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Wild marine organisms have been used in the discovery and development of traditional and allopathic medical treatments for a long time. Seahorses, a syngnathidae fish, are one of the important candidate organisms which have been used in Chinese traditional medicine from time immemorial. It is believed that seahorses have the potential to cure infertility, baldness, asthma and arthritis. An authentic research work on the biomedical validation of seahorses proved that they have the ability to cure arthritis and its associated inflammation. A Cathepsin-derived peptide from the seahorse species of Hippocampus kuda proved to be effective in chondrocyte cells and its associated impaired arthritis inflammation. Apart from this, seahorses have a putative free radical scavenging effect in controlling the ageing process. More authentic research is needed in order to validate the biomedical potential. This article highlights the role of seahorses’ value in traditional medicine and their biomedical properties.
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Seahorses – A source of traditional
K. Kumaravel a , S. Ravichandran a , T. Balasubramanian a &
Leonard Sonneschein b
a Department of Marine Biotechnology, Centre of Advanced Study
in Marine Biology , Annamalai University , Parangipettai – 608502 ,
Tamil Nadu , India
b World Aquarium Conservation , St Louis , MO , USA
Published online: 24 Feb 2012.
To cite this article: K. Kumaravel , S. Ravichandran , T. Balasubramanian & Leonard Sonneschein
(2012) Seahorses – A source of traditional medicine, Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural
Product Letters, 26:24, 2330-2334, DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.662650
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Natural Product Research
Vol. 26, No. 24, December 2012, 2330–2334
Seahorses – A source of traditional medicine
K. Kumaravel
, S. Ravichandran
*, T. Balasubramanian
and Leonard Sonneschein
Department of Marine Biotechnology, Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology,
Annamalai University, Parangipettai – 608502, Tamil Nadu, India;
World Aquarium
Conservation, St Louis, MO, USA
(Received 29 July 2011; final version received 3 November 2011)
Wild marine organisms have been used in the discovery and development of
traditional and allopathic medical treatments for a long time. Seahorses, a
syngnathidae fish, are one of the important candidate organisms which have been
used in Chinese traditional medicine from time immemorial. It is believed that
seahorses have the potential to cure infertility, baldness, asthma and arthritis.
An authentic research work on the biomedical validation of seahorses proved
that they have the ability to cure arthritis and its associated inflammation. A
Cathepsin-derived peptide from the seahorse species of Hippocampus kuda proved
to be effective in chondrocyte cells and its associated impaired arthritis
inflammation. Apart from this, seahorses have a putative free radical scavenging
effect in controlling the ageing process. More authentic research is needed in
order to validate the biomedical potential. This article highlights the role of
seahorses’ value in traditional medicine and their biomedical properties.
Keywords: seahorses; traditional medicine; ageing; asthma; arthritis
1. Introduction
Intensive research since 1970s has proved that marine organisms are magnificent sources
of bioactive compounds. Marine organisms are collected for the discovery and develop-
ment of pharmaceutical drugs used in allopathic medicine (western medicine, evidence-
based medicine, and biomedicine). In recent years, many bioactive compounds have been
extracted from various marine animals such as tunicates, sponges, soft corals, sea hares,
nudibranchs, bryozoans, sea slugs and marine organisms (Donia & Hamann, 2003;
Haefner, 2003). Extracts from the collected organisms are tested for their effectiveness
against particular disease targets in a series of automated screens. If active, the compound
responsible is isolated and its molecular structure is determined by secondary testing done
on efficacy before the decision is made to subject the compound to preclinical and possibly
clinical trials. Very few compounds succeed in becoming commercial products; the process
can take 10–15 years (or longer) and can cost hundreds of millions of dollars (Munro et al.,
1999). Whilst tens (if not hundreds) of thousands of marine species have likely been
sampled, only about 20 marine compounds are currently in clinical trials. Removal of
marine organisms to supply this process can be broken into two types: primary collections
and secondary or re-collections. Primary collections are typically broad and speculative in
order to maximise the possibility of discovering bioactive compounds during screening
*Corresponding author. Email:
ISSN 1478–6419 print/ISSN 1478–6427 online
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(Cragg, 1998; Munro et al., 1999), whereas secondary re-collections are focused on supply-
ing a particular ‘bioactive’ species of interest to later tests during the drug development.
