Conference Paper

Solid waste monitoring and management using RFID, GIS and GSM

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Abstract

This paper deals with the solid waste monitoring and management system using radio frequency identification (RFID) associate with intelligent systems. The system consists of RFID system, mobile communication like GSM and geographical information system (GIS) for tracking vehicle position. The proposed system would be able to monitor the solid waste collection process and management the overall collection process. It would provide in time solid waste collection, tracking the vehicle position through the GIS database and also overcome the disadvantages such as usage of minimum route, low fuel cost, clean environment and available vehicle. The technologies that would be used in the proposed system are good enough to ensure the practical and perfect for solid waste collection process monitoring and management for green environment.

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... Some works have been done to find different areas that generate solid waste like households, industries, construction sites and many more [8,9]. Many scientists discussed about the potentials of different information and communication technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Geographic Positioning System (GPS), various transportation model to apply in bin monitoring and waste collection [10][11][12]. Some researches have been done on real time bin status monitoring [13,14] but have some limitations. ...
... Table II presents a comparison of the proposed system with other developed system. The developed system in [11,12] detect the filling level by capturing and processing bin's image. The system used GPRS as the data communication technology from bin location and the control station get the bin data when collection truck arrives near the bin. ...
... It is able to measure necessary bin parameters to estimate the bin condition consuming minimal energy and less operation cost by avoiding GPRS in every bin. [11,12] Yes No No No [13] Yes Yes Yes Yes [14] Yes ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a novel prototype of solid waste bin monitoring system using wireless sensor network which can respond as soon as someone throw waste insight the bins. The system architecture uses ZigBee and GSM/GPRS communication technologies and a set of carefully chosen sensors to monitor the status of solid waste bins in real time. The system is composed of three tier structure such as lower, middle and upper tier. The lower tier contains bin with sensor node installed in it to measure and transmit bin status to the next tier, the middle tier contains the gateway that stores and transmits bin data to control station and control station resides in the upper tier that stores and analyze the data for further using. An energy efficient sensing algorithm is also used in the first tier to collect the bin parameters. In this way, the system can help to minimize the operation costs and emissions by feeding the collected data to a decision support system for route optimization.
... It converts waste into the flue gas, ash and heat. The heat can be used for energy generation process [19]. ...
... Sometimes the external source is required because there are some which are thermally unstable. [19]. ...
... In this process the carbonaceous material into CO 2 , CO, and hydrogen. It is the process in which incomplete burning of MSW in the absence of oxygen the power resulting from combustion and gasification of the resultant gas is selected as a source of renewable energy [19]. ...
Conference Paper
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Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is the global problem and it has been facing by both developed and developing countries. Increase in the population has more demand of resource consumption which further generating a large amount of waste. The unsustainable waste management causing severe hazardous health and environmental effects, which are more observe in developing countries i.e. India. In India, municipal solid waste ranges between 0.3-0.6 kg per capita per day and it has been increasing annually at the rate of 1.33 percent per capita per day. There are some gaps in managing the solid waste such as inefficient collection of waste is varying from city to city where the door to door collecting is not done and due to the poor management of the waste, inadequate collection and unsuitable disposal of waste; municipal solid waste systems are responsible for the inappropriate MSWM. The pollutant has been generated from the dump sites, the people living nearby the dumping sites are getting affected by poor water and air quality, to over some from this, approaches such as reduction, recycling, reuse and recovery. In developing countries, the effective solid management is costly, it needs an integrated system that is well organized, socially supported and sustainable. From the worldwide perception, present waste management is lack of approach, consumption, extraction and recycling. In some countries, an enormous amount of garbage majorly come from the houses where the household experiencing low service gap and because to lack of adequate manpower and technical expertise the capability issues have been developing at the management site. Furthermore, suitable methods of final waste disposal are sanitary landfills. For reducing the environmental hazardousness, landfill must be well operated, correctly design, sited carefully and before the disposal treatment, recovery and recycling must be establish. In this study, a critically review the approaches, gap and solution for municipal solid waste management is discussed. It has concluded from the study that with a proper planning and implementation of effective methods of waste collection, segregation of waste, its reuse and recycling could help in decreasing risk of the environmental effects of water, air and soil pollution.
