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A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction

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... Diante da possibilidade de tradução de conhecimento para o meio digital, ampliando a visualização e atualizando a plataforma de trabalho, este artigo apresenta parte dos resultados de uma pesquisa que propõe a união entre princípios da obra "A Pattern Language" (ALEXANDER et al. 1977) e a tecnologia computacional paramétrica, buscando desenvolver modos de experimentação que tomam uma base teórica projetual consagrada e a traduzi-la de uma linguagem natural (escrita) para uma linguagem formal (computacional). ...
... O primeiro passo correspondeu à definição da problemática da relação entre forma urbana edificada, vida urbana, questões necessárias e presentes na obra A Pattern Language (ALEXANDER et al. 1977). Sua definição foi feita a partir da 'seleção dos patterns', fase a ser detalhada juntamente com o artefato metodológico no próximo tópico. ...
... A escala 1 denominada 'formato da edificação' atua a nível de edificação e tem como âncora o pattern #109 Casa longa e estreita (Long thin house). Nesse pattern, Alexander et al. (1977) discutem qual formato, dado um valor de área, é capaz de resultar em uma maior sensação de amplitude espacial (Figura 6). Embasando as decisões sobre as diversas maneiras de implantação edilícia em prol de uma melhor vivência urbana e abordando assuntos relacionados, os patterns '#37 Agrupamento de moradias' (House cluster), '#67 Área externa coletiva' (Common land) e o '#96 Número de pavimentos' (Number of stories) também fazem parte da escala 2, sendo que esse último faz uma conexão com a escala anteriormente descrita. ...
Article
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Computational design, specifically parametric modeling, has played an important role in reaching complex forms, optimizations and automations of design processes. In addition to using parametric technology as a tool to generate form, this article aims to discuss the potential of computational programming as a connection between theory and design activity. To illustrate that, this paper will present the methodology developed used to translate the work of the architect Christopher Alexander as a basis for the development of decision-making instruments that deal with the complexity between form and urban life. The paper will present the problem, the DSR method as an important reference, the application of the methodology for translating Alexander's patterns and finally the generic format of the steps, applicable for translation from other theoretical bases.
... One auspicious approach to address this RQ is the development of generic patterns. Patterns are reusable artifacts which address a problem within a certain context by providing a suitable solution (Alexander, 1977). In this context, patterns can represent templates for IoT-based BPIs and are reusable for different kinds of industrial organizations (Forster, 2006). ...
... Patterns, initially described by Alexander (1977), describe a recurring problem or challenge in the real world and the basic features of the solution to this problem. This solution is generic enough to be applied to many similar problems without ever being implemented in exactly the same way. ...
... This solution is generic enough to be applied to many similar problems without ever being implemented in exactly the same way. Although Alexander (1977) created this definition in the context of architecture, the idea of patterns is transferable to other domains, especially information systems research (Gamma, 1994). In the context of enterprise and systems modeling, Fowler (1996) described patterns as an idea that has been useful in one practical application and is likely to be useful in others. ...
Conference Paper
The number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is constantly growing across all areas of private and professional life. Especially industrial organizations are increasingly recognizing the IoT's disruptive capabilities and potential benefits for business processes along all value chain activities. In this regard, the integration of IoT technology into existing business processes enables valuable Business Process Improvements (BPI). However, it often remains unclear which BPIs can be expected by organizations and how the anticipated BPIs are realized in detail. Furthermore, the integration of IoT technology into existing business processes constitutes a major challenge caused by a lack of supporting methods, models, or guidelines. The paper at hand addresses this research gap by providing a metamodel that enables the illustration of generic IoT-based BPI patterns. It contains all relevant elements that are comprised by IoT applications with BPI propositions and can be used by industrial organizations as blueprints for conducting IoT projects. The metamodel development follows fundamental principles of design science research (DSR) and is extensively evaluated by deriving a first set of patterns from real-life IoT applications of three market-leading corporations. In addition, an expert survey is conducted to assess the metamodel's usefulness.
