Opinion Fullerenes are the third allotropic form of carbon, along with diamond and graphite, where carbon atoms are situated in vertices of the closed shells (cages) . Since their discovery in 1985, fullerenes have attracted an attention of scientists not only because of their unique and beautiful structure but also as the materials for possible applications in engineering and medicine. Lots of fullerenes with hollow carbon cages were synthesized and chemically functionalized. Biomedical effects of such "empty" fullerenes are mostly defined by the chemical groups attached to the fullerene cage [1,2]. Besides, there are the so-called endohedral metallofullerenes (EMF) molecules of which contain one or more atoms, among them lanthanides or heavy elements like Pb or Bi trapped inside the carbon cage [3,4]. The goal of this editorial is to summarize the ideas of using fullerenes for biomedicine and express our opinion concerning the prospects of their application for therapeutic purposes. The discovery of fullerenes has inspired the searching of novel fullerene-based drugs. Over the last three and a half decades, lots of so-called chemically functionalized fullerenes, with carbon cages containing up to 132 carbon atoms, were synthesized and tested in biomedical experiments. Some of these compounds have indeed displayed the beneficial medical effects, among them antioxidant properties and neuroprotective effects, healing tendencies against hepatitis C, antibacterial and anti-viral properties, even anti-HIV. There are the evidences regarding prospects of the fullerene derivatives in oncology and anti-aging medicine [2,5-15]. Some fullerenes, under the action of UV light, produce singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species and, thus, they can be used, for example, in the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Moreover, the beneficial effects of the fullerene derivatives against diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus) and Alzheimer disease were revealed in the experiments with rats [14,15]. Usual laboratory Wistar rats do not suffer from Diabetes Type II or Alzheimer disease, but the fullerene enthusiasm has apparently brought the Russian scientists out of the routine knowledge. Endohedral metallofullerenes also appear to have a considerable promise in biomedicine. It has been suggested that EMF with the appropriate particle-emitting radionuclides inside, among them β-emitting 89 Sr, 90 Y, 47 Sc, 64 Cu, 149 Pr, 153 Sm, 166 Ho, and 177 Lu show promise for radiation medicine while the advances in the molecular biotechnology provide targeting vectors to deliver therapeutic doses of the ionizing radiation with high specificity to the metastatic cancer cells thereby decreasing irradiation of healthy tissues . Recently, the radioactive Pb-EMF and Bi-EMF, with β-emitting 212 Pb and α-emitting 212 Bi inside the cage, and there malonic ester derivatives were prepared for the first time . The anti-cancer effects of 212 Pb, despite the favorable decay characteristics of this radionuclide, are usually limited because of the myelotoxicity resulting from accumulation of 212 Pb in the bone marrow. In the experiments with mice it was found that 212 Pb did not accumulate in the bone marrow after being administered within the endohedral fullerene, in contrast to the results with conventional poly amino carboxylate chelators for 212 Pb. The EMF molecules encapsulate radionuclides more stably and, thus, could potentially play a valuable role in radioimmunotherapy .