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Application of the Essential Oil from Copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.) for Acne Vulgaris: a Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

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Copaiba oil-resin is widely used in traditional medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, healing, and antiseptic activities. This research aims to extract and evaluate the qualitative and quantitative composition of copaiba essential oil from the oil-resin, and test its effects, after incorporation in a gel applied in volunteers with acne, in a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, and purified by freezing to remove the residual remnant water. The density of the essential oil was gravimetrically determined by weighing 1 mL of liquid at 20 degree C. The identification of the essential oil components was carried out through high-resolution gas chromatography analysis, coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil has a density of 0.9175 mg/mL and was composed of 48 substances, 14 of which were the major components representing 95.80% of total essential oil composition. Cis-thujopsene was the main component (46.96% of total essential oil composition). The surface affected with acne decreased when treated with placebo (F = 13.931, p = 0.001, r = 0.518; r2 = 0.268), but the linear model could explain only 26.8% of total variance in original data matrix. There was a highly significant decrease in the surface affected with acne in the areas treated with the 1.0% copaiba essential oil preparation (F = 86.494, p = 0.000, r = 0.834; r2 = 0.695).
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Alternative Medicine Review®
A Journal of Clinical Therapeutics
March 2012 Volume 17, Number 1
In This Issue: The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress • Use of a Standardized Extract from Echinacea
angustifolia (Polinacea®) for the Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections • Nutritional Supplement Therapy
Improves Oxidative Stress, Immune Response, Pulmonary Function, and Quality of Life in Allergic Asthma
Patients • A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Multifaceted Integrated Complementary-Alternative Therapy
for Chronic Herpes Zoster-Related Pain Application of the Essential Oil from Copaiba for Acne Vulgaris: a
Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial • Do Environmental Toxicants Contribute to Allergy and
Asthma? • Bacillus coagulans Monograph • Editorial and Guest Editorial Discussing “Dry Labbing” •
amr
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69 Alternative Medicine Review Volume 17, Number 1 Copyright © 2012 Alternative Medicine Review, LLC. All Rights Reserved. No Reprint Without Written Permission.
Original Research
Abstract
Copaiba oil-resin is widely used in traditional medicine due to
its anti-inammatory, healing, and antiseptic activities. This
research aims to extract and evaluate the qualitative and
quantitative composition of copaiba essential oil from the
oil-resin, and test its eects, after incorporation in a gel
applied in volunteers with acne, in a double-blind placebo
controlled clinical trial. The essential oil was extracted by
steam distillation, and puried by freezing to remove the
residual remnant water. The density of the essential oil was
gravimetrically determined by weighing 1 mL of liquid at 20°C.
The identication of the essential oil components was carried
out through high-resolution gas chromatography analysis,
coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil has a
density of 0.9175 mg/mL and was composed of 48 substances,
14 of which were the major components representing 95.80%
of total essential oil composition. Cis-thujopsene was the
main component (46.96% of total essential oil composition).
The surface aected with acne decreased when treated with
placebo (F = 13.931, p = 0.001, r = 0.518; r² = 0.268), but
the linear model could explain only 26.8% of total variance in
original data matrix. There was a highly signicant decrease in
the surface aected with acne in the areas treated with the
1.0% copaiba essential oil preparation (F = 86.494, p = 0.000,
r = 0.834; r² = 0.695).
(Altern Med Rev 2012;17:69-75)
Introduction
e first European settlers of Central and South
America reported that the indigenous American
Indians applied the oil-resin of copaiba to the
navels of newborn and the wounds of warriors
after battle, and used this plant as an anti-inflam-
matory and healing agent. is traditional use
came from the observation that injured animals
rubbed their bodies on the stems of copaiba trees
to heal their wounds.1
Copaiba oil-resin is widely used in folk medicine,
especially in northern Brazil. e plant is an
important commercial product in areas where it
grows, because its oil is exported for use in the
cosmetics industry. e oil-resin is used medici-
nally as a component of products such as oint-
ments and syrups. It is administered topically and
orally.2,3
Copaiba trees belong to the family Leguminosae,
sub-family Caesalpinoideae. ey are a slow
growing tree, which can reach a height of 25 to 40
meters tall and can live for up to 400 years. e
stem is rough, with dark brown bark, and with a
diameter of 0.4 to 4 meters.4 e oil-resin, in
biological terms, is a product of excretion or
detoxification of the plant organism, and acts as a
defense against microorganisms, such as fungi and
bacteria.5
Copaiba oil-resin is used medicinally in all
regions of Brazil.1 Its original folk use was as an
anti-blenorragic agent (i.e., a medicine used to treat
vaginal mucus discharge). It is now used externally
as a skin-healing agent and for anti-inflammatory
purposes. It is used internally as a diuretic, expecto-
rant, and antimicrobial agent (primarily for urinary
disorders). When used internally, it is often mixed
with honey and lemon juice.6
Application of the Essential Oil from Copaiba
(Copaifera langsdori Desf.) for Acne Vulgaris:
a Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical
Trial
Ary Gomes da Silva, Paula de Freitas Puziol, Roane Nunes Leitão, Tatiana Rafaela Gomes,
Rodrigo Scherer, Mônica Lacerda Lopes Martins, Áurea Scárdua Saade Cavalcanti, Luiz Carlos
Cavalcanti
Ary Gomes da Silva: Depart-
ment of Pharmacy, Centro
Universitário Vila Velha.