... The spectrum of applications at that time covered DBS, GIS, DSS, and ES simultaneously, which featured: (1) facilitating public participation (Carver et al., 2000;Higgs, 2006;Huang and Sheng, 2006;Liu et al., 2006); (2) emphasizing ecological benefit and sustainability implication (Y.Y. Manoliadis et al., 2001;Page and Wohlgemuth, 2010;Shmelev and Powell, 2006); and (3) coupling different technologies (Arebey et al., 2009;Atkins et al., 2009;Luo et al., 2009;Tsai et al., 2011). Integrative terms, such as SDSS and web-based SDSS, started to emerge. ...
... Zhang et al., 2010). With this advance, GIS, RFID, digital image recognition, webbased applications, and mobile communication networks (e.g., global system for mobile communications [GSM]) were utilized to create a highly cohesive EIS for waste monitoring and managerial control (Arebey et al., 2009(Arebey et al., , 2011Luo et al., 2009). At this stage, a challenge arose from the proper handling of massive data streams that need effective mechanisms for data storage, management, and search (Liao, 2011;Voigt and Welzl, 2001). ...
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Environmental informatics has experienced extraordinarily rapid progress in the past decade and has made an invaluable contribution to planning, design, and operations for waste management. In many cases, however, the roles of these information technologies have been limited to stand-alone projects without synergistic effects. This article presents a holistic view and an in-depth discussion of environmental informatics applied to solid and hazardous waste management from the onset to the present status, and to future trends aiming to advance the management potential. With regard to building, maintaining, and developing knowledge-based or artificial intelligence systems, the spectrum of environmental informatics for solid and hazardous waste management can be classified into five categories: database system, geographical information system, decision support system, expert system, and integrated environmental information system. Supporting technologies in the integrated environmental information system can be further divided into five classes in a logical order to enhance understanding: data acquisition, data communication, data and knowledge storage, data mining and knowledge discovery, and data and knowledge utilization. This critical review article may help create sustainable development strategies from a local solution to global opportunities that will elevate environmental informatics to a new level in dealing with more complex problems and large-scale applications for integrated solid and hazardous waste management
... A number of solutions have been proposed in the existing literature regarding how solid waste could be managed. Most of those solutions have mainly focused on locating the solid waste bins using technologies such as GPS and RFID (Arebey et al, 2009;Ali, Alam &Rahaman, 2012;Vasagade, Tamboli & Shinde, 2017). Alternatively, some solutions have been developed based on hardware enabling the detection of waste bins which are full (Jain & Bagherwal, 2017;Vasagade, Tamboli & Shinde,2017). ...
... Many researchers have previously proposed solutions for collection and management of solid waste. (Arebey et al, 2009) propose a system for management of solid waste for Malaysia where daily produce of solid waste went up to 16,200 tons due to rapid increment of developing activities and issues in the disposal of the solid waste. The system is mainly focused on solving the problems of monitoring and tracking of trucks, timely collection of waste, and issues in trucks such as accidents and long-time drifting. ...
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Solid waste management has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka with the rapid growth of population and consumerism, mostly in the urban areas. Improper waste management is not only disturbing the balance of the environment but also has adverse effects on health and security of the urban community. This problem has become more acute over past ten years and now it has become a national problem. The detection, monitoring and management of different types of wastes is one of the primary problems of the present era. The traditional method followed by the municipal council for waste collection and disposal is a cumbersome process and utilizes more human effort, time and cost which is not compatible with the present-day smart society in any way. This paper proposes a cost effective, integrated, end-to-end solution for ‘smart waste management’ that connects the community, municipal councils, garbage collectors and buyers of recyclable waste. The solution involves re-engineering of existing processes, introducing ICTs and related technologies such as smart scheduling for waste collection, recognition of waste generation patterns through social media, mobile applications with location-based services collectors and citizens, and a trading platform for buying and selling recyclable waste categories. This solution also promotes the sharing economy concept which will make it a more sustainable, user friendly and cost effective solution for Sri Lanka and other emerging economies with similar situations. The proposed system would be able to handle the overall solid waste collection process. The technologies used in the proposed system ensure the solution is practical and ready to implement for a green environment.
... Aremu (2013) used Microsoft Office Excel add-in tool for waste collection optimization. Researchers have also utilized GPS (Arebey et al., 2009) and data mining for solid waste collection optimization (Revetria et al., 2011). However, all software applications are not up to the mark for solid waste collection optimization (Tavares et al., 2009). ...