... Camillo Sitte deduced that a successful plaza must be centrally located to other buildings as people preferred enclosed spaces for public activities [8]. Christopher Alexander in his book "Pattern Language » has listed over 250 design principles for architects and urban planners [9]. Cozy fireplaces are said to provide a sense of community [10]. ...
... Each island contained three rooms housing identical, intriguing geometrical objects to observe ( Figure 8). The scene was designed for studying pattern 110 from Christopher Alexander's book "Pattern Language" [9] about main entrances with the aim of comparing the observed behavior of the virtual user against expected behavior. This part of the experiment is not addressed here as it is beyond the scope of this paper. ...
Conference Paper
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Résumé : La réalité virtuelle (RV) peut être impliquée dans plusieurs aspects de la conception architecturale en raison de sa capacité inhérente à présenter des espaces en 3D d'une manière différente. Explorant une des facettes de cette technologie émergente, cet article examine certains des caractéristiques de la RV basée sur le Web et explique pourquoi elle est particulièrement bien adaptée pour constituer un outil de recherche sur les comportements pour le processus de conception architecturale. Cet article décrit un prototype de RV Web développé à l'aide de Rhino 3d, Grasshopper et VR Edge. Ce prototype est ensuite mis en oeuvre avec succès dans le cadre d'une expérience avec 10 participants. L'article présente également les données spatio-temporelles et leru visualisation. Enfin, des orientations futures, concernant des domaines de recherche et d'amélioration, sont discutées.] [Abstract: Virtual reality is being involved in various aspects of architectural design owing to its inherent ability to present 3d spaces in an unparalleled way. Exploring another facet of this emerging technology, this paper investigates some of the attributes of web-based VR and makes an argument for why it is particularly well suited to be utilized as a behavioral research tool in the architectural design process. A Web VR prototype developed using Rhino 3d, Grasshopper and VR Edge is outlined. The prototype is then successfully demonstrated in an experiment with 10 participants where spatiotemporal data was collected and the visualized data is illustrated. Finally, future directions including areas of further research and improvement are discussed.] 2/21 Figure 1-Illustration of the proposed idea-Behavior analysis of architectural designs using Web VR.
... The coding at the heart of any process tracing is a taxonomy of cognitive -related categories that are used for encoding the transcribed data (Patrick and James, 2004) hence the process of co ding is unique to the action sequences under investigation. Alexander (1977) and Dearden & Finlay (2006) observe that the character of human work emerges from the repetitive patterns of behaviour. Hence a key component of this study is the analysis and representation through modelling of the patterns found within the radiologists reporting workflow. ...
... • Bounded Rationality: The workflow activities and underlying cognition are significantly structured and limited by the information related to the clinical context, the functionality of the workstation, and the habits of the reporting clinician. • Process Tracing: The decomposition of action sequences via process tracing is a common method used to evaluate the emergent characteristics of human work (Alexander, 1977;Patrick and James, 2004;Dearden & Finlay 2006), and can be combined with eye -tracking techniques to capture the dynamics of attention during work processes. • Mental Workload: There is a broad set of literature on the measurement of mental workload and cognitive load, but much of it is either context specific or micro-cognitive in nature (Tao et al, 2019). ...
Thesis
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The success of modern medical imaging systems has created a data overload problem, here an ever-increasing number of examinations, generate more images per study, which all need to be evaluated by radiologists or other reporting practitioners. This operational bottleneck has the potential to create fatigue and burnout due to the high mental workload that is required to keep up with the demand. The focus of this problem centres around the cognitive complexity of the radiology reporting workflow, and the associated workstation interactions involved in diagnostic report generation. This thesis asserts that the only way to truly understand and resolve the radiology data overload problem, is by developing a situated method for observing the reporting workflow that can evaluate the behaviours of the reporting clinicians in relation to their authentic reporting context. To this end, this study has set out to develop a new approach for observing and analysing the cognitive activities of the reporters relative to the demands of their genuine working environment, and supported through the application of a Critical Realist’s perspective to naturalistic workplace observations. The final workflow evaluation of the case studies demonstrated that activities such as error correction, and the collection of supporting radiological information from previous studies is complex, time consuming and cognitively demanding. These types of activities are characterised by long, low utility actions that correspond to what Kahneman refers to as “Thinking Slow”. Also, the participants appeared to be self-optimising their workflow via a sparse use of complex functionality and system tools. From these observations, the author recommends that any intervention that can reduce the number and the duration of the object related actions used to produce radiology reports, will reduce cognitive load, increase overall efficiency, and go some way to alleviate the data overload problem. This study establishes a new set of situated techniques that are able to capture and quantify the complex dynamic activities that make up the radiology reporting workflow. It is hoped that the ability to distil useful and impactful insights from the user’s workstation behaviours can be used as the basis for further development in the area of workflow analysis and redesign, which will ultimately improve the working lives of Radiologists and other Reporting Clinicians. Lastly, the generic nature of these techniques make them amenable for use within any type of complex sociotechnical human factors study related to the cognitive efficiency of the user.