Corresponding Address:
Comissário José Dantas de
Melo, 21, Boa Vista, Vila
Velha, Espírito Santo, Brasil,
29102-770. Telephone: +55-
27-3421-2072.
e-mail: arygomes@uvv.br
Paula de Freitas Puziol:
Department of Pharmacy,
Centro Universitário Vila
Velha.
Roane Nunes Leitão:
Department of Pharmacy,
Centro Universitário Vila
Velha.
Tatiana Rafaela Gomes:
Department of Pharmacy,
Centro Universitário Vila
Velha.
Rodrigo Scherer:
Department of Pharmacy,
Centro Universitário Vila
Velha. Fine Chemistry
Laboratory, Tommasi
Analítica.
Mônica Lacerda Lopes
Martins: Department of
Pharmacy, Centro
Universitário Vila Velha.
Áurea Scárdua Saade
Cavalcanti: Department of
Pharmacy, Centro
Universitário Vila Velha.
Luiz Carlos Cavalcanti:
Department of Pharmacy,
Centro Universitário Vila
Velha.
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Volume 17, Number 1 Alternative Medicine Review 70
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Original Research
Key words: acne, copaiba,
anti-inammatory, essential
oil, antiseptic, phytocosmetic
Chromatographic analysis of copaiba oil-resin
has revealed that it is comprised of sesqui- and
diterpenes. e main diterpene skeletons described
in copaiba oil-resins are of the kaurane-, labdane-,
and cleorodane-type. e most commonly detected
structures by spectrophotometry of each of those
diterpene skeletons are copalic, carenoic, and
hardwickiic acids, with the copalic acid constituent
found in all copaiba oil-resins analyzed.7
Most of the therapeutic properties of copaiba are
attributed to diterpenes. ese plant compounds
are considered to be a biological defense against
predators, phytophagous insects and organisms,
and pathogens, as well as a response to mechanical
damage. Some of the identified sesquiterpenes
have been reported to have antiulcer, antiviral, and
anti-rhinovirus activity.4 Concentrations and
nature of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes can vary,
but these two classes of compounds, and no other,
must be present in copaiba oil-resins for use in
commercial products.8
Despite its wide empirical use, there have been
few studies on the biological activity of the
essential oil of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. is
study aims to extract and evaluate the qualitative
and quantitative centesimal composition of the
essential oil from copaiba oil-resin, and, when used
in a cosmetic base, test its clinical effectiveness in
acne vulgaris.
Materials and Methods
Extraction and purication of the essential oil
Copaiba oil-resin was obtained from trees grown
on a legal reserve in a private rural property at
Santa Teresa (19°55’37”S; 40°35’16”W). Steam
distillation was used to extract the essential oil
from the oil-resin. e essential oil was then
separated from the water effluent produced in the
steam distillation extraction process by a combina-
tion of purification and freezing.
e density of the essential oil was gravimetri-
cally determined by weighing 1 mL of liquid at
20°C, using a temperature-controlled water bath.
e essential oil was weighed in an analytical
balance with an accuracy of 1.0 mg. Extraction,
purification, and density determination of the
essential oil were made in the Laboratory of
Chemical Sciences at Centro Universitário Vila
Velha (UVV).
Study Design
is study was carried out at the Polyclinic UVV,
located in the municipality of Vila Velha, Espírito
Santo, Brazil. Volunteers with acne vulgaris were
recruited from the local population. Subjects were
treated with either active treatment or placebo,
with clinical follow-up conducted by a physical
therapist specializing in dermatological therapy,
Prof. Valeria Rossetto Lemos, CEFITO 2-4163-F,
Professor of Physical erapy and Aesthetics of
UVV.
Preparation of placebo and test gels
Preparation of placebo and active test gels was
conducted in the laboratory of Pharmaceutical
Production at UVV. e test-gel was made by
incorporating 1.0 percent (weight/weight) of
copaiba essential oil in natrozol gel, using 0.5
percent Tween 80 as a surfactant. A solution of
parabens and sorbic acid were used as a preserva-
tive. e finished products were stored in opaque
aluminum tubes, internally covered with a plastic
surface, and closed with screw cap. Preparation and
packing of placebo gel followed the same steps.9
After packing, gel tubes received different color
codes that identified the tubes as having either a
concentration of 1.0 percent copaiba oil or placebo.
ese codes were only known by the researchers.
Inclusion criteria
All volunteers underwent a dermatological
screening. Only subjects with a clinical diagnosis of
type 1 acne lesions (e.g., mild acne consisting
mostly of non-inflamed comedones) were included
in the study. All participating volunteers signed a
consent form and terms of commitment to
voluntary participation in research. A parental or
legal representative’s permission was required for
all volunteers under the age of 18 years old.
Exclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria for this study included (1)
physical and/or mental development conditions
that precluded an ability to execute the homecare
demanded by the study design, (2) pregnancy, (3)
acne that was incompatible with a diagnosis of type
1 acne vulgaris, and (4) use of other medications
for the treatment of acne.
