The role of vaccination in rabies prevention. Curr Opin Virol 2:309-314
Global Alliance for Rabies Control, 529 Humboldt St Suite One, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA.Current opinion in virology 04/2012; 2(3):309-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.coviro.2012.03.007
Rabies vaccines have evolved from the first crude nerve tissue vaccines developed by Louis Pasteur and his colleagues in 1885. Currently, safe and efficacious rabies vaccines for humans and animals are produced in several cell culture systems with 10 vaccine regimens recommended by WHO and/or ACIP for pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis in humans. Rabies vaccines are a critical component in the strategy to reduce the dog rabies, the cause of 98% of all global human rabies deaths. However, eliminating rabies in the reservoir animal species is not possible without an intersectoral approach including collaboration between animal and human health experts. There is an urgent need to establish national risk assessment systems in regions where surveillance is limited to non-existent.
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- "Rabies is a highly neglected, but also a vaccine-preventable, zoonotic disease (Briggs 2012). For practical purposes, rabies should be considered as universally fatal, once clinical signs manifest. "
ABSTRACT: Rabies is one of the oldest known zoonoses. Recognized etiological agents consist of at least 15 proposed species of lyssaviruses with primary reservoirs residing in the Orders Carnivora and Chiroptera. A plethora of viral variants, maintained by a diverse set of abundant hosts, presents a formidable challenge to a strict concept of true disease eradication. Despite the availability of affordable and efficacious animal and human vaccines, today however dog rabies continues to escalate unabated across much of Asia and Africa, causing millions of suspect human exposures and tens of thousands of human rabies deaths annually. By identifying what hampers global human rabies elimination this chapter emphasizes that, given the global epidemiology of rabies, the “One Health” concept is key to solving the problem. Next to state of the art human rabies prevention, immunization and experimental therapy, it is obvious that human rabies can only be eliminated through rabies control at the animal source. This ‘paradigm shift’, however, needs new grassroot initiatives as well as political will and the closing of ranks of all stakeholders in the near future.
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- "RABV is a compact negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. Rabies vaccine is one of the oldest biologics used in humans for both pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis . Human rabies vaccination does not require adjuvant priming, and long-lasting immune responses are documented   . "
ABSTRACT: Immunocontraceptive vaccines may be an alternative to surgical sterilization. Dual rabies vaccination and dog population management is a helpful tool for rabies prevention. A synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide coupled to a carrier protein or T cell epitope is efficacious in inducing immunocontraception in a variety of mammals. However, virus-vectored GnRH recombinant vaccines have advantages over the conjugation method. In a previous in vitro study, we were able to insert a GnRH-coding sequence into the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G) gene, and the recombinant viruses grew to high titers in cells. Here, we further focused on the RABV G in accepting various copy numbers of GnRH. We demonstrated although RABV G protein with up to 4 copies of GnRH was well expressed, the recombinant virus was recovered only when 2 copies of GnRH (20 amino acids) were incorporated into the G, indicating a possible insertion limit in making a full infectious clone. The investigation provides insight into the utility of RABV G as a carrier for small peptides and its suitability for vaccine studies. Following our previous study, we selected ERAg3p/2GnRH and tested the construct in mice. The vaccine induced ⩾80% infertility after three doses without any adjuvant, in live (8 of 10 mice infertility) or inactivated (13 of 14 mice infertility) formulations; while the pregnancy rate was 100% (10 of 10 mice) in the controls. This initial success of immunocontraception in mice is promising, and we are now optimizing the vaccine formulation by using adjuvants and exploring novel delivery methods to minimize the dosage.
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