loss three-port PSIW power divider, the return loss below 10 dB and transmission coefficients between -3 dB to -3.5 dB from 8.75 GHz to 10 GHz have been achieved. The measured amplitude imbalance is less than ±0.2 dB, and the measured phase difference between <S21 and <S31 is about 40 in the same frequency band.
... They can be physically constructed using various TL architectures such as metallic waveguides [5]- [7], substrate integrated waveguides [8]- [13], and substrate integrated suspended lines [14]. Correspondingly, many fabrication techniques such as metal-based CNC milling [5]- [7], single/multi-layer PCB process [8]- [11], [14] and low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology [12], [13] have been developed to implement the magic-Ts. Waveguide magic-Ts exhibit better power handling capability than the planar counterparts, while they suffer from bulky and incompact packages because of different orientations of the waveguide arms. ...
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This article reports on a new class of broadband and fully 3-D printed E-plane coax-to-waveguide transition and a monolithically 3-D printed waveguide magic-T based on the transition. The transition is constructed by a section of air-filled rectangular coaxial transmission line (TL) that is placed between two broadband coax-to-waveguide probe transitions. It is used to interconnect the magic-T's sum port and the waveguide T-junction. The incorporation of the transition reorients all the waveguide arms of the magic-T into the E-plane. Some X-band prototypes of the proposed transition and the magic-T are designed and implemented. Polymer-based additive manufacturing and copper electroplating techniques are employed to monolithically fabricate each prototype. The transition and the magic-T exhibit broadband and low-loss characteristics from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz with the measured performance well matched with the simulations. In addition, the power handling capability (PHC), including the peak PHC (PPHC) and the average PHC (APHC), of the magic-T is evaluated by simulations, showing that the proposed magic-T could handle 100 W of APHC.
... However, the use of a slot line transition in this case increases the loss, and presents some additional constraints in integrating the junction with other SIW structures. In [15], a multilayer SIW magic-T structure was presented using slotline-SIW transitions, thus achieving a measured 11% bandwidth with a 12-dB return loss. In [16] and [17], the proposed SIW magic-T was made up of a two-layer structure. ...
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This paper presents and demonstrates a class of 3-D integration platforms of substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW). The proposed right angle E-plane corner based on SIW technology enables the implementation of various 3-D architectures of planar circuits with the printed circuit board and other similar processes. This design scheme brings up attractive advantages in terms of cost, flexibility, and integration. Two circuit prototypes with both 0- and 45° vertical rotated arms are demonstrated. The straight version of the prototypes shows 0.5 dB of insertion loss from 30 to 40 GHz, while the rotated version gives 0.7 dB over the same frequency range. With this H-to-E-plane interconnect, a T-junction is studied and designed. Simulated results show 20-dB return loss over 19.25% of bandwidth. Measured results suggest an excellent performance within the experimental frequency range of 32-37.4 GHz, with 10-dB return loss and less than ±4° phase imbalance. An optimized wideband magic-T structure is demonstrated and fabricated. Both simulated and measured results show a very promising performance with very good isolation and power equality. With two 45° vertical rotated arm bends, two antennas are used to build up a dual polarization system. An isolation of 20 dB is shown over 32-40 GHz and the radiation patterns of the antenna are also given.
... The substrate integrated waveguide concept was first proposed in [23] and since then gave rise to a broad range of planar and non-planar circuits integrated within one or multiple substrate layers. The most significant feature of this technology is the possibility to integrate all the components on the same substrate, including passive components (filters, couplers, etc.), active elements (oscillators, amplifiers, etc.) as well as antennas [24][25][26][27][28][29]. In particular, [29] provides a recent and quite complete survey of the possibilities of this technology. ...
