Alternative Smoking Cessation Aids: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Article (PDF Available)inThe American journal of medicine 125(6):576-84 · April 2012with47 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.09.028 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Acupuncture, hypnotherapy, and aversive smoking are the most frequently studied alternative smoking cessation aids. These aids are often used as alternatives to pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation; however, their efficacy is unclear. We carried out a random effect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of alternative smoking cessation aids. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and PsycINFO databases through December 2010. We only included trials that reported cessation outcomes as point prevalence or continuous abstinence at 6 or 12 months. Fourteen trials were identified; 6 investigated acupuncture (823 patients); 4 investigated hypnotherapy (273 patients); and 4 investigated aversive smoking (99 patients). The estimated mean treatment effects were acupuncture (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-12.07), hypnotherapy (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 0.98-21.01), and aversive smoking (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.26-14.38). Our results suggest that acupuncture and hypnotherapy may help smokers quit. Aversive smoking also may help smokers quit; however, there are no recent trials investigating this intervention. More evidence is needed to determine whether alternative interventions are as efficacious as pharmacotherapies.
    • "Acupuncture has been used for smoking cessation, and it is one method which could be more safe and economically convenient and could have less side effects that pharmacological treatments [2,8,9]. Some meta-analyses [8,9] suggest that acupuncture may help smokers to quit immediately up to 6-month follow-ups, but the current evidence justifies further well-designed studies of acupuncture, acupressure and laser stimulation [10]. Acupuncture, both somatic and on the ear, has fewer side effects than pharmacological treatments, is better at controlling the symptoms of abstinence, and contributes to quitting smoking or to diminishing the daily dose of tobacco [11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non pharmacologic interventions like counselling and of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), have been shown to be effective for smoking cessation. In the present study we wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of counselling in smoking cessation combined with true or sham TCM.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016 · BMC Public Health
    • "Gewichtszunahme fürdie Aufrechterhaltung der Abstinenzmotivation auch begleitende Maßnahmen zur Gewichtskontrolle und -reduktion. Diese sind, wenn auch nur kurzfristig (< 3 Monate ), auf der Basis einer verringerten Gewichtszunahme (g = –0,30; 95 %-CI = –0,57, –0,02) mit einer erhöhten Abstinenzrate (OR = 1,29; 95 %-CI = 1,01, 1,64) verbunden [34]. [41], die eine etwas andere Datengrundlage auswerten, Hinweise auf die Wirksamkeit hypnotherapeutischer Tabakentwöhnung . Über alle eingeschlossenen Studien (4 Studien zur Hypnotherapie mit insgesamt 273 Versuchspersonen) hinweg beträgt die relative Wirksamkeit OR = 4,55 (95 %-CI 0,98–21,01). Da die angewendeten hypnotischen Methoden und Vor"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco consumption is one of the major preventable health risk factors. In Germany approximately 110,000 people prematurely die from tobacco-related diseases and approximately 50 % of regular smokers are considered to be tobacco dependent. Nevertheless, motivation to quit smoking is low and the long-term abstinence rates after attempts to stop smoking without professional support are far below 10 %. As part of the S3 treatment guidelines 78 recommendations for motivation and early interventions for smokers unwilling to quit as well as psychotherapeutic and pharmacological support for smokers willing to quit were formulated after an systematic search of the current literature. More than 50 professional associations adopted the recommendations and background information in a complex certification process. In this article the scientific evidence base regarding the psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment options as well as recommendations and further information about indications and treatment implementation are presented. By following these guidelines for treatment of heavy smokers who are willing to quit combined with individual and group therapies on the basis of behavioral treatment strategies and pharmacological support, long-term success rates of almost 30 % can be achieved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
    • "The efficacy of hypnosis as a smoking cessation method has been investigated151617181920212223242526, but there is heterogeneity in study designs. Several reviews and meta-analyses on hypnotherapy for smoking cessation have been undertaken2728293031 which, apart from two exceptions [32,33], have not been able to clearly support the efficacy of hypnotherapy as a smoking cessation method. In this paper, we report findings from a clusterrandomised trial that investigates the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming >= 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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