... Such a limitation allows to limit the conclusions from the study only to the composition of window openings. These should be considered both as a pattern (according to Alexander's theory [1]) and as a component of architecture as a multi-layer composition [2] with an influence on the aesthetics of the whole building. ...
... Naturally, each architectural object is a complex being, but each of its components influences the perception of the whole. This approach to the multi-element nature of architecture is reflected in the pattern language proposed by Christopher Alexander [1]. According to the authors, one of the most important patterns is the composition of architectural elements, such as window openings, balconies or elevation panels, because the way the same elements are arranged on the same facade causes its perception to be completely different. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine the preferences of Polish society towards building facades depending on the degree of the composition regularity of the facade elements. The subject matter is inspired by the authors’ observations in relation to the current architectural trends. The purposefulness of the conducted research results from several issues. Firstly, the reports of psychology and neurosciences clearly indicate the universality of certain preferences towards visual attributes of objects (e.g., in relation to abstract symmetric patterns), resulting from biological conditions. Secondly, residential, multi-family architecture is by definition designed for a wide group of anonymous users whose expectations must be met. One of the dimensions of the above-mentioned expectations is the visual dimension, partially dependent on the composition of the facade. In the course of the conducted research, it is shown that facades with a regular composition are assessed as more attractive than those with irregular compositions. Moreover, irregular facades evoked a negative effect of a significantly greater force than the positive effect in the case of regular facades. The above-described discoveries shed, in the authors’ opinion, a completely new light on the contemporary work of architects. It is extremely important to adapt the visual dimension of architecture to the expectations of its recipients, while taking care of its values and quality as a field of art.
... Patterns are developed based on experience and observations providing a tool to transform tacit knowledge into explicit one. For simplicity and clarity, design patterns must follow the same format [41]. ...
... In addition to their application in architecture [41] and software engineering [42], design patterns are also used in management [43]. In business modeling, design patterns support the analysis of the logic of business model designs and the communication of archetypes [44]. ...
Conference Paper
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As more and more organizations reach the limits of their internal capabilities to deal with the challenges induced by digital transformation, they are increasingly forced to seek external digitalization opportunities. In particular, small and medium enterprises are affected by this due to their limited human and financial resources. Currently, there is a lack of overview of options considering limited internal digital capabilities and resources. Thus, we choose an action design research approach to develop an external digitalization activity navigator. As a result, we derive five design principles for successful navigation and 30 activities, which are presented as design pattern cards. Our work can help practitioners and scholars alike to structure external digitalization activities.
... a determinada linguagem local. Considerando Alexander et. al, (1977) e suas afirmações quanto a existência de padrões e linguagens compositivas, o autor enfatiza que todos os atos de construção no espaço são governados por uma linguagem de padrões de algum tipo, que infere formas geométricas no espaço, por meio de ações comuns moldadas por um povo (ALEXANDER et. al, 1977). Aponta ainda que, a linguagem é, portanto, como uma semiologia, é o sistema genético que confere poder a pequenos atos para que estes formem um todo e que evolui constantemente. Contudo, é possível notar que, com o passar dos anos, a linguagem intrínseca dos lugares pode sofrer alterações, evoluções ou descaracterização, conforme a pró ...