Research procedures
After a preliminary screening, ten volunteers
were selected to receive 100 ml of neutral liquid
soap for cleaning the site of acne prior to the
application of active gel and placebo. e active gel
and placebo preparations were marked with stripes
of different colors on the labels of the tubes. ese
gels were applied to two distinct regions, always
starting the application with the active gel, to help
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71 Alternative Medicine Review Volume 17, Number 1 Copyright © 2012 Alternative Medicine Review, LLC. All Rights Reserved. No Reprint Without Written Permission.
Original Research
prevent volunteers from noticing the difference
between the odorless placebo gel and the character-
istic odor produced by copaiba essential oil in the
active test gel.
e application of placebo and active gel were
carried out in double-blind trial. Volunteers did not
know which of the two gels they were applying in a
given region and the evaluators did not perform
the application of the gels to the volunteers. e
gels were applied twice a day for 21 days, with
directions given to spread gels manually until a
uniform cover of the affected area was produced.
Since application of active gel and placebo were
to be done in a homecare environment, volunteers
signed a commitment form to comply faithfully
with the recommended procedures. Furthermore,
to monitor compliance with the applications, gel
tubes were weighed and sealed before starting
treatment, and were weighed weekly using a
portable balance with an accuracy of 10 mg to
ensure that there were steadily decreasing tube
weights.
Evaluation of the evolution of surface aected with
acne
e areas affected with acne were photographed
with a 2 cm scale in an average area of 12.25 cm².
ese pictures were then analyzed using ImageTool
for Windows, release 3.0,10 which was used to
determine the total area occupied by acne pustules
in each photograph. In order to correct for scale
effects produced by different sizes of the pustules,
the affected surfaces obtained for each volunteer
were standardized by their respective percentages,
calculated in relation to the larger affected area
detected, and subsequently subjected to arcsine
transformation. us, the assumption of normality
of data distribution was satisfied, and it was
possible to use simple linear regression to deter-
mine the effect of exposure time to the proposed
treatment on the development of pustules and
inflamed surfaces in the treated areas.11
e null hypothesis tested was that the gel with
copaiba essential oil produced no change in the
acne evolution. e significance level used to reject
the null hypothesis was p values equal to or less
than 0.05, and coefficient of line determination (r²)
equal to or greater than 0.5, which expresses an
explanation power for the estimated linear model
of at least 50 percent in relation to the variance
present in the original data set. Linear regression
and the line determination coefficients allowed
evaluation of the data set for consistency, and as a
means for detecting potential disagreement
between results obtained and the established
coding of the application gels.
In order to test the null hypothesis, a simple
linear regression analysis was performed. It consid-
ered the time in weeks of exposure to active or
placebo gel treatments as the independent variable,
and the evolution of the area affected by acne as a
dependent variable.11 Statistical analysis was
performed using SYSTAT program, version 11.0.
Chromatographic analysis
e identification of the essential oil compo-
nents was carried out by high-resolution gas
chromatography analysis, coupled with mass
spectrometry, at the Fine Chemistry Laboratory in
Tommasi Analítica. e injection volume was 2μL,
composed of 1.6 mL of a solution of essential oil
(30mg/ml) and 0.4 mL of a solution of hydrocarbon
series of C7-C30, as internal standard, both using
n-hexane as the solvent.
e gas chromatography coupled with mass
spectrometry (GC-MS) system used consisted of a
gas chromatograph, ermo Scientific® Ultra GC
coupled to a mass spectrometer, ermo Scientific®.
e fused silica capillary column used was a DB-5
J & W Scientific (30m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 mm).
Helium was the carrier gas, and the column
temperature program was increased by 3º C per
minute between 60°-240° C. e mass spectra were
obtained at 70eV at a scan rate of 0.84 scan/sec, at
the range m/z 40-500.12
e retention times of sample components and a
mixture of n-alkanes from C7-C30, co-injected into
the GC-MS system under the same temperature
program were used for the calculation of the
Arithmetic Index (AI) of van der Dool and Kratz,
and of the Kovats Retention Index (KI).12
Identification of essential oil components was
based on the calculated KI compared with the
available literature,12 and mass spectra with the
GC-MS spectral library.
Results
Density and phytochemical prole of copaiba
essential oil
e essential oil obtained from copaiba had a
density of 0.9175 mg/mL. Chromatographic
analysis identified 48 substances, 14 of which were
considered the major components. e 14 major
components represented 95.80 percent of the total
essential oil composition, with cis-thujopsene
accounting for 46.96 percent of the total essential
oil. e relative amounts of the major compounds
are listed in table 1. e remaining 34 substances
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Volume 17, Number 1 Alternative Medicine Review 72
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Original Research
detected only comprised 4.2 percent of the total
essential oil, with concentrations ranging between
0.01 and 0.6 percent.
Qualitative aspects of clinical cases
Ongoing qualitative analysis of the volunteers
resulted in no signs or symptoms that disturbed
the continuity of treatment. Table 2 lists the
surface areas affected by acne before treatment and
at 7-day intervals for each individual. ere were
no significant differences between the placebo and
active gel-treated areas before starting treatment
(U-Mann-Whitney = 30.0; p = 0.13; df = 1). After 21
days of treatment, there was a highly significant
decrease in the extent of area affected by acne,
both in the region treated with placebo gel and
with the active gel. Evidence of a positive clinical
effect were (1) cessation in the eruption of new
pustules, (2) healing of pre-existing pustules, and
(3) diminishing of erythematous area.