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The Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology is a very promising candidate to provide widespread commercial solutions for modern communications systems. Its main advantage is the possibility to integrate passive/active components and antennas in the same substrate by using standard manufacturing processes, such as the Printed Circuits Board (PCB) processing technique. Nevertheless, the production of low-cost SIW devices is inherently linked to commercially available substrates and fabrication methods. In particular, these constraints usually limit (a) the frequency range of operation of certain SIW antennas and (b) the possibility of creating multimode structures dealing with orthogonal polarizations. The motivation of this PhD thesis is to overcome these two limitations by proposing innovative SIW components based on PCBs in order to favour the compatibility with existing systems and to lower their cost. Hence, the usage of the SIW technology would be extended towards new applications and scenarios. One type of antenna strongly affected by the limitation (a) is the H-plane SIW horn antenna. While standard horns are employed in many applications and in a wide range of frequencies, their counterparts in SIW technology are restricted to the Ka-band and above. At lower frequencies, commercial substrates are electrically thin and the performances of these end-fire antennas severely diminish. To solve this problem, a novel low-profile SIW horn antenna has been designed to be used at the Ku-band and below, while offering wideband characteristics. In addition, the horn shape has been further optimized to reduce the antenna footprint for a given directivity. In order to overcome the limitation (b), a substrate integrated guide able to simultaneously carry orthogonally polarized modes has been developed: the so called Extended Substrate Integrated Waveguide (ESIW). An ESIW dual-polarized system composed of an Orthomode Transducer (OMT) feeding a dual-polarized horn antenna has been designed and experimentally verified. The overall combination of concepts and ideas proposed in this thesis opens the door towards new SIW components that can increase the capacity, robustness and compactness ofmodern communication systems.
... Therefore, many planar magic-T structures have been proposed to reduce the size. There are magic-Ts miniaturized using LTCC technology [17], substrate integrated waveguide [18,19] and NRD-guide [20]. Other planar magic-Ts usually use microstrip lines and slot lines [21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30]. ...
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... Using the inverse relation of (14), which is derived from (13), an asymmetric CPS is transformed into a parallel plate. Therefore, the line capacitance C5 of Type 5 is obtained as (15). ...
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... A survey on literature shows that various types of magic-T junctions have been presented and designed over the years. Some planar magic-T junctions based on microstrip, low temperature co-fired ceramics, and substrate integrated waveguide technologies have been presented with up to 70% bandwidth [4][5][6][7]. The main limiting factors affecting the performance of these structures in millimeter-wave frequency bands are high dielectric loss, lowpower handling, and leakage wave propagation. ...
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... Hollowwaveguide based magic-Ts exhibit good performance, such as low loss and wide bandwidth [6], but with complex 3-D geometries and therefore high cost at mmWaves [14]. Several planar structured magic-Ts were proposed [15]- [17]. Using the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, planar magic-Ts can be designed through microstrip-line-slot transition and aperture coupling structure [16], but still with high loss at mmWaves. ...
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... Waveguide power dividers are also popular in microwave systems, for many applications, because of their simple design, lower insertion losses, high transmission speed, wide wavelength, and high reliability. Multisection waveguide power dividers were introduced in an attempt to extend operating bandwidth [11][12][13][14][15][16]. ...
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A novel substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) differential radial power combiner design is presented based on changing the electric field polarity of selected probes, which greatly simplifies the design and modelling. The 180° out-of-phase characteristic between the selected two output ports is frequency independent, which is suitable for various broadband applications. To verify the differential operation, the 4:1 combiner (which can also be used as a power divider) based on the SIW is demonstrated experimentally. Good agreement between measured and simulated results indicate that the differential radial power combiner has low loss (<;; 1 dB), operational bandwidth (3.85-4.2 GHz), and excellent amplitude and phase imbalances are less than 0.03 dB and 1°, respectively.
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A planar substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) T-junction, with transmission properties similar to an E-plane waveguide T-junction, is described. It comprises an SIW H-plane T-junction, and phase-inverting and phase-non-inverting sections inserted into the arms of the T-junction. The inverting section comprises a coplanar-waveguide (CPW) vertical interconnect that couples a pair of antipodal back-to-back SIW-to-CPW transitions. This arrangement swaps current from the top and bottom walls of the SIW to achieve phase-inversion. The non-inverting section comprises a pair of back-to-back SIW-to-CPW transitions, and is the same physical length as the inverting section and has a similar transmission apart from the no phase-inversion. The junction can be constructed using a 2-layer planar technology such as a double-sided printed circuit board. Simulations of a junction operating from 4 to 6 GHz demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.