Hence, this article emphasises the biomedical properties of seahorses in a review aspect.
2. Biology of seahorses
Seahorses are bony fish (Teleosts) belonging to the family Syngnathidae. The family
Syngnathidae also includes pipefishes, pipehorses and seadragons. The primary taxonomic
groupings within this family reflect the location and development of the male brood
pouch, head/body axis, development of the caudal fin, and prehensile ability of the tail
(Herald, 1959; Kuiter, 2003; Wilson, Vincent, Ahnesjo, & Meyer, 2001). All seahorses
belong to one genus, Hippocampus. According to Lourie, Foster, Cooper, and Vincent
(2004), there are 32 known species of seahorses present world wide. Seahorses are found in
both temperate and tropical shallow coastal waters (5150 m depth), with a latitudinal
distribution from about 50north to 50south and with the greatest species diversity in the
Indo-Pacific (Lourie et al., 2004; Perante, Pajaro, Meeuwig, & Vincent, 2002).
3. Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM) is important
to the health care of millions of people worldwide (World Health Organization (WHO),
2002). TM/CAM comes in at least 125 recognised forms, including the codified systems of
traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, Unani and the unwritten ‘folk’ medicines
of the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region (WHO, 2002). The
majority of these were consumed in Asia, representing the practices of TCM, Hanyak,
Kanpo, Ayurverda, Unani, Jamu and other folk medicines, which is an absolute global
minimum, and identified several areas absent from the analysis such as the Middle East
and North Africa (Perry, 2000).
Relatively little is known about the status of many marine medicinal populations or
indeed the size and biological significance of the TM/CAM component of mortality. Due
to its vulnerability, 23 species of seahorses were listed in either Appendix I or II of the
Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). At present, all 13
seahorse species (genus: Hippocampus) identified in TM/CAM trade (Lourie et al., 2004)
are included in the IUCN Red List (six vulnerable and seven data deficient) and CITES
Appendix II (IUCN, 2003; CITES, 2004). Seahorses have been used in TCM for a long
time in various forms, such as dried seahorses.
3.1. Seahorses as a medicinal source
Seahorses are used as an ingredient in traditional medicine, particularly in Southeast Asia
where traditional Chinese medicine and its derivatives (e.g. Japanese and Korean
traditional medicine) are practised and have been used perhaps for about 600 years
(Vincent, 1996). Seahorses are credited with having a role in increasing and balancing vital
energy flows within the body, as well as a curative role for ailments such as impotence and
infertility, asthma, high cholesterol, goiter, kidney disorders, and skin afflictions such as
severe acne and persistent nodules (Moreau, Hall, & Vincent, 2000). They are also
reported to facilitate parturition and act as a powerful genital tonic and as a potent
aphrodisiac (Vincent, 1995, 1996). In Brazil, whole seahorses, H. reidi, are an important
medicinal resource used to treat asthma and gastritis (Alves & Rosa, 2006). According to
Vincent (1996), the Chinese generally regard the historical use of TCM as a testimony to a
product’s efficacy, and clinical trials are rare; but there have been 10 publications relating
to medicinal properties such as anti-ageing effects (Yu, He, & Chen, 1995), arthritis (Shi,
Natural Product Research 2331
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Yao, Bei, Zhu, & Wang, 2006) and improved immune responses (Qu et al., 1991; Zhang
et al., 2003). In the Philippines aquarium trade, ‘yellow’ seahorses are usually more
valuable than ‘black’ seahorses (Vincent, 1996). Until at least the eighteenth century,
seahorses were also utilised for their medicinal properties in many western countries, with
applications recorded back to 342 B.C. where they were reputed to have medicinal
properties with regard to baldness, leprosy, urine retention and rabies (Bellomy, 1969;
Vincent, 1996). Traditional Chinese medicine is recognised by the WHO as a valid form of
medicine and is accepted by more than one-quarter of the world’s population (Moreau
et al., 2000). Dried seahorse species that are predominantly used in TCM are Hippocampus
histrix, Hippocampus kelloggi, Hippocampus kuda, Hippocampus spinosissimus and
Hippocampus trimaculatus (Lourie et al., 2004; Vincent, 1996).