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The fishing villages of the Santa Catarina state, in Southern Brazil, have been suffering from a process of transformation that accompanies the replacement of the activities related to artisanal fishing in order to insert the dynamics of tourism. Aiming to preserve the underlying logic responsible for generating these self-built settlements, a shape grammar was elaborated and implemented in a visual programming environment to test its efficiency in reproducing the compositional language of the villages. The method involved the historical context and constructive typologies analysis, which made it possible to extract the corresponding rules regarding the spatial configuration of the corpus. The result emerged as a descriptive grammar, which later was implemented in a parametric modeling environment, algorithms in C# were used to generate the compositions with the aid of computational strategies based on random numbers, stochastic research and object-oriented programming.
... The "tacit dimension" goes by many names, including "working knowledge" (Harper, 1987), "practical" knowledge (Archer & Archer, 2000), "know-how" (Ryle, 2009), and "knowing-how" (Harris, 2007;Pavese, 2021). Tacit knowledge is found in everything from sports (Jakubowska, 2017;Nyberg, 2014) and artistic performance (Kaastra, 2016) to architecture (Alexander, 1977), medicine (Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999), and science itself (Brock, 2017), and it is seen in contexts ranging from traditional crafts (Marchand, 2008) to the professions (Sternberg & Horvath, 1999) and organizations (Baumard, 1999) of the modern world. ...
Preprint
A wide variety of cultural practices take the form of "tacit" knowledge, where the rules and principles are neither obvious to an observer nor known explicitly by the practitioners. This poses a problem for cultural evolution: if beginners cannot simply imitate experts, and experts cannot simply say or demonstrate what they are doing, how can tacit knowledge pass from generation to generation? We present a domain-general model of "tacit teaching", that shows how high-fidelity transmission of tacit knowledge is possible. It applies in cases where the underlying features of the practice are subject to interacting and competing constraints, as is expected both in embodied and in social practices. Our model makes predictions for key features of the teaching process. It predicts a tell-tale distribution of teaching outcomes: some students will be nearly perfect performers while others receiving the same instruction will be disastrously bad. This differs from most mainstream cultural evolution models centered on high-fidelity transmission with minimal copying errors, which lead to a much narrower distribution where students are mostly equally mediocre. The model also predicts generic features of the cultural evolution of tacit knowledge. The evolution of tacit knowledge is expected to be bursty, with long periods of stability interspersed with brief periods of dramatic change, and where tacit knowledge, once lost, becomes essentially impossible to recover.
... Ch. Alexander et al. [39] provided two patterns of urban development that could provide for an understanding authenticity. These are "Holy Ground" and "Sacred Land". ...
Article
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The article focuses on the phenomenon of myth, which cannot be seen and may not even exist based on empirical evidence, although it can function as a long-lasting wave inceptor, as demonstrated in numerous cases in history. The singular presence of myth has no linear time, and the way to approach the concealed mythic meaning that is beyond tales, oral traditions or ritual practices is based on language and narrative. Narrative is how myth manifests itself in the temporal layers of discourse through collective decision-making processes within cultures and in places. The urban cultural heritage seems to be a promising source of understanding of what sort of narrative history has been telling. We emphasize that the closest possible approach to the permanence of myth lies in this subtle between-epoch or between-generational moment wherein the discourse alters. The hermeneutics of repetition within alteration processes is what could be called the narrative of cultural heritage in towns and cities. Development of the physical heritage properties has been touched by a variety of agents, and therefore it must have gathered a nearly unlimited amount of explicit and implicit knowledge. The research further demonstrates how the myth-narrative-discourse interaction affects our understanding of the authenticity of heritage objects, shifting towards a permanent pervading authenticity which could be intensive or extensive in the tangible realm. The case of Šiluva is discussed in order to explain how myth can be used practically in placemaking.