Article
In this letter we present a planar magic-tee using mode-conversion technique. The device is fabricated using substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology. Using the presented design approach, it is possible to develop a planar magic tee without the need for multi-variable optimization. In this letter we use intrinsic odd symmetry of TE20 mode field of rectangular waveguide to generate two out-of-phase TE10 modes in the outputs. Purity of TE20 mode in the waveguide guarantees low phase and amplitude imbalance of output signals. To investigate phase and amplitude imbalance of output signals, we define the ratio of residual TE10 to TE20 as a figure of merit (F.O.M). To improve the performance of design, here a filtering section with good rejection for TE10 mode and low insertion loss for TE20 mode is used to improve performance. Finally, measured data are presented for the fabricated prototype, which shows less than 1 ° phase imbalance and operation bandwidth between 10.75 to 11.4 GHz.
Article
In this paper, a one-third triangular resonator with two electric walls and two magnetic walls is used as a basic transmission element to realize a planar magic-T. The resonator is fulfilled by taking out about one-third of an isosceles or equilateral triangular resonator of the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) version and therefore, is called as one-third-mode substrate integrated resonator (OTMSIR). Due to the two virtual magnetic walls that may cause some radiation losses, the OTMSIR has a semi open structure and has a very low Q-factor, so this structure is actually a weak resonant cavity. As a result, the OTMSIR can be used to construct wide band microwave components. Different from other SIW-based ones or conventional ones fulfilled by waveguides, the magic-T proposed is realized based on the coupled-resonators technique for the first time. This planar magic-T is fabricated and tested. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones.
Article
Traditional waveguide Magic-T development typically explores suitable combinations of waveguide $E$ - and $H$ -plane T-junctions, which causes its inevitable bulky volume and limited integratability. Aiming at this difficulty, this letter evolves a novel hybrid Magic-T to provide a substitute option. The proposed configuration uses a universal rectangular waveguide (RW) as a sum port for input, and two microstrip probes are inserted in its $E$ -plane and distributed symmetrically along the $E$ -field-max axis to form the output ports. Then, the difference port connected by two coupling slits is placed on the opposite side of the microstrip probes. Therefore, this structure has a very compact size and the ability to integrate directly with the active chips because it avoids the use of waveguide T-junctions and employs a microstrip outputs setup. A Magic-T prototype has been fabricated and measured, and the results show great performance across the entire 26–40 GHz ( Ka -band), including low loss, high isolation, and good amplitude/phase consistency.
Article
A new dual-band balanced to unbalanced (BTU) multilayer filtering magic-T (FMT) based on square substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity is proposed in this letter. Degenerate TE <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">201</sub> and TE <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">203</sub> modes are exploited to realize the requested dual-band filtering responses and in-/out-of-phase characteristic. The requested differential-mode (DM) transmission, common-mode (CM) suppression, and port-to-port isolation can be obtained by appropriately placing the input–output ports and coupling slots. Multiple transmission zeros (TZs) are introduced to improve frequency selectivity, and the center frequencies (CFs) can be flexibly controlled to some extent. For validation, a prototype dual-band BTU FMT operating at 11.6 and 19.1 GHz is fabricated and measured. It can be obtained that the simulated results are in good agreement with the measured ones.
Article
This letter proposes a waveguide Magic-T operating in the $W$ -band, aiming to overcome the assembly difficulties of conventional configuration. Its primary characteristic is that it allows for the one-piece fabrication of the waveguide cavity using popular computer numerical control (CNC) technology, avoiding the assembly of extra matching elements. Second, the four ports of the Magic-T share a horizontal plane, which allows its lid to theoretically be a flat plate. This overcomes the assembly misalignment challenge, due to the presence of port in the lid of some conventional Magic-T. In addition, the use of bed-of-nails to package this Magic-T was investigated to further alleviate the difficulty of assembly. A prototype has been fabricated and measured, and the results indicated excellent overall performance over the entire 75–110-GHz range, including low loss, high isolation, and good amplitude/phase consistency.