Seahorses proved to be a source of controlling aging process by possessing immense
antioxidants that are much evaluated from the seahorse species of H. kuda Bleeler (Qian,
Ryu, M.-M. Kim, & S.-K. Kim, 2008). The report shows that seahorses play a vital role in
scavenging activities in ageing phenomenon. In addition to these, seahorses have an
immense anticancer, antifatigue compound in them (Zhang et al., 2003). Recently, an in-
depth molecular analysis of an anticancer compound from seahorses was identified by
synthesising a novel phthalate derivative from the seahorse sp H. kuda Bleeler, which
immensely inhibits the Cathepsin-B – a lysosomal cysteine protease which is responsible
for the cause of many cancer cell growth and neurogenerative disorders.
In addition to this, an innovative class of anti-inflammatory peptide, isolated from the
seahorse H. kuda, exhibits characteristic effects against arthritis, which is a major
chondrocytic degenerative disease characterised by the degradation of articular cartilage
involving excessive degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and synovial inflammation
(Ryu, Qian, & Kim, 2010a). A peptide from the seahorse inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS
and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-activation, and induces human
osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation (Ryu, Qian, & Kim, 2010a). SHP-1, a novel
peptide isolated from seahorses, inhibits collagen release through the suppression of
collagenases 1 and 3, and regulates nitric oxide products by NF-kB/p38 kinase (Ryu , Qian,
& Kim, 2010a). Seahorses tend to be a very good nutritional supplement as these possess
essential amino acids and fatty acids. A nutritive analysis and proximate composition of six
seahorse species was done from the Chinese coast, and it reveals that the seahorse contains
medically important nutrients in the form of proteins and poly unsaturated fatty acids that
prevent cardiac problems (A. Lin, J. Lin, Lu, & Li, 2008). Apart from this, seahorses have an
efficacy of antimicrobial potence against some dreadful microorganisms, especially against
Klebsilla pneumonia (Kumaravel, Ravichandran, Balasubramanian, Siva Subramanian, &
Bhat, 2010). Hence, the traditional system of seahorse consumption is authentically proved
to have a biomedical value highly supported by this research outcome.
4. Conclusion
Seahorses are a leading drug candidate species for numerous diseases. They are a phar-
macological mine for various diseases such as cancer and impotence. Hence, a broad-based
analysis of seahorses should be done for evaluating the biomedical potential to come up
with an active drug compound from them.
The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Earth Science and Ocean Science Technology (MoES-
OASTC), Government of India, for extending their financial support for this research work.
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... The big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) is the largest seahorse species in the Syngnathidae family; it grows up to 35 cm in length [16]. Seahorses are exploited and traded for traditional Chinese medicine because of their medicinal value, including immunostimulatory, reno-protective, and anti-tumorigenic properties [17]. Seahorses are also popular for aquarium ornamental use owing to their unique curvaceous body structure with a horse-like head, male pregnancy, and perpendicular swimming [18]. ...