Table 3 summarizes the statistical analysis data.
Although linear regression indicated a highly
significant decrease in the surface affected with
acne in the region treated with placebo gel (i.e., the
slope of the calculated area was negative [see
bottom chart in figure 1]), the determination
coefficient of the estimated line (r ²) could not
explain more than 26.8 percent of the total
variance of original data set, which did not allow
for the acceptance of this estimated line with
placebo treatment as being of biological signifi-
cance. Because of this, the apparent decrease in the
surface affected with acne subsequent to placebo
application was not accepted, since at least 73
percent of the effect could not be explained. In the
areas treated with placebo, aggravations affecting
both men and women occurred in most volunteers
during the 21 days of treatment (Table 2).
ere was a decrease in the surface area affected
with acne with the active gel, evidenced by a
regression line (see top chart in figure 1) with a
highly significant negative slope (table 3). is
suggests an attenuation of the surface area affected
with acne (t = -9.300, p < 0.01) with the statistical
Table 1. Major components of the essential oil of Copaifera langsdori
Calculated
1426
1444
1376
1525
1466
1391
1536
1517
1530
1585
1504
1512
1349
1338
Adams, 2009
1429
1444
1374
1521
1464
1389
1537
1514
1532
1586
1509
1514
1348
1339
Calculated
1427
1446
1377
1526
1467
1392
1538
1518
1532
1586
1505
1513
1352
1340
Adams, 2009
1431
1446
1376
1522
1466
1390
1538
1515
1533
1587
1509
1515
1351
1341
Identication
cis-thujopsene
seychelene
α-copaene
β-sesquiphellandrene
caryophyllene
β-elemene
α-cadinene
geranyl isobutanoate
γ-cuprenene
α-thujopsan-2-ol
α -bulnesene
cubebol
α-cubebene
3-hydroxy-benzenemethanol
%
46.96
8.04
7.75
7.34
6.71
3.91
3.27
2.27
2.26
2.26
2.15
1.24
0.91
0.81
Arithmetic Index Kovats Index
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73 Alternative Medicine Review Volume 17, Number 1 Copyright © 2012 Alternative Medicine Review, LLC. All Rights Reserved. No Reprint Without Written Permission.
Original Research
model explaining at least 69.6 percent of
total variation of the data set (r ² = 0.696).]
Discussion
Since the available reports have focused
on analyzing the oil-resin, there has been
no specific information about the composi-
tion of copaiba essential oil. e oil-resin is
a natural dispersion of diterpene acids in a
mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes,7,13
which are the main components of the
essential oil.13 e most common sesquiter-
penes reported are caryophyllene, copaene,
zingiberene, bisabolene, and bergamotene,
while the main diterpenes are kaurenoic,
hardwichiic, kovalenic, polyalthic, and
copalic acids, the last of which is consid-
ered a characteristic diterpene from the
genus Copaifera.14 Previously reported
studies showed similarity in sesquiterpene
compounds in the profile of the oil-resin
from Copaifera duckei Dwyer, Copaifera
multijuga Hayne, and Copaifera reticulata
Ducke: Caryophyllene has been reported as
the main substance in the latter two oils.15
Table 2. Surface area (mm²) aected by acne
Volunteer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sex
F
M
F
F
M
F
F
M
F
F
Day 0
101.11
66.48
46.44
75.76
25.96
44.41
15.61
41.91
23.75
38.85
Day 7
45.02
95.86
15.62
21.43
31.23
19.43
8.4
32.04
12.03
6.37
Day 14
17.81
75.03
28.5
35.64
27.17
25.94
15.91
16.74
5.36
16.8
Day 21
2.54
32.73
11.97
35.85
27.19
27.21
17.35
8.91
19.39
20.64
Day 0
46.62
128.91
123.5
52.2
85.62
36.14
51.05
59.51
46.53
27.01
Day 7
46.49
70.14
21.46
28.6
47.87
21.09
39.08
15.32
17.34
23.73
Day 14
28.9
70.4
40.67
9.59
36.48
18.26
11.25
9.69
11.33
10.58
Day 21
20.22
73.57
10.64
6.31
37.36
14.63
10.99
8.69
11.2
2.65
Placebo Copaiba Essential Oil (1.0%)
Surface area aected with acne (mm²)
Table 3. Estimated parameters for the simple linear regression of the evolution of
surfaces aected with acne submitted to treatments with the placebo gel and active
gel with copaiba essential oil at 1.0 percent (w/w).