Article
Full-text available
A new four-port dual-polarized antenna and array are presented for In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) applications, offering high inter-port isolation. The single-element antenna system consists of four H-shape slots, stacked patches for wide bandwidth, and two external hybrid couplers. The multilayer antenna is well matched from about 2.1 to 2.4 GHz and provides high isolation in this frequency range in excess of 60 dB. Two different prototypes are simulated and measured to highlight the design process. In addition, a new and compact hybrid coupler with excellent phase and magnitude stability is also presented for improved antenna radiation and IBFD performances. When compared to other similar types of hybrid coupler and antenna systems, the proposed configurations are simple to manufacture, provide a higher isolation bandwidth (10%), and higher gain of 7.3 dBi with cross-polarization levels of 30 dB or lower. The single-element design was also extended to a 2×2 array and studied for different beam steering and feeding scenarios. The operating bandwidths and isolation values offered by these S-band antenna and array systems can support new data link possibilities for beam steering and future low-cost IBFD wireless networks by simple antenna fabrication.
Article
A coplanar Magic-T is proposed based on a combination of ridge and E-plane groove gap waveguides for Ka-band applications. All four ports of the proposed Magic-T are coplanar. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed Magic-T is about 43% covering the whole Ka-band from 26 to 40 GHz. The Magic-T isolation is better than 40 dB in the whole bandwidth while its insertion loss is about 0.25 dB.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: In this paper, a new single layer half mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) magic-T utilizing H-plane HMSIW power divider and E-plane slotline-to-HMSIW transition has been designed and proposed. By using slotline in the E-plane T-junction, a 180° out-of-phase between two output ports has been generated. In order to optimize return loss and split the input signal equally into two in-phase signals at the output ports, a metallic via hole in the H-plane T-junction has been used. The magic-T is simulated and optimized by Ansoft HFSS software and a Ku-band prototype is designed and fabricated using the standard printed circuit board process. Experimental results demonstrate that the return losses are less than 10 dB, and the fabricated HMSIW magic-T has a 17% bandwidth over frequency range of 12.8-15.2 GHz with 0.34 amplitude imbalances and 3° phase differences in the output ports.
Article
A four-way chained quasi-planar slotted power divider, using half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide technology, is presented in this letter. Based on the equivalent-circuit model, slotted capacitive coupling model has been achieved. In order to verify the validity of the design method, a four-way power divider operating at X-band is designed, fabricated and measured. The simulation and measured results with good agreement are presented. The measured insertion loss (in the frequency range of 9.05-9.55 GHz) is less than 1.4 dB, and the return loss is better than 17.5 dB. The measured isolations between the output ports are greater than 12 dB at the entire design band. IEEE
Article
A novel four-way multilayer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider with slot coupling structure is proposed in this letter. Two rectangular slots located in the right and left arms of SIW T-junction are employed to achieve efficient transition with two microstrip lines. Good impedance matching and signal transmission between SIW and microstrip lines are achieved. Two isolation resistors are used to improve the isolation between output ports. The even- and odd-mode analysis method is used in the proposed circuit. A prototype of the presented power divider is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results show a reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.
Article
This letter presents the design of magic-T using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology by microstrip-slotline transitions and aperture-coupled structures. The magic-T is designed to work at the center frequency of 21 GHz with the bandwidth of 8 GHz. The size of the circuit is only 6 mm x 6 mm due to LTCC multilayer structures. Measured data and numerical simulations show good amplitude and phase characteristics, and high isolation is also achieved.
Conference Paper
A novel design of W-band power divider using E-faced-folded waveguide magic-T junction to realize the miniaturization is proposed in this paper. A stepped regular triangular prism and the stepped impedance transformer are utilized in order to obtain excellent performance. Besides, the performance of the E-faced-folded magic-T power divider is also improved by using short planes. The measured results show that the insertion loss of the power divider is better than 0.6dB and the return loss is better than 15dB. The measured average E-H isolation is better than 30dB from 92GHz to 100GHz range.
Article
An eight-way hybrid microstrip/substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider with good output isolation performance is proposed in this paper. The circuit consists of microstrip/SIW transitions and a cross-shaped SIW cavity. The good isolation characteristics is obtained by adding the resistors between the microstrip lines and the isolation resistors on the radial slotlines. The equivalent circuit is given in this paper to analyse the proposed power divider. A prototype was fabricated and measured. The measurement results show that the insertion loss (IL) is about 1.5 dB from 9.1 GHz to 10.15 GHz, and the input return loss (RL) is higher than 20 dB. The isolation of adjacent ports on the same side, adjacent ports on the different side, and opposite ports are higher than 17.5, 19, and 15 dB, respectively. The error between measurement and simulation is acceptable.