Article
Waste collection widely depends on the route optimization problem that involves a large amount of expenditure in terms of capital, labor, and variable operational costs. Thus, the more waste collection route is optimized, the more reduction in different costs and environmental effect will be. This study proposes a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in a capacitated vehicle-routing problem (CVRP) model to determine the best waste collection and route optimization solutions. In this study, threshold waste level (TWL) and scheduling concepts are applied in the PSO-based CVRP model under different datasets. The obtained results from different datasets show that the proposed algorithmic CVRP model provides the best waste collection and route optimization in terms of travel distance, total waste, waste collection efficiency, and tightness at 70-75% of TWL. The obtained results for 1 week scheduling show that 70% of TWL performs better than all node consideration in terms of collected waste, distance, tightness, efficiency, fuel consumption, and cost. The proposed optimized model can serve as a valuable tool for waste collection and route optimization toward reducing socioeconomic and environmental impacts.
... We are currently experiencing a fast development of Smart Cities where engineers, urban planners, architects and city managers are joining forces with the goal of boosting up the efficiency of municipal services and increasing benefits and convenience to their communities [1]. The system is simulated in a realistic scenario in the city of Copenhagen, and using freely available relocation data of the municipality owned trashcans as Open Data [2]. ...
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SMART WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM which is proposed here is to implement a smarter way of conventional waste management using smart sensors to gather fill-level data, presence of garbage around the dustbin and stinking condition from containers and garbage bins, and send it to servers in real time. An authorized phone number which are present in Waste Management Centers gather fill-level and other information sent from multiple containers which are situated throughout a city/locality. The data acquired as above, can be used to systematically plan route-map to collect garbage. The information from bins to the authorized number is sent using communicating modules (GSM/GPRS module). The entire operation is controlled using Atmega328P 8-bit microcontroller. Cities around the world are on the run to become smarter. Some of these have seen an opportunity on deploying dedicated municipal access networks to support all types of city management and maintenance services requiring a data connection.
... The results of municipal solid waste collected together (Bhambulkar et al., 2012) in the city Nagyvr India and optimized routes using GIS and network ana- lyst indicated that, optimizing and automating the collection and transportation, while expediting op- erations, reduce costs and manpower. According to a study conducted by (Arebey et al., 2009) Srdang ...
Article
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Maintenance, collection and transportation of municipal solid waste spending allocated to the management of solid waste. For sanitizing and also reduce costs need to use scientific methods in this field. One tool that can be utilized in this regard, it is a Geographic Information System. The study design is suitable for system maintenance and waste collection network analysis capability District 3 Region 1 city of Tabriz WAGS were used GIS software. The results revealed that the most appropriate option for storing waste production District Tuesday utilizes Made in containers of wet and dry waste container capacity is based on street width and population density. The calculation results showed that the dry and wet waste tanks (100 and 120 liters) separately for residential areas with small streets and bins of dry and wet (330 and 450 liters) for large passages for District 3 Region 1 city Tabriz is suitable. GIS capabilities using the most appropriate routes of urban waste collection District three regions was also designed a city of Tabriz.
... Positioning System (GPS), transportation model, waste collection with bin monitoring application [2], [10]. The researchers collected bin data using GSM/GPRS communication from the bin to the server, which includes GSM/GPRS connectivity to each bin [5]. ...
... Further, Shubham Thakker and R. Narayanamoorthi [2] utilized Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to identify any kind of plastic waste and GSM technology for communication. Similarly, in [3][4][5] authors used Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Positioning System (GPS), transportation model, cloud computing [5] for bin monitoring and waste collection. These simple RFID or GPS based monitoring systems are not smart solution to implement on a citywide scenario as installing individual GPS chip in all the dustbins along with access the dustbins always with RFID card is costly and tedious jobs. ...
... In [8] and [9], the authors estimate the bin filling level by capturing and processing bin's image. The system can capture the image when the waste collection vehicle reached in the vicinity of the bin. ...
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Intelligent solid waste bin is essential to develop an efficient and dynamic waste management system. This research presents the implementation and execution of an integrated sensing system and algorithm for solid waste bin to automate the solid waste management process. Several sensing methods have been integrated and have combined their verdicts that offer the detection of bin condition and its parameter measurement. A number of test runs have been conducted to assess the functioning of the prototype system. The outcomes showed that the sensing system with the algorithm is efficient and intelligent and can be simply used to automate any solid waste bin management process.