Cystatins are a diverse group of cysteine protease inhibitors widely present among various organisms. Beyond their protease inhibitor function, cystatins play a crucial role in diverse pathophysiological conditions in animals, including neurodegenerative disorders, tumor progression, inflammatory diseases, and immune response. However, the role of cystatins in immunity against viral and bacterial infections in fish remains to be elucidated. In this study, the cystatin B from big-belly seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, designated as HaCSTB, was identified and characterized. HaCSTB shared the highest homology with type 1 cystatin family members of teleosts and had three cystatin catalytic domains with no signal peptides or disulfide bonds. HaCSTB transcripts were mainly expressed in peripheral blood cells (PBCs), followed by the testis and pouch of healthy big-belly seahorses. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and Streptococcus iniae induced upregulation of relative HaCSTB mRNA expression in PBCs. Subcellular localization analysis revealed the distribution of HaCSTB in the cytosol, mitochondria, and nuclei of fathead minnow cells (FHM). Recombinant HaCSTB (rHaCSTB) exhibited potent in vitro inhibitory activity against papain, a cysteine protease, in a concentration-, pH-, and temperature-dependent manner. Overexpression of HaCSTB in viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-susceptible FHM cells increased cell viability and reduced VHSV-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that HaCSTB might engage in the teleostean immune protection against bacteria and viruses.
... However, given the harsh conditions required for seahorse breeding, industrial cultivation usually requires high costs, and overfishing may occur. Thus, despite the increasing economic burden of PCOS, the sources of hippocampus are limited, and there is a lack of evidence on whether hippocampus is indispensable for treating PCOS [20,22]. Therefore, we removed hippocampus from the KT1S to create the formulation Kun-Tai-1A (KT1A, KT1S without dry hippocampus) for comparing the treatments with and without hippocampus. ...
... Trade in live seahorses is as young as the international aquarium industry, catering to hobbyists all over the world, whereas the use of seahorses as traditional medicine has its roots in China [173,174]. With growing imports from other countries and Chinese consumers migrating to other countries, this market became larger and more international. ...
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Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) are threatened as a result of habitat degradation and overfishing. They have commercial value as traditional medicine, curio objects, and pets in the aquarium industry. There are 48 valid species, 27 of which are represented in the international aquarium trade. Most species in the aquarium industry are relatively large and were described early in the history of seahorse taxonomy. In 2002, seahorses became the first marine fishes for which the international trade became regulated by CITES (Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), with implementation in 2004. Since then, aquaculture has been developed to improve the sustainability of the seahorse trade. This review provides analyses of the roles of wild-caught and cultured individuals in the international aquarium trade of various Hippocampus species for the period 1997–2018. For all species, trade numbers declined after 2011. The proportion of cultured seahorses in the aquarium trade increased rapidly after their listing in CITES, although the industry is still struggling to produce large numbers of young in a cost-effective way, and its economic viability is technically challenging in terms of diet and disease. Whether seahorse aquaculture can benefit wild populations will largely depend on its capacity to provide an alternative livelihood for subsistence fishers in the source countries. For most species, CITES trade records of live animals in the aquarium industry started a few years earlier than those of dead bodies in the traditional medicine trade, despite the latter being 15 times higher in number. The use of DNA analysis in the species identification of seahorses has predominantly been applied to animals in the traditional medicine market, but not to the aquarium trade. Genetic tools have already been used in the description of new species and will also help to discover new species and in various other kinds of applications.
... Traditional Chinese medicine has long been familiar with medicinal preparations containing seahorse extract (Kumaravel et al., 2012;Chang et al., 2013). Among the products made from it, based on seizures, "Seahorse extract pills" represents one possible product. ...
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... Pharmacological studies on seahorses revealed various bioactivities such as anti-aging, anti-tumor, anti-fatigue and blocking of Ca 2+ channel [33,34]. For example, seahorses are well-known in traditional medicine for controlling the aging process as they have a free radical scavenging effect [35]. However, seahorses are listed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 2004, and they are recognized as the first commercially valuable marine genera to be protected [36]. ...
Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional ubiquitous protein that is widely presented in all cells in eukaryotes except erythrocytes. CRT is well known for diverse cellular functions such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specialized protein quality control during protein synthesis and folding, in-vivo Ca²⁺ homeostasis, antigen presentation, phagocytosis, wound-healing, proliferation, adhesion, and migration of cells. In the current study, we identified CRT from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCRT) and analyzed expression profiles and functional properties. The cDNA sequence of HaCRT was identified with an open reading frame of 1226 bp. The molecular weight of HaCRT was estimated as 49 kDa. The in-silico study revealed conserved sequence arrangements such as two CRT signature motifs (5′-KHEQSIDCGGGYVKVF-3′ and 5′-LMFGPDICG-3′), triplicate repeats (5′-IKDPEAKKPEDWD-3′, 5′-IPDPDDTKPEDWD-3′, 5′-IPDPDAKKPDDWD-3′), signal peptide and an ER-targeting 5′-KDEL-3′ sequence of HaCRT. Close sequence similarity of HaCRT was observed with Hippocampus comes from phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparison. From quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results, HaCRT was ubiquitously distributed in all tested tissues and expression levels of HaCRT were significantly modulated in blood, liver and gill tissues after stimulation with Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, and lipopolysaccharides. Bacterial- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns-binding activities were observed with recombinant HaCRT (rHaCRT). The treatment of murine macrophages with rHaCRT induced the expression of immune genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Furthermore, rHaCRT exhibited wound-healing ability. Based on the results from the above study, we suggest that HaCRT play an indispensable role in the immunity of big-belly seahorses by recognition and elimination of pathogens as well as the tissue repairing process.
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the age-related diseases and is highly present on the knees. Obesity and mechanical injuries as a risk factor of OA are attributed to cartilage disintegration, joint loading, and inflammation. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of seahorse protein hydrolysate (SH) on posttraumatic osteoarthritis in an obesity rat. The OA model was developed by anterior cruciate ligament transection with medial meniscectomy in a high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity rat model. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFD for 6 weeks before OA surgery. The OA rats were treated with oral gavage by 4, 8, or 20 mg/kg of body weight of SH for 6 weeks of treatment. The expressions of plasma proinflammatory factors, C-telopeptide of type II collagen, and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 3 and MMP-13 were reduced by SH treatment. Plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were enhanced by SH. SH also relieved the pain of the knee joint and swelling as well as decreased proteoglycan loss in the knee articular cartilage caused by osteoarthritis. Based on these results, SH suppressed proinflammatory factors and attenuated cartilage degradation and pain in the OA model. Therefore, seahorse protein hydrolysate might be a potential opportunity for improving the development of osteoarthritis.
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Hippocampus is an important traditional marine Chinese medicinal resource that has been used to warm and tonify kidney yang in the clinic for a long time in China. Modern pharmacological studies show that its active ingredients display a wide range of pharmacological activities associated with the kidney, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, and neuroprotective effects. Herein, we systematically summarize and analyze the research progress on the resource distribution, active ingredients, pharmacological activities, and clinical application of Hippocampus . First, the species and worldwide distribution of Hippocampus were assessed to clarify the existing resources, and the results showed that 44 species of Hippocampus have been found in 159 countries and regions worldwide. Then, based on the analysis of 16 kinds of active ingredients and extraction methods, the relationship between the ingredient extraction and pharmacological activities of Hippocampus was revealed. This review may provide a foundation for further research on the potential active ingredients and mechanisms of Hippocampus . In addition, the research status of traditional prescriptions containing Hippocampus was evaluated. The results implied that research on Hippocampus is still in its infancy, and the mechanism and material basis of its efficacy have not been clarified. This paper should provide directions for further studies on Hippocampus .