Parameter
Constant ± SE
Angular Coecient ± SE
t
F
p
r
Auto-correlation
Placebo
1.280 ± 0.095
-0.027 ± 0.007
-3.732
13.931
0.001
0.518
0.268 (26.8%)
0.145
Copaiba Essential Oil (1.0%)
1.408 ± 0.067
-0.048 ± 0.005
-9.300
86.494
0.000
0.834
0.695 (69.5%)
0.189
SE: Mean Standard Error; t: t-Statistics; F: Fischer’s ratio; p: signicance level; r: multiple linear
correlation coecient; r²: squared multiple correlation coecient.
amr
Volume 17, Number 1 Alternative Medicine Review 74
Copyright © 2012 Alternative Medicine Review, LLC. All Rights Reserved. No Reprint Without Written Permission.
Original Research
e main compounds of the oils from C. multi-
juga, Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and C.
reticulata were β-caryophyllene, followed by
α-humulene, α-copaene, α-bergamotene, and
γ-cadinene with differing amounts of each of
these compounds found in the them in the oils
from the various copaiba oil-resins.
e anti-inflammatory activity of oil-resin
from C. langsdorffii has usually been attributed
to the diterpene kaurenoic acid, since this acid
inhibits the transcriptional activities of nuclear
factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B
cells (NF-kB), an important molecule involved in
the activation of macrophages.16 However, in our
trial, an anti-inflammatory action of the
essential oil was observed despite the lack of this
compound in the copaiba essential oil sample
used. is suggests that other substances might
also have anti-inflammatory actions. Among the
major sesquiterpenes detected in the essential
oil, β-caryophyllene has been mentioned in
previous studies as having anti-inflammatory,
anti-edema, local anesthetic, antimicrobial, and
antioxidant actions.14
While the apparent decrease of surface area
affected with acne in the areas treated with
placebo (and so by virtue some degree of the
response to active gel treatment) could possibly
be related to the hygiene of the skin performed
with the liquid soap, we do not believe that this
alone explains the results. Personal hygiene is of
minor relevance to acne, and, in fact, excessive
skin cleaning may exacerbate acne symptoms.17
e purpose of washing the skin is not the
treatment of acne; instead, the purpose is to
clean and prepare the skin to receive and tolerate
the topical formulation that will be applied.18
Most dermatologists agree that the choice of
agents used to treat acne involves the integra-
tion of multiple factors such as severity of injury,
disease history, tendency to scarring, and
post-inflammatory pigmentation. e therapy
must be, therefore, adapted to each patient,
depending on the nature and severity of acne.19
Topical therapy is considered first-line treatment
of acne and is recommended for patients with
acne comedones and inflammation of a mild to
moderate degree. However, for patients with
moderate to severe acne inflammation resistant
to current topical therapies, systemic medica-
tions are the treatment of choice.20
Our results suggest that the copaiba essential
oil treatment had only a topical, instead of a
systemic effect. e rationale for this conclusion
Figure 1. Simple linear regression of the eect of the gels applied in the
areas aected with acne during 21 day of treatment in the volunteers
studied (top graph is active treatment; bottom graph is placebo)
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0 7 14 21 28
Arcsin[p(surface)]
Days of Treatment
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0 7 14 21 28
Arcsin[p(surface)]
Days of Treatment
amr
75 Alternative Medicine Review Volume 17, Number 1 Copyright © 2012 Alternative Medicine Review, LLC. All Rights Reserved. No Reprint Without Written Permission.
Original Research
was that, since both of the gels (active and placebo)
were applied at the same time in the same volun-
teers, and the effect in the areas treated with the
active gel were significantly greater, the main effect
appeared to be specific to the location where the
active test gel was applied.
Conclusion
Although copaiba essential oil had not previously
been tested in the treatment of acne, some
investigations on the essential oils of ten other
plant species had demonstrated promising in vitro
results for inhibiting the growth of
Propionibacterium acnes, in protecting against free
radicals, and in modulation of the inflammatory
response subsequent to its infection.21 is
suggested the possibility that copaiba essential oil
would be efficacious for acne vulgaris. Our results
indicate that the essential oil from copaiba might
have utility as a topical treatment for mild acne.
Larger studies are warranted to further assess its
efficacy in this clinical condition, and to determine
whether it would have any utility for more severe
acne vulgaris or might synergize with other
existing acne therapies.
Acknowledgments
We acknowledge the FUNADESP for the research
fellowship of Dr. Ary G. da Silva; the Centro
Universitário Vila Velha (UVV), and the laborato-
ries Tommasi Analitica and Tommasi Laboratório
for technological support; and Dr.Roy Funch for
revising the final English version.
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... Only one study, which involved 20 participants, evaluated the effect of an herbal formulation on the area occupied by the inflammatory lesions [56]. e results revealed that in the areas where the essential oil of C. langsdorffii was administered, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in the extension affected by the lesions. ...
... e results revealed that in the areas where the essential oil of C. langsdorffii was administered, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in the extension affected by the lesions. On the other hand, in the areas where the placebo was applied, an increase in the surface occupied by the lesions was verified in several participants [56]. ...