... There are lack of the information about the collecting time and area. Furthermore, there are lacks of the proper system for monitoring, tracking the trucks and trash bins that have been collected in real time (Maher Arebey 2009). As technology advances, an intelligent system can be developed in order to track and monitor movement and location of truck in real-time. ...
Article
This paper presents research work on a real time monitoring system for solid waste management. The developed system stores detailed information of the driver, vehicle and waste collection data in the database and tracks current location of the trucks in real-time. The RFID technology is implemented to handle data transmission and reception. The development tools used among others are the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) of Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access 2010.
... For example, Alam Flora has already started the truck monitoring and tracking system [1]. Truck monitoring and tracking requires real time truck location analysis to control solid waste collection process and improve truck efficiency [13]. To achieve the above requirements, this design has chosen the appropriate RFID and communication system modules on station reporting system. ...
Article
The integration of communication technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), global positioning system (GPS), general packet radio system (GPRS), and geographic information system (GIS) with a camera are constructed for solid waste monitoring system. The aim is to improve the way of responding to customer's inquiry and emergency cases and estimate the solid waste amount without any involvement of the truck driver. The proposed system consists of RFID tag mounted on the bin, RFID reader as in truck, GPRS/GSM as web-server, GIS as map server, database server and control server. The tracking devices mounted in the trucks collect location information in real-time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users are able to view the current location of each truck in the collection stage via a web-based application, and thereby manage the fleet. The trucks positions and trash bin information are displayed on a digital map, which is made available by a map server. Thus, the solid waste of the bin and the truck are being monitored using the developed system.
... To develop an efficient solid waste management system it is very much needed to acquire the real time bin status and feed the real time data to a manager system to take decision on collection route and time. So far some research have been done to monitor the solid waste bin [8][9][10][11]. But the developed systems are not enough efficient in terms of real time response, operating cost effectiveness and proper estimation of bin status. ...
Article
This research deals with the real time solid waste bin monitoring system by integrating different sensing and communication technologies. The system is divided into three segments and based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The first segment consists of bins with sensor node installed in it, the second segment contains the gateways and the third segment is the base station. The sensor nodes can measure and transmit the waste conditions such as waste level, weight, temperature and humidity inside the bin in every access of the bin. The gateways can receive and forward the bin data to the base station. The base station stores the bin data and facilitates the opportunities to use the data for management purpose. The developed system is capable to response and update the specific bin status in real time which in turn can help to minimize collection route and fuel cost to make the environment clean and healthy.
... The waste management strategies such as recycling, recovery, prevention, and reuse involve diverse stakeholders effectively and sustainably utilizing waste management-related resources such as waste landfill [75], [81]. The involved stakeholders in the waste management process identify waste material to be recycled using their RFID tags [82]. The actions of the stakeholders involved in managing waste in smart cities should comply with the waste management laws to govern the storage, treatment, shipment, recycling, and disposal of all types of waste. ...
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Smart cities have the potential to overcome environmental problems caused by improper waste disposal by improving human health, protecting the aquatic ecosystem, and reducing air pollution. However, today’s systems, approaches, and technologies leveraged for waste management are manual and centralized. This fact makes them vulnerable to manipulation and the single point of failure problem. Also, a large portion of the existing waste management systems within smart cities fall short in providing operational transparency, traceability, audit, security, and trusted data provenance features. In this paper, we explore the key role of blockchain technology in managing waste within smart cities as it can offer traceability, immutability, transparency, and audit features in a decentralized, trusted, and secure manner. We discuss the opportunities brought about by blockchain technology in various waste management use cases and application scenarios, including real-time tracing and tracking of waste, reliable channelization and compliance with waste treatment laws, efficient waste resources management, protection of waste management documentation, and fleet management. We introduce a framework that leverages blockchain-based smart contracts to automate the key services in terms of waste management of smart cities. We compare the existing blockchain-based waste management solutions based on important parameters. Furthermore, we present insightful discussions on several ongoing blockchain-based research projects and case studies to highlight the practicability of blockchain in waste management. Finally, we present open challenges that act as future research directions.
