Association of OPRD1 polymorphisms with heroin dependence in a large case-control series

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Australia National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia Burnet Institute, Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Australia.
Addiction Biology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 04/2012; 19(1). DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00445.x
Source: PubMed


Genes encoding the opioid receptors (OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1) are obvious candidates for involvement in risk for heroin dependence. Prior association studies commonly had samples of modest size, included limited single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coverage of these genes and yielded inconsistent results. Participants for the current investigation included 1459 heroin-dependent cases ascertained from maintenance clinics in New South Wales, Australia, 1495 unrelated individuals selected from an Australian sample of twins and siblings as not meeting DSM-IV criteria for lifetime alcohol or illicit drug dependence (non-dependent controls) and 531 controls ascertained from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in proximity to the maintenance clinics. A total of 136 OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1 SNPs were genotyped in this sample. After controlling for admixture with principal components analysis, our comparison of cases to non-dependent controls found four OPRD1 SNPs in fairly high linkage disequilibrium for which adjusted P values remained significant (e.g. rs2236857; OR 1.25; P = 2.95 × 10(-4) ) replicating a previously reported association. A post hoc analysis revealed that the two SNP (rs2236857 and rs581111) GA haplotype in OPRD1 is associated with greater risk (OR 1.68; P = 1.41 × 10(-5) ). No OPRM1 or OPRK1 SNPs reached more than nominal significance. Comparisons of cases to neighborhood controls reached only nominal significance. Our results replicate a prior report providing strong evidence implicating OPRD1 SNPs and, in particular, the two SNP (rs2236857 and rs581111) GA haplotype in liability for heroin dependence. Support was not found for similar association involving either OPRM1 or OPRK1 SNPs.

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Available from: Louisa Degenhardt, Jan 09, 2014
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    • "In a study of 11 OPRD1 SNPs, three common SNPs (rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951) and a haplotype block composed of SNPs rs204055, rs2236857 and rs2298896 showed association with heroin addiction (Levran et al., 2008). OPRD1 SNPs rs1042114, rs2234918, and rs581111 have also been linked with opioid addiction (Bauer et al., 2015; Nelson et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2008). As in earlier work, we found an association with the A allele in rs740603 within COMT with improved NAS outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is significant variability in the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to in-utero opioid exposure. We wanted to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key candidate genes contribute to this variability. Full-term opioid-exposed newborns and their mothers (n=86 pairs) were studied. DNA was genotyped for 80 SNPs from 14 genes utilizing a custom designed microarray. The association of each SNP with NAS outcomes was evaluated. SNPs in two opioid receptor genes in the infants were associated with worse NAS severity: (1) The PNOC rs732636 A allele (OR=3.8, p=0.004) for treatment with 2 medications and a longer hospital stay (LOS) of 5.8 days (p=0.01), and (2) The OPRK1 rs702764 C allele (OR=4.1, p=0.003) for treatment with 2 medications. The OPRM1 rs1799971 G allele (β=-6.9 days, p=0.02) and COMT rs740603 A allele (β=-5.3 days, p=0.01) were associated with shorter LOS. The OPRD1 rs204076 A allele in the mothers was associated with a longer LOS by 6.6 days (p=0.008). Results were significant point-wise but did not meet the experiment-wide significance level. These findings suggest that SNPs in opioid receptor and the PNOC genes are associated with NAS severity. However, further testing in a large sample is warranted. This has important implications for prenatal prediction and personalized treatment regimens for infants at highest risk for severe NAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Drug and alcohol dependence
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    • "However, the functional consequence of this SNP still remains to be elucidated. The non-synonymous OPRD1 SNP rs1042114, which was associated with opioid dependence risk in an European American study population [24], was not found to be positively associated with opioid dependence in our study (nor in the study of Nelson and co-workers [23]). "
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    ABSTRACT: It is becoming increasingly evident that genetic variants contribute to the development of opioid addiction. An elucidation of these genetic factors is crucial for a better understanding of this chronic disease and may help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. In recent years, several candidate genes were implicated in opioid dependence. However, most study findings have not been replicated and additional studies are required before reported associations can be considered robust. Thus, the major objective of this study was to replicate earlier findings and to identify new genetic polymorphisms contributing to the individual susceptibility to opioid addiction, respectively. Therefore, a candidate gene association study was conducted including 142 well-phenotyped long-term opioid addicts undergoing opioid maintenance therapy and 142 well-matched healthy controls. In both study groups, 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms predominantly located in pharmacogenetic candidate genes have been genotyped using an accurate mass spectrometry based method. The most significant associations with opioid addiction (remaining significant after adjustment for multiple testing) were observed for the rs948854 SNP in the galanin gene (GAL, p = 0.001) and the rs2236861 SNP in the delta opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, p = 0.001). Moreover, an association of the ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCB1) variant rs1045642 and the Mu Opioid receptor (OPRM1) variant rs9479757 with opioid addiction was observed. The present study provides further support for a contribution of GAL and OPRD1 variants to the development of opioid addiction. Furthermore, our results indicate a potential contribution of OPRM1 and ABCB1 SNPs to the development of this chronic relapsing disease. Therefore it seems important that these genes are addressed in further addiction related studies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Addiction susceptibility and treatment responsiveness are greatly influenced by genetic factors. Sequence variation in genes involved in the mechanisms of drug action have the potential to influence addiction risk and treatment outcome. The opioid receptor system is involved in mediating the rewarding effects of cocaine and opioids. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) has traditionally been considered the primary target for opioid addiction. The MOR, however, interacts with and is regulated by many known MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs), including the δ-opioid receptor (DOR). Methods: The present study evaluated the contribution of OPRD1, the gene encoding the DOR, to the risk of addiction to opioids and cocaine. The association of OPRD1 polymorphisms with both opioid addiction (OA) and cocaine addiction (CA) was analyzed in African American (OA n=336, CA n=503) and European American (OA n=1007, CA n=336) populations. Results: The primary finding of this study is an association of rs678849 with cocaine addiction in African Americans (allelic p=0.0086). For replication purposes, this SNP was analyzed in a larger independent population of cocaine addicted African Americans and controls and the association was confirmed (allelic p=4.53 × 10(-5); n=993). By performing a meta-analysis on the expanded populations, the statistical evidence for an association was substantially increased (allelic p=8.5 × 10(-7)) (p-values non-FDR corrected). Conclusion: The present study suggests that polymorphisms in OPRD1 are relevant for cocaine addiction in the African American population and provides additional support for a broad role for OPRD1 variants in drug dependence.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Drug and alcohol dependence
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