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Over the past few decades, interest in medicinal plants and phytochemicals for the treatment of skin disorders, including acne vulgaris, has progressively increased. Acne vulgaris is a chronic in ammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, which mainly occurs in adolescents and young adults. e treatment focuses on the four main factors involved in its pathogenesis: increased sebum production, hyperkeratinization, overgrowth of Cutibacterium acnes, and in ammation. e treatment includes topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and oral isotretinoin. In this regard, the use of herbal medicine as a complementary and alternative medicine is a promising strategy. e main objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the e cacy and safety of medicinal plants and phytochemicals in the treatment of acne vulgaris. ree scienti c databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched from inception to January 2021. Clinical trials comparing herbal therapies with placebo or other medicines for the treatment of acne vulgaris were included and analyzed. Outcome measures of interest comprised acne lesions (in-ammatory and nonin ammatory), sebum production, acne severity, and quality of life. e risk of bias in the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. A total of 34 clinical trials involving 1753 participants met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Most trials showed that herbal medicine signi cantly reduces in ammatory and nonin ammatory acne lesions and has a relevant e ect on acne severity. Some medicinal plants revealed equal or higher e cacy to standard treatments. No signi cant di erence between groups in sebum production and quality of life was observed and no severe adverse events were reported. is systematic review provides evidence that medicinal plants and phytochemicals are promising treatments for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. However, more quality of evidence and standardized methodologies are needed to support their e ectiveness and safety claims.
... Particularly β-caryophyllene displayed substantial antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects including activity against Staphylococcus aureus [166,167,175], a common cause of skin infections. For these reasons, the cosmetic industry extensively uses Copaifera oleoresins in anti-acne creams, formulations for treating stretch marks and scars, as well as shampoos, capillary lotions, soaps, and bathing foams [176]. β-Caryophyllene also selectively binds to the cannabinoid receptor 2 [177], which makes it an interesting candidate to relieve pain and inflammation [176,178]. ...
... For these reasons, the cosmetic industry extensively uses Copaifera oleoresins in anti-acne creams, formulations for treating stretch marks and scars, as well as shampoos, capillary lotions, soaps, and bathing foams [176]. β-Caryophyllene also selectively binds to the cannabinoid receptor 2 [177], which makes it an interesting candidate to relieve pain and inflammation [176,178]. The diterpenes from Copaifera oleoresins reportedly elicited in vitro antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and wound-healing stimulatory activities [179]. ...
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The increasing environmental challenges such as the rise of global warming and depletion of fossil fuels have enthused the scientific community to dedicate tremendous effort to the development of various clean energy technologies in recent years [1-2]. Thus, most of the efficient, clean and sustainable energy production sources were successfully developed, such as solar cells, tidal power, wind energy, hydrogen fuel cells, geothermal energy, and so forth. However, most of these energy production sources are not able to generate electric power continually and thus they cannot meet human life practical requirements and industrial production. Therefore, to store the produced energy from those energy production sources, proper energy storage devices are required [3]. Besides, the electric and hybrid vehicles sector and the demand for energy in modern digital communications (i.e. 5G) also urge the development of the next generation of energy storage devices exhibiting high energy and power density. Electrochemical capacitors also known as ultracapacitors or supercapacitors (SCs) are gaining tremendous momentum over batteries and becoming the centre of attention of a large number of studies owing to their superior capabilities, such as environmental friendliness, high efficiency, fast charge-discharge rates, high power density, safe operation, good cycling stability and lower maintenance cost [1-2]. They have also the ability to work under a wide voltage window, at relatively high temperatures and exhibit an exceptionally high number of the charge-discharge cycle (˃ 500 000) [4]. Thus, supercapacitors have the merit to be one of the most effective energy storage devices. In addition to the above-mentioned advantages, supercapacitors have found numerous applications, in memory backup systems, elevators, consumer electronics, bullet trains, electric & hybrid electric vehicles and military devices. It is also important to note that their remarkable properties make them key candidates for several applications where high power density is highly desired. Supercapacitors are designed or manufactured like batteries (two electrodes, separator and electrolyte). However, unlike batteries, supercapacitors charge mechanisms operate entirely on the surface of electrodes, either for the electric double-layercapacitors (EDLC) or for pseudo-capacitors (PCs). Thus, electrodes with high specific surface area are greatly required to accommodate more electrolyte ions and optimize the performance of supercapacitors. To meet this goal, nanostructured electrodes are the best candidates [5]. Even though supercapacitors have been commercialized already and have several advantages over other energy storage devices; but in principle, they exhibit a major drawback that permanently limits their practical application. Generally, they have low energy density compared to batteries, which are globally the centre-topic of thousands of research reports yearly [6]. It should be reminded that the performances of supercapacitors are strongly dependent on the intrinsic fundamental physicochemical properties of electrode materials that they are made of [5]. Therefore, exploring electrodes interfacial properties to achieve high specific capacitance is one of the key tasks in order to successfully improve the