In Vitro Functional and Immunomodulatory Properties of the Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5-Streptococcus salivarius ST3 Association That Are Relevant to the Development of a Pharyngeal Probiotic Product

Department of Food Science and Microbiology, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 04/2012; 78(12):4209-16. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00325-12
Source: PubMed


The use of proper bacterial strains as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for upper respiratory tract infections. In this context, we characterized in vitro the functional and immunomodulatory properties of the strains Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and Streptococcus salivarius ST3 that were selected during previous investigations as promising pharyngeal probiotics. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro that strains MIMLh5 and ST3, alone and in combination, can efficiently adhere to pharyngeal epithelial cells, antagonize Streptococcus pyogenes, and modulate host innate immunity by inducing potentially protective effects. In particular, we found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 activate U937 human macrophages by significantly inducing the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Nonetheless, the induction of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) by MIMLh5 or ST3 was never lower than that of TNF-α, suggesting that these bacteria can potentially exert a regulatory rather than a proinflammatory effect. We also found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 induce cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) participates in the recognition of the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 by U937 cells. Finally, we observed that these microorganisms grow efficiently when cocultured in milk, suggesting that the preparation of a milk-based fermented product containing both MIMLh5 and ST3 can be a practical solution for the administration of these bacteria. In conclusion, we propose the combined use of L. helveticus MIMLh5 and S. salivarius ST3 for the preparation of novel products that display probiotic properties for the pharyngeal mucosa.

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    • "So far, lactobacilli have been predominantly investigated and explicitly proposed as probiotics for their potential beneficial roles on the gastrointestinal tract and its microbiota (Guglielmetti et al., 2011; Ferrario et al., 2014). Nevertheless, the interest for the application of lactobacilli beyond the gut is constantly increasing, leading to the development of new categories of probiotic products that target oral cavity (Guglielmetti et al., 2010a,b; Taverniti et al., 2012; Wescombe et al., 2012), skin (Krutmann, 2009), stomach (Johnson-Henry et al., 2004), urinary tract (Borchert et al., 2008), and vaginal mucosa (Borges et al., 2014). "
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    • "Activated DCs, together with the production of IL-2 (Granucci et al., 2003), are necessary to prime natural killer (NK) cells to produce IFNγ and to induce a Th1 response. In a subsequent study, strain MIMLh5 was tested together with the oral isolate S. salivarius ST3 (Guglielmetti et al., 2010a) on the human macrophage U937 cell line (Taverniti et al., 2012). The combination of MIMLh5 and ST3 elicited a balanced ratio of TNF-α and IL-10 that might be produced by a mild activation of the immune system and may be useful for combating infections, potentially without causing a detrimental outcome. "
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Frontiers in Microbiology
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    • "helveticus MIMLh5, strain ST3 adheres to pharyngeal epithelial cells, antagonizes Strep. pyogenes and modulates host innate immunity by inducing potentially protective effects (Taverniti et al. 2012). Strain NCC1561 modulates the growth of oral bacteria in vitro (Comelli et al. 2002). "
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