... In the past, biophilic design was used consciously or unconsciously to ensure that people are positively affected psychologically and physiologically by imitating the communication with nature in built spaces to contribute to people. For example, as the architectural theorist Christopher Alexander states in his book "A Pattern Language" published in 1977, reflecting and transporting the pattern language of nature to the built environment makes people feel more alive and more human (Alexander, 1977). Nowadays, Biophilic Design applications are discussed by designers in order to exhibit this approach in their designs consciously and to affect the users better in a physiological context. ...
Article
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Purpose In recent years, design approaches that offer sustainable solutions have been preferred widely. Although these sustainable design approaches provide solutions for physical context, they are not able to solve the problems on psychological side of this situation. These psychological problems have been observed both on adults and children. This research aims to examine the benefits of enabling children who spend their time in built environments to experience nature through Biophilic Design. Methodology 140 children between the ages of 3 and 5 from two different pre-school institutions participated in the study. Participation criteria were to be volunteer, a pre-school student, and accessible. The pictures drawn by the children in reply to the question ‘What is nature like?’ were analysed by using content analysis and cognitive mapping method. The data obtained from the study were analysed and the results were presented as median, mean values ± standard deviations (SD), numbers, and percentages. The compliance of the total score to normal distribution according to age and gender independent variables was examined by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Non-parametric tests were used in the analysis, p
... Though some mo dels seem quite general, they have poor interoperability with others, for example, the value of computational systems such as those within EBO and Lanchester models is siloed from the insights within information flow and decision -making models. Though some work has been done elsewhere to map heuristics and narrative models to computational frameworks in gray zone and narrative warfare through the use of "pattern languages" [63], or collections of practice and risk heuristics which can be layered into EBO -like frameworks, it isn't apparent that any substantial work has been done to generalize this approach to conflict in general [32]. ...
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In this paper, we integrate conflict studies with Active Inference, a developing framework which provides an integrative and systems-level perspective on cognition and behavior. This formalization, the Active Inference Conflict (AIC) model, situates conflict in terms of a multiscale process of communication, trust, and relationship management enacted by interacting entities. The AIC model helps capture and extend the insights of previous models applied to aspects of conflict and war, such as OODA loops (obs erve-orient-decide-act), the generations of warfare model, and the Rumsfeld Matrix. The AIC model aids in the analysis of pertinent aspects of modern conflict, such as cyber, psychological, biological, informational, financial, and ideological conflict, that are not amenable to coherent or consistent analysis using traditional models of human conflict. AIC is demonstrated to be of use in both monitoring and studying conflict, as well as in designing systems intended to facilitate controlled or managed confl ict in scenarios characterized by business, operations, legal, technical, and social (BOLTS) components. Insights and implications from qualitative use are used as a foundation for offering recommendations for future research and social systems design.
... In the tradition of Alexander (1977), Lawrence offers a response to this cultural crisis by asking the reader to join his intellectual journey, founded on the principles of human ecology, of deconstructing a range of urban systems through the lens of human-nature relations. In doing so, the author joins a long tradition of scholars reclaiming the role of nature in cities but goes further, to argue that the endgame for built-environment professionals is to maximize this endeavor as a means to an end. ...
... Even though a pattern template can be reused as often as desired, it must be adapted to these connections. [Ale77] This results in the definition for patterns as follows: ...