This study identified the bacterial community composition associated with Barbour’s seahorses (Hippocampus barbouri). Seahorses and samples from the surrounding environment (sediment and water) were collected from Cantiasay Island in Surigao del Norte, Philippines. Genomic DNA was isolated from these samples, and the V1‐V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. There were 929,803 sequence reads corresponding to 859 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were obtained from the six genomic libraries. The results showed that the most abundant OTUs were affiliated to the phylum Proteobacteria, particularly those belonging to the genera Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Aeromonas, which were found to be dominant in seahorse gut samples. The only exception was for the skin of male seahorses, which was dominated by members belonging to the genus Bacillus (phylum Firmicutes). These findings on bacterial community structure and composition may shed light on therapeutic claims of Barbour’s seahorses and help in the conservation of this species.
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The dominant approach to combating the illegal wildlife trade has traditionally been to restrict the supply of wildlife products. Yet conservationists increasingly recognise the importance of implementing demand‐side interventions that target the end consumers in the trade chain. Their aim is to curb the consumption of wildlife or shift consumption to more sustainable alternatives. However, there are still considerable knowledge gaps in our understanding of the diversity of consumer motivations in the context of illegal wildlife trade, which includes hundreds of thousands of species, different uses, and diverse contexts. We developed a typology of common motivations held by wildlife consumers that can be used to inform conservation interventions, based upon consultation with multiple experts from a diversity of backgrounds, nationalities, and focal taxa. We identified five main motivational categories for wildlife use: experiential, social, functional, financial, and spiritual, each containing sub‐categories. This framework is intended to facilitate more nuanced approaches to demand reduction, such as the tailoring of interventions — whether behaviour change campaigns, enforcement efforts, or incentive programmes — to the specific context in which they will be used. It is an important step towards producing a more systematic approach to designing demand reduction interventions that are more likely to succeed. Article Impact Statement: Understanding the motivations driving consumers of illegal wildlife products can inform the design of more effective interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The biochemical composition of six seahorse species from the Chinese coast was analyzed in this study. The crude protein content (% dry weight) of Hippocampus kuda, Hippocampus trimaculatus, Hippocampus kelloggi, Hippocampus spinosissimus, Hippocampus histrix, and Hippocampus comes was 70.70 6 2.12%, 77.59 6 1.06%, 78.31 6 1.74%, 71.15 6 1.32%, 68.07 6 1.96%, and 76.59 6 3.25%, respectively. The major amino acids (.5% of the total) in seahorses were arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and glycine, and there were significant differences in essential amino acids (EAA) (as % of total protein) among the six species (P , 0.05). The scores of EAA were balanced in the seahorse species, and the essential amino acid indexes of the six species were 41.63, 40.89, 44.84, 39.60, 39.31 and 45.45, respectively. The content of flavor-enhancing amino acids of the six seahorse species was generally high, ranging from 28.16 6 1.12% in H. histrix to 32.90 6 2.17% in H. kelloggi (P , 0.05). The total lipid content was generally low, ranging from 0.96 6 0.08% in H. histrix to 2.02 6 0.24% in H. comes. The most abundant fatty acid was C16:0, ranging from 15.04 6 0.67% in H. trimaculatus to 31.04 6 4.32% in H. spinosissimus. The combination of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as the fraction of the total fatty acids was high (0.14-0.35). The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 0.40 in H. kuda to 1.19 in H. histrix. The trace metal concentrations in the seahorses were generally low. The six seahorse species examined provide a food source for humans with low fat, high protein, good levels of EAA, and high beneficial trace elements. These results are valuable in developing diets for culturing seahorse species.
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Seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (SH) a marine teleost fish, is well known not only for its special medicinal composition and used as one of the most famous and expensive materials of traditional Chinese medicine. It was extracted with water (SHW), methanol (SHM), and ethanol (SHE), respectively and evaluated by various antioxidant assays. The including reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, alkyl radical scavenging, and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on mouse macrophages, RAW264.7 cell and inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in human myeloid, HL60 cells, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. Among SHM exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system, effective reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, alkyl radical scavenging, inhibitory intracellular ROS, and inhibited MPO activity. Furthermore, MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity on mouse macrophages cell (RAW264.7) and human cell lines (MRC-5, HL60, U937). This antioxidant property depends on concentration and increasing with increased amount of extracts. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the see horse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker) is a potential source of natural antioxidant.