energy density of supercapacitors. Nowadays, most of electrode materials used for supercapacitors are nanostructured. Carbon-based materials are the main electrode materials used for most of the commercial supercapacitors because they are easy to be developed with good thermal stability and excellent corrosion resistance for a moderate cost [7]. In addition, they exhibit high specific surface area, have good cycling stability, controllable porosity, high maximum power density and good safety. However, their energy density is still unsatisfactory (below 10 Wh kg-1) due to the reversible ion adsorption limitation at the electrode/electrolyte interface [8]. Thus, the pseudo-capacitivematerials can facilitate the achievement of that goal in improving the energy density of supercapacitors available on the market, including good rate capability, because their charge mechanism occurs through superficial faradaic reactions. Various pseudo-capacitive materials have been developed and tested for supercapacitor applications, such as conducting polymers, metal oxides/hydroxides, and layered double hydroxides (LDH). To date, several pseudo-capacitive electrode materials for supercapacitor applications with excellent properties have been developed in academia arena; unfortunately, not all of them have reached the industry for practical applications; because most of them are developed via complicated synthesis procedures that involve high cost. Some are relatively toxic to humans and environment and others are not up scalable. Therefore, they cannot meet the industrial requirements. 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Copaifera langsdorffii is a Brazilian native leguminosae that produce resin-oil, popularly known as copaiba oil. This oil is used for the treatment of skin wound due to its recognized antiinflammatory and wound healing effects. Despite, its popular use, there are few published data about the therapeutic effect of this medicinal plant. The aim of the study was to evaluate the topic treatment effect of the Copaiba oil on the process of skin repair inflammation induced by a foreign body subcutanously implanted. Sixty BALB/c mice were submitted to a 1cm linear incision and a 12mm circle coverslip was subcutaneously implanted. Four treatments groups were established: control, sterile saline (C); vehicle control, sterile mineral oil, (VC); treatment 1 (T1), mineral oil plus copaiba oil (V/V), and treatment 2 (T2) copaiba oil. The evaluations were performed at pre-determined time points (1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days). It was possible to find fibroblasts, epithelial cells proliferation, re-epithelization and newly formed blood vessels in all groups, however, all oil treated groups (T1 and T2) did not present re-epithelization at three days post surgical incision. On days 5 and 7, a higher intensity of edema and hyperemia on the groups T1 and T2 was observed, besides that, the T1 and T2 groups presented a serous cellular scab on the wounds that was absent on the C and VC groups. The inflammatory reactions among the groups C and VC showed more mononuclear cells than the T1 and T2 groups that presented a mixed cell patter composed from both mono and polymorphonuclear cells. Although the surgical wounds were re-epithelizaded, in the groups T1 and T2, they were covered by a serous cellular crust and the dermis tissue still presented an intense mononuclear cell inflammatory focus. Fourteen days after of the surgical incision, the gross aspects on groups C and VC were similar and on groups T1 and T2, despite wound to be completely closed and without crusts, the skin those animals was thickened. Furthermore, the dermis on group T2 presented moderate fibrosis, while the other groups presented slightly ones. The results demonstrated that topical treatment with C. langsdorffii oil debilitated the normal process of a wound repair in the presence of a foreign body.
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Copaiba oil is a resin extracted from the trunk of trees of Copaifera species which grow in Brazil where it is widely used in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic anti-bactericidal, diuretic, dermatological, expectorant, and anti-infective. The comparative study of the composition of commercial copaiba oils was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) analysis. The commercial oils were compared with authentic oils, collected from the southeast and northern regions of Brazil. Sixteen commercial oils were analysed and two of them revealed adulterations with fatty acids. Using the chromatographic profile of authentic copaiba species oils, it is possible to analyse commercial oils and determine the authenticity of these materials.
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Full-text available
A Copaifera langsdorffii é uma leguminosa nativa do Brasil, da qual pode ser extraído um óleo, popularmente conhecido como óleo de copaíba. Este óleo é amplamente utilizado para tratamento de feridas cutâneas por ser reconhecido como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante. Apesar disso, poucas comprovações científicas do verdadeiro efeito terapêutico desta planta medicinal foram produzidas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento tópico com C. langsdorffii no processo de reparo quando um corpo estranho é o indutor da inflamação. Para isso, 60 camundongos da linhagem BALB/c foram submetidos à incisão cirúrgica linear de 1cm no dorso para realizar o implante de uma lamínula de vidro com 12mm de diâmetro no tecido subcutâneo. Quatro tratamentos para a ferida foram estabelecidos: controle (C) tratado com solução salina estéril, controle veículo (CV) tratado com óleo mineral estéril, tratamento 1 (T1) tratado com diluição (v:v) de óleo mineral estéril e óleo de C. langsdorffii, tratamento 2 (T2) tratado com óleo de C. langsdorffii puro. As avaliações foram realizadas em períodos de tempo pré-determinados (1, 3, 5, 7 e 14 dias). Era possível perceber características da fase proliferativa como a reepitelização, a presença de fibroblastos e a neovascularização, porém os grupos tratados com o óleo (T1 e T2) não apresentavam reepitelização aos três dias. Esses grupos aos 5 e 7 dias apresentavam no exame macroscópico maior intensidade de edema, hiperemia e permanência de crostas. Na microscopia, a reepitelização ainda não estava completa e a crosta era serocelular. Nos grupos C e CV, apesar de discreta, era predominante a presença de mononucleares, enquanto nos grupos T1 e T2 o infiltrado inflamatório era misto e com maior intensidade que nos outros grupos. Quatorze