... The investigation at that point overlays the mediations on standards and financial motivating forces on to 'data' intercession to show signs of improvement comprehension of the effect of mediations [8]. Scientists have additionally worked upon frameworks like Household Waste Management System Using IoT and Machine Learning [9], an AWS utilizing equal resounding impedance detecting component to recognize metallic things, and capacitive sensors to recognize wet and dry waste [10], an Automatic Waste segregator utilizing a mechanical arm [11], an Automatic Waste segregator utilizing Microcontroller based stage Arduino Mega 2560 load up which is interfaced with ESP8266 12E LoLin NodeMCU V3 module, Inductive vicinity sensor, Laser module, Light Dependent Resistor (LDR), Liquid sensor module and Ultrasonic sensor [12], an AWS utilizing Arduino UNO [13], a structure that empowered the remote checking of strong burn through receptacle continuously, by means of ZigBee-PRO and GPRS, for helping strong waste administration process [14], strong waste observing and the board framework utilizing radio recurrence ID (RFID) partner with canny frameworks [15]. ...
... Although a lot of researchers have done work on various aspects of solid waste management, but only a few have considered the monitoring of bin. Some researchers have worked on RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device), GIS (Geographic Information System), transportation model, GPS (Global positioning system) [6] [7] and some have worked with bin monitoring in which the collected data from the bin is transferred to a remote server through GSM/GPRS which increases the operating cost [8] [9]. Only a few have considered Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) as a possible solution to the increased operating cost [10] [11] but none of them have actually considered the hardware design of the waste management system in it. ...
Research
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As the amount of solid waste is increasing, the need for innovative ideas to help improve solid waste management is growing by the time. To provide a cost effective solution to this problem, a new framework has been proposed that enables the remote monitoring of the parameters of the bin with the help of X-bee and GSM technology. The proposed system keep a check on the filling of the bin, temperature, humidity, volume of CO2 inside the bin and accordingly transmits the information to the base station which further sends the information to the control station where it is used for route optimization problems to reduce the operation costs and greenhouse gas emissions. An additional feature is a text message that is sent to the authorities with the location of the bin whenever the bin filled above 90%, keeping 10% as a safe limit before the garbage starts to overflow. The design of the bin is such that it keeps the people using the bin motivated towards protecting our environment..
... With the increasing world population, the availability of techniques and models that help people sort out waste has become essential for the correct disposal of these materials. Automatic and intelligent systems are needed for waste management [10][11][12][13]. Using an automatic and intelligent system in waste sorting is an advantageous approach when compared to traditional recycling methods. ...
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Waste generation has been increasing drastically based on the world’s population and economic growth. This has significantly affected human health, natural life, and ecology. The utilization of limited natural resources, and the harming of the earth in the process of mineral extraction, and waste management have far exceeded limits. The recycling rate are continuously increasing; however, assessments show that humans will be creating more waste than ever before. Some difficulties during recycling include the significant expense involved during the separation of recyclable waste from non-disposable waste. Machine learning is the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides a framework to take as a structural improvement of the fact without being programmed. Machine learning concentrates on the advancement of programs that can obtain the information and use it to learn to make future decisions. The classification and separation of materials in a mixed recycling application in machine learning is a division of AI that is playing an important role for better separation of complex waste. The primary purpose of this study is to analyze AI by focusing on machine learning algorithms used in recycling systems. This study is a compilation of the most recent developments in machine learning used in recycling industries.
... This process has been an increasing problem in the developing world because of the lack of appropriate techniques or models to help in the sorting process. Using the artificial and automatic intelligent system has been noted to help with waste sorting ( Arebey et al., 2009 ;Asmatulu and Asmatulu, 2011 ;Roh et al., 2018 ;Ozdemir et al., 2021 ) with a huge advantage over traditional methods ( Ozdemir et al., 2021 ). The use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning algorithms in different areas of waste management have been gaining momentum ( Ferronato et al., 2019 ). ...
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National policies for waste management that are geared towards achieving sustainable development goals often require plans and implementation strategies developed from empirical and data-driven processes. Developing countries often propose national policies but they never reach the implementation phase and adhoc practices remain unchanged. This paper analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a national waste management policy and develops potential recommendations to address the main threats that hinder the policy implementation. The lack of effective planning using data and analytical tools are identified as the main area hindering the policy implementation. Several applications are demonstrated for waste management using geospatial techniques and statistical modelling. Examples are demonstrated where spatial maps are used for zonation and landfill locations, statistical models used to identify waste generation at the community level and artificial intelligence used for waste separation. Recommendations are proposed in applying several of the methods demonstrated to shift the operation of a national waste sector to realize the benefits of the policy nexus for all stakeholders.