Aim: Through analyzing the effect of Chinese herb on preventing periarthritis of shoulder, to guide the rehabilitation of periarthritis of shoulder. Methods: The diagnosis and treatment of periarthritis of shoulder based on overall analysis of symptoms and signs with Chinese herb were summarized, and the prevention and cure measures such as diet recuperation, medicined diet, Chinese formulated products, prescription, external treatment, functional exercise and daily health care were also summed up. Results: In traditional Chinese medicine, periarthritis of shoulder was divided into wind-cold-damp type, which was cured by expelling wind and removing cold, and activating meridians to stop pain; accumulation of blood stasis type, which was cured by promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis; deficiency of both qi and blood type, which was cured by supplementing qi and nourishing blood, dispelling wind and removing obstruction in the meridians. 2Diet recuperation included kudzuvine root, eel, seahorse and green turtle. 3Medicined diet covered boiling the egg with angelica, stewing chicken with mulberry twig, stewing chicken with membranous mikvetch root and angelica, mutton and angelica soup, ramulus cinnamomi and semen coicis porridge, curculiginis acanthopanax porridge, seahorse and wine, kudzuvine root and black bean wine, and astragali radix and angelica wine. 4Chinese formulated products included shenjin dan, wind and dampness relief tablet, dapsone, bilong qing'an tablet, Kunming shanhaitang tablet, fengtong an capsule, and qufeng zhitong capsule. 5 Prescription included yuzhu tang, qianghuo tang, guizhisiwu tang, huangqiguizhi tang, qufengzuanbi tang, sangzhiqianghuo yin, and qutantongbi yin. 6External treatment included hot medicated ironing, outside administration, shower, and plaster method. 7Functional exercise such as bending elbow and throwing arm, climbing the wall with fingers, stretching the hand behind the body, spreading the arms, stretching behind, combing the hair and so on was performed according to self condition. Conclusion: Chinese herb has standard diagnosed criteria and prevention measures in preventing and treating periarthritis of shoulder, which plays an important role in treatment and rehabilitation of periarthritis of shoulder.
In contrast to the majority of vertebrate species, primary male parental care is common in fishes and encompasses a remarkable diversity of adaptations. Seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae) exhibit some of the most specialized forms of paternal care in animals and so are ideally suited to the study of the evolution of male parental care. During mating, female syngnathids transfer eggs to specialized morphological structures that are located on either the abdomen or tail of the male. The male provides all postfertilization parental care and has morphological and physiological adaptations to osmoregulate, aerate, and even nourish the developing embryos. While all syngnathid species are adapted for paternal care, the brooding structure with which this is accomplished varies between species, from simple ventral gluing areas to much more complex structures such as the completely enclosed pouches of the seahorses. Our combined cytochrome b-, 12S rDNA-, and 16S rDNA-based molecular phylogeny of syngnathid fishes demonstrates that rapid diversification of male brooding structures has been associated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that development and diversification of structures involved in paternal care may have been key evolutionary innovations of the Syngnathidae. Molecular analyses also highlight geographical centers of biodiversity and suggest interoceanic migration of Syngnathus pipefishes from their center of origin in the Pacific.
Based on 16 months of field observations on tagged seahorses Hippocampus comes in the Philippines, adults were found to be nocturnal, to maintain small home ranges, and to live mostly among corals. Prolonged pair associations suggested that H. comes, like many other seahorse species, were probably monogamous, a conclusion consistent with their low density and sparse distribution. Site and mate fidelity suggest that H. comes populations may fare poorly under current high levels of exploitation. © 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.