Article
A substrate integrated waveguide Magic Tee with very compact size and operating over a wide band is proposed. The circuit is made of two stacked substrates connected by cutting a small aperture between them. This solution presents slightly higher complexity compared to a single substrate magic Tee but it avoids the radiation losses because the circuit is completely closed. A simple and effective procedure is used to design the circuit. A prototype is built and experimental results show a good agreement with simulations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 58:932–936, 2016
Article
Two compact planar magic-T structures implemented on the double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) and the slotline coupling are proposed and demonstrated. Due to a metallic ground inserted into the middle of the substrate for the double-sided parallel-strip line, the E-plane DSPSL power divider thus shows an intrinsic 180° out-of-phase characteristic between the two input/ output ports. A transition between slotline and DSPSL is utilized to realize the H-plane input/output port of the magic-T. The equivalent circuits are derived for the design of the proposed planar multilayer magic-T. Good agreement between the measured and simulated results indicates that the fractional bandwidths for the two planar magic-T structures are 42.8% and 43.8%, respectively, while the amplitude and phase imbalance are less than 0.22 dB and 1.5°.
Conference Paper
This paper presents, for the first time, a singly balanced mixer on the basis of a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) magic-T structure. This scheme has a number of attractive inherent features such as a high isolation between input ports and also a stable phase relation between output ports. The mixer is designed and fabricated by means of a standard printed circuit board (PCB) process and measurements agree well with simulations. The measured conversion gain is higher than -9.5 dB in the case of applying -20 dBm RF signal for both high and low LO power configurations at 10.6 GHz over the entire RF frequency band of 10-10.55 GHz. Furthermore, the conversion gain attains a constant maximum of -6.5plusmn0.7 dB when the injected LO power is increased from +5 dBm to +18 dBm. Moreover, the input 1-dB compression point is measured to be about +7 dBm at an LO power of +13 dBm.
Conference Paper
Two classes of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider are presented, namely, Y- and T-types. Using arrays of via, the SIW power dividers and microstrip transitions are integrated on the same substrate. Design models are presented respectively for the Y- and T-junctions. Experimental results over the Ka band are given for both structures. The Y-junction shows a bandwidth of 25.2% at -18.5 dB while the T-junction shows a bandwidth of 10.2% at -19.0 dB.
Article
Rectangular waveguide (RW) with sidewalls of vertical conducting cylinders (i.e. SIW, substrate-integrated waveguide) becomes popular with the advent of low-temperature co-fired ceramic structure; its analysis is usually numerical, or modal, leading to empirical design formulas. However, its analytical equivalence to the common RW of the solidwall is identified; in other words, analytical design formulas of the SIW and the equivalent RW of solid sidewalls are the same. The equivalence is established on comparing the surface impedances along the side walls, of the SIW and of an RW through analytical continuation. The equivalence formulas, propagation and cut off frequency show very good agreement with the results from both numerical simulations and measurements of hardware experiments, and over wide frequencies. The good agreements are easily understood on the basis of the conformal maps and the variational principle.
Article
In this letter, a slotline to substrate integrated waveguide transition is proposed for the development of substrate integrated circuits. The insertion loss of the back-to-back transition is less than 1 dB from 8.7 to 9.0 GHz. With this transition, a planar magic-T is studied and designed. Measured results indicate a very good performance of the fabricated magic-T is observed within the experimental frequency range of 8.4-9.4 GHz. The amplitude and phase imbalances are less than 0.2 dB and 1.5deg, respectively.
Article
The authors propose a novel feed structure to excite a plane TEM wave in a parallel-plate waveguide. The feed waveguide is composed of densely arrayed posts on the same layer as the parallel plate. The posts can be easily fabricated at low cost by making metalized via holes in a grounded dielectric substrate. Such a procedure results in a quite simple fabrication of the antenna. The feed waveguide is designed to obtain a uniform division, which is confirmed by measurements on a 40-GHz band model
Principles of Microwave Circuits, ser. MIT Rad. Lab
  • C G Montgomery
  • R H Dicke
  • E M Purcell
C. G. Montgomery, R. H. Dicke, and E. M. Purcell, Principles of Microwave Circuits, ser. MIT Rad. Lab.. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948, vol. 8, ch. 9-12.