... The waste management strategies such as recycling, recovery, prevention, and reuse involve diverse stakeholders effectively and sustainably utilizing waste management-related resources such as waste landfill [56,62]. The involved stakeholders in the waste management process identify waste material to be recycled using their RFID tags [63]. The actions of the stakeholders involved in managing waste in smart cities should comply with the waste management laws to govern the storage, treatment, shipment, recycling, and disposal of all types of waste. ...
Preprint
Smart cities have the potential to overcome environmental problems caused by improper waste disposal to improve human health, protect the aquatic ecosystem, and reduce air pollution. However, today's systems, approaches, and technologies leveraged for waste management are manual and centralized that make them vulnerable to manipulation and the single point of failure problem. Also, a large portion of the existing waste management systems within smart cities fall short in providing operational transparency, traceability, audit, security, and trusted data provenance features. In this paper, we explore the key role of blockchain technology in managing waste within smart cities as it can offer traceability, immutability, transparency, and audit features in a decentralized, trusted, and secure manner. We discuss the opportunities brought about by blockchain technology in various waste management use cases and application scenarios, including real-time tracing and tracking of waste, reliable channelization and compliance with waste treatment laws, efficient waste resources management, protection of waste management documentation, and fleet management. We introduce a framework that leverages blockchain-based smart contracts to automate the key services in terms of waste management of smart cities. We compare the existing blockchain-based waste management solutions based on important parameters. Furthermore, we present insightful discussions on several ongoing blockchain-based research projects and case studies to highlight the practicability of blockchain in waste management. Finally, we present open challenges that act as future research directions.
... In [8] and [9], the authors estimate the bin filling level by capturing and processing bin's image. The system can capture the image when the waste collection vehicle reached in the vicinity of the bin. ...
Article
Intelligent solid waste bin is essential to develop an efficient and dynamic waste management system. This research presents the implementation and execution of an integrated sensing system and algorithm for solid waste bin to automate the solid waste management process. Several sensing methods have been integrated and have combined their verdicts that offer the detection of bin condition and its parameter measurement. A number of test runs have been conducted to assess the functioning of the prototype system. The outcomes showed that the sensing system with the algorithm is efficient and intelligent and can be simply used to automate any solid waste bin management process.
... The waste management strategies such as recycling, recovery, prevention, and reuse involve diverse stakeholders effectively and sustainably utilizing waste management-related resources such as waste landfill [56,62]. The involved stakeholders in the waste management process identify waste material to be recycled using their RFID tags [63]. The actions of the stakeholders involved in managing waste in smart cities should comply with the waste management laws to govern the storage, treatment, shipment, recycling, and disposal of all types of waste. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Smart cities have the potential to overcome environmental problems caused by improper waste disposal to improve human health, protect the aquatic ecosystem, and reduce air pollution. However, today's systems, approaches, and technologies leveraged for waste management are manual and centralized that make them vulnerable to manipulation and the single point of failure problem. Also, a large portion of the existing waste management systems within smart cities fall short in providing operational transparency, traceability, audit, security, and trusted data provenance features. In this paper, we explore the key role of blockchain technology in managing waste within smart cities as it can offer traceability, immutability, transparency, and audit features in a decentralized, trusted, and secure manner. We discuss the opportunities brought about by blockchain technology in various waste management use cases and application scenarios, including real-time tracing and tracking of waste, reliable channelization and compliance with waste treatment laws, efficient waste resources management, protection of waste management documentation, and fleet management. We introduce a framework that leverages blockchain-based smart contracts to automate the key services in terms of waste management of smart cities. We compare the existing blockchain-based waste management solutions based on important parameters. Furthermore, we present insightful discussions on several ongoing blockchain-based research projects and case studies to highlight the practicability of blockchain in waste management. Finally, we present open challenges that act as future research directions.