dias depois da incisão cirúrgica, os aspectos macroscópicos dos grupos C e CV eram semelhantes e os grupos T1 e T2, apesar de a ferida estar completamente fechada e sem crostas, a pele desses animais estava espessada e na derme do grupo T2 parecia ter fibrose mais acentuada do que nos outros grupos. Esses resultados demonstraram que o tratamento tópico com óleo de C. langsdorffii prejudicou o processo de reparação normal de ferida na presença de corpo estranho.Copaifera langsdorffii is a Brazilian native leguminosae that produce resin-oil, popularly known as copaíba oil. This oil is used for the treatment of skin wound due to its recognized antiinflammatory and wound healing effects. Despite, its popular use, there are few published data about the therapeutic effect of this medicinal plant. The aim of the study was to evaluate the topic treatment effect of the Copaíba oil on the process of skin repair inflammation induced by a foreign body subcutanously implanted. Sixty BALB/c mice were submitted to a 1cm linear incision and a 12mm circle coverslip was subcutaneously implanted. Four treatments groups were established: control, sterile saline (C); vehicle control, sterile mineral oil, (VC); treatment 1 (T1), mineral oil plus copaiba oil (V/V), and treatment 2 (T2) copaiba oil. The evaluations were performed at pre-determined time points (1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days). It was possible to find fibroblasts, epithelial cells proliferation, re-epithelization and newly formed blood vessels in all groups, however, all oil treated groups (T1 and T2) did not present re-epithelization at three days post surgical incision. On days 5 and 7, a higher intensity of edema and hyperemia on the groups T1 and T2 was observed, besides that, the T1 and T2 groups presented a serous cellular scab on the wounds that was absent on the C and VC groups. The inflammatory reactions among the groups C and VC showed more mononuclear cells than the T1 and T2 groups that presented a mixed cell patter composed from both mono and polymorphonuclear cells. Although the surgical wounds were re-epithelizaded, in the groups T1 and T2, they were covered by a serous cellular crust and the dermis tissue still presented an intense mononuclear cell inflammatory focus. Fourteen days after of the surgical incision, the gross aspects on groups C and VC were similar and on groups T1 and T2, despite wound to be completely closed and without crusts, the skin those animals was thickened. Furthermore, the dermis on group T2 presented moderate fibrosis, while the other groups presented slightly ones. The results demonstrated that topical treatment with C. langsdorffii oil debilitated the normal process of a wound repair in the presence of a foreign body.
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The refractive indices (RI) of the eight samples of copaiba oils, collected for this study at RDS Tupé ranged from 1.50284 to 1.50786. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates of these oils revealed with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent showed dark lilac stains with several small stains at low Rf and a large rounded stain at high Rf. On the other hand, the twelve copaiba oils purchased at local markets presented RI between 1.48176 and 1.50886, and the TLC plates, showed as general profile blue stains, with smaller superimposed stains at low Rf, bigger superimposed stains like elongated stain at high Rf and a colorless rounded stain at middle Rf. Among 12 purchased oils at local markets, a) three oil-resins presented similar RI and TLC profile to those observed for collected copaiba oils; b) six oils showed same RI and TLC profiles to those observed for soybean oil; c) three samples presented RI near to those showed by copaiba oil-resin, however the TLC profile was near to profile observed for a prepared mixture soybean oil: copaiba oil, two samples with 3:1 proportion and one sample with 1:3 proportion. Therefore, the RI determination and the TLC profiles could be considered rapid and efficient procedures for detection of vegetal oil in the copaiba oil-resins.
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This paper reviews the recent literature on synergism, adulteration and risks of using medicinal plants. The use of copaiba and sacaca plants as well as their adulteration and side effects, are also described. In addition, the new regulations on phytotherapeutic registration in Brazil and Europe are discussed.
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Full-text available
Copaiba oil is a resin extracted from the trunk of trees of Copaifera species which grow in Brazil where it is widely used in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic anti-bactericidal, diuretic, dermatological, expectorant, and anti-infective. The comparative study of the composition of commercial copaiba oils was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) analysis. The commercial oils were compared with authentic oils, collected from the southeast and northern regions of Brazil. Sixteen commercial oils were analysed and two of them revealed adulterations with fatty acids. Using the chromatographic profile of authentic copaiba species oils, it is possible to analyse commercial oils and determine the authenticity of these materials.
Article
Full-text available
Copaiba oil can be extracted from the trunk of some Copaifera species and contains mainly resinous acids and volatile substances, which have wide medicinal use. The chromatographic standardization of the oil characteristics is the guarantee of the identity of raw material. In this work, three copaiba oil samples from Colombo/PR, and twelve from Amazonas State were analyzed. The copaiba oil was fractionated in silica gel impregnated with KOH, esterified and the fractions were evaluated by TLC and GC. In a second stage, the crude oil was esterified with diazomethane or transesterified with KOH/MeOH and injected in GC. The diterpene acids used for comparison were hardwickiic, copaiferolic and caurenoic and the 14-hydroxy-b-caryophyllene (caryophyllenol). The presence of copaiferolic acid was observed in all analyzed samples and caryophyllenol in 80% of the samples. Hardwickiic and caurenoic acids were absent in the samples from Paraná State, and respectively detected in 8.3% and 41.7%, of the samples from Amazonas. The obtained results indicate that the oil can be directly analyzed through GC after methylation with diazomethane, without previous fractionation. Also, an acidity index method proposed for copaiba oil analysis did not show to be reliable for the analyzed samples.