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Solid waste management is one of the most im- portant challenges in urban areas throughout the world and it is becoming a critical issue in developing countries where a rapid increase in population has been observed. Waste collection is a complex process that requires the use of large amount of money and an elaborate management of logistics. In this paper an approach to smart waste collection is proposed able to improve and optimize the handling of solid urban waste. Context of smart waste management requires interconnection among heterogeneous devices and data sharing involving a large amount of people. Smart-M3 platform solves these problems offering a high degree of decoupling and scalability. Waste collection is made by real-time monitoring the level of bin’s fullness through sensors placed inside the containers. This method enables to exempt from collecting semi-empty bins. Furthermore, incoming data can be provided to decisional algorithms in order to determine the optimal number of waste vehicles or bins to distribute in the territory. The presented solution gives important advantages for both service providers and consumers. The formers could obtain a sensible cost reduction. On the other hand, users may benefit from a higher level of service quality. In order to make users feel closer to their community, they can interact with the system to be aware about the fulness state of the nearest bins. Finally, a mechanism for collecting “green points” was introduced for encouraging citizens to recycle.
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With the increase of population of a country, proper management of cumulative of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) becomes more acute for maintaining green environment. In conventional approach a number of trucks collect the MSW and then transport and transfer these MSW in a pre-specified location, but all the above jobs are not properly monitored. It is very important to monitor the trucks and record the information related to the collecting time and area from a central location to ensure the job well done. This project exploits the tremendous power of RFID technology and presents the development of an electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) system to overcome the above problem in the conventional approach. The proposed e-monitoring system is an embedded system that consists of RFID technology interfaced with PIC micro-controller and a web based computerized software. A web based GUI so that the system can be accessed from anywhere and information can be viewed by different group of people. The GUI will have the facility for the citizens to put their complaints and comments on the service. It has been tested in the laboratory environment as well as in the field environment. The test results show that the system functions properly and is working real time. Municipal authority can monitor the SW collecting status through the system and can generate different reports to improve the performance of their service.
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This paper deals with the image extraction and data collection for solid waste monitoring and management system using the integration of information and communication technologies. The image sensor is used in this system using quarter video graphic array red green blue (QVGA RGB) camera for processing and analysing graphical of the waste bin status and image data is collected by the server parses from GPRS and GIS network. An artificial neural network approach has beenused to extract the image feature for further analysis to classify images of the waste bin level. The system has been successfully designated with the motivation of waste bin monitoring system, to escalate the results that can applied to wide variety of local municipal authorities system.
Conference Paper
This paper presents a new framework that enables the remote monitoring of solid waste bin in real time, via ZigBee-PRO and GPRS, to assist the solid waste management process. The system is designed to monitor the status of the bin as soon as someone throw waste insight it. The system framework is based on a wireless sensor network, contains three levels: smart bin, gateway and control station that stores and analyze the data for further use. In this way, the waste collection route can be optimized by feeding the collected data into a decision support system and hence able to reduce operation costs and emissions.
Chapter
Solid waste, thrown away in our surroundings and heaped on Mother Earth every day, is a by-product of civilization. Waste has irritated civilization for thousands of years. With rapid growth in world population, industrial revolution and greater consumerism, the amount of waste generated has grown exponentially. Thus, both economic development and population increase have contributed to the rising volumes of waste. In the last few decades, with greater ease in the movement of money, goods and population, generation and consumption of goods has increased resulting in increased production of waste materials. Generation of wastes is an indication of inefficient use of resources, making products less valuable. From a scientific viewpoint, waste management requires consideration of the waste and the type of place where the waste has originated.
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Solid waste in Bangladesh is currently one of the biggest issues, especially in the city of Dhaka. Most of the time we see that the waste bin is overfilled and it immediately creates an unhygienic state in the nearby surrounding area. It may cause contamination, leading to health problems and disease propagation. To quantify the waste level in the waste bin in real-time and warn the authority through SMS, the work introduces the conception and implementation of an intelligent waste management device. The device is made up of smart containers or smart bins, each of which is mounted on the container by a 16-bit microcontroller (PIC 18F472), LASER sensor, and a global system for mobile communication (GSM) module. When the container is packed with waste, the device sends a message to the control center with the information that the level of waste in the container is full and sends a message (SMS) to the cell phone of the driver of which waste bin is packed and needs to be empty. So the waste is quickly removed. Furthermore, the system can be applied in any city to manage the garbage for getting smart and pollution-free surroundings.
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Cleaner technologies denote technologies that are efficient to minimize waste generation promoting eco-friendly approaches. This chapter explores several cleaner technologies and cleaner initiatives which are effective for waste minimization both in large and small scale. This includes several different waste minimization technologies and approaches like recycling, composting, biological treatment, chemical treatment, thermal treatment, filtration, energy source modification, and so on. It also connects green chemistry principles with successful waste minimization strategies and cleaner technologies.
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