Thesis
We are living in a connected world. In line with this trend, more and more devices have to be connected and communicate automatically. Through these new requirements the IoT emerged. The usage in industry, smart cities and agriculture are only a few of the widely spread application fields. Next to these, the healthcare area is able to take advantage of this technology trend in form of the IoT-WD. The potential of IoT-WD is recognized by more and more stakeholders. Ambient assisted living (AAL), telecare including remote vital data monitoring and personalized wellbeing approaches, e.g. recommendations of fitness trackers, are only a couple of the possibilities for health-conscious people to take advantage of the IoT-WD. All these functions are made possible by the conjunction and cooperation of so-called things. However, next to above named advantages, IoT is endangered to include new safety and security risks since connected things bring hidden dependencies, and thus, possible dangerous impacts. Especially, IoT-WD has to deal with health-endangering vulnerabilities. Those range from manipulation of intimate data to life-imperiling endangerments of exactly those with a higher need of care, like infants or seniors. Thus, an identification and elimination of safety and security vulnerabilities as early as possible is essential. Since 50% of security flaws arise during the design phase, architecture approaches are needed to offer timely identification and prevention of negative impacts on human beings. IoT systems consist of many components, some of which are very small but nevertheless provide important functions, resulting in complex system models. A manual check for dangerous or harmful design decisions in these models is tedious and would include outdated data, because the monitoring process would be highly time-consuming. Since each IoT system is different, a unified and automated way to make review approaches universally applicable is needed. For this purpose, a unified IoT(-WD) meta model and an IoT layered architecture is developed with which IoT architectures can be modeled and analyzed on a reusable level. The meta model contains wellbeing specific components to optimally depict the critical areas, but focuses on modeling of safety and security relevant system aspects and is accordingly based on known IoT safety and security challenges. As mentioned above, weaknesses often arise in the design phase, in form of so-called design flaws, which could already be noticed at this point but often only become apparent in the fully implemented live system. Since expert knowledge is often not or only temporarily available during the system development lifecycle issues are not caught early on. For this challenge this dissertation develops a Pattern Recognition Framework (PRF) to present a by design approach for a structured and semi-automated flaw identification process which focuses on pattern respectively anti-pattern based expert knowledge preservation. Linked to this is the assessment of identified flaws, as without further analyses prevention or mitigation is not possible. Since impacts can be complex and ramified, the process has to be automated as well. An analysis cycle is presented to show the technical and quantitative impact of potential design flaws including wellbeing information for assessment. In addition, the cycle offers a design decision method to weigh up possible countermeasures and to plan an optimized architecture including the required new services. In order to benefit from already successful architecture analysis approaches, IoT usable analysis steps are abstracted and adapted for this purpose. Finally, the approach of this dissertation is undergoing a three-part evaluation: Related work-based, case study-based and scenario-based. It is evaluated whether the individual approach steps not only cover the current State-of-the-Art but also extend it. Accordingly, it is ensured that no aspects are omitted. An AAL use case, which includes a smart home for the elderly, applies the different steps of the approach by identifying and assessing design flaws to evaluate applicability. A generated performance use case is considered to demonstrate the scalability in large complex models. The scenario-based evaluation includes examination of quality characteristics adaptability, expandability, scalability and reusability.
... Nevertheless, to capture these practices for reuse, patterns can be used to describe proven teaching strategies. The pattern approach originally comes from architecture [1] and was later applied in education [2] and has been used to describe teaching-learning-scenarios in schools [8,10,9], and in tertiary education for technology-enhanced learning [3]. Patterns can also be stored in a pattern repository to build the data basis for reuse in teaching practice or on a learning platform. ...
Poster
Educational patterns capture the essence of best practices in teaching in a unified structure to enable easy reuse of successful teaching scenarios. Patterns can be described and collected in digital repositories, enabling the further use of pattern descriptions to integrate teaching scenarios on digital learning platforms. However, between the pattern description in a repository and the presentation as a learning scenario on the learning platform, an interface must enable an individual transformation of the patterns as bridge to the learning platform. The Common Cartridge standard offers a possibility to describe teaching scenarios for virtual learning platforms uniformly on an XML basis as packages. Although there are already several authoring tools for the visual design of Common Cartridges available, an application for converting educational patterns into learning packages is missing. This poster presents the concept and first insights of a tool as a web application that enables teachers to plan, design, use, and reuse digital teaching scenarios from educational patterns. While the development is still in its early stages, this poster presents initial findings and insights into the web application Common Cartridge Builder.
... In order the difficulties concerning the IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/1203/3/032003 2 seamless communication and movement of users in internal or external environments to be solved, it is investigated whether the creation of a communicative language based on visual communication is an important factor of operation ( Figure 1). [1]- [2] The ultimate goal is to help all users of indoor and / or outdoor environments through design innovations in the study of spatial signage both in architectural and visual communication so that accessibility and movement within them are easy. In general, the intended subject of the presentation is the "pure" reading of the space and directions of both the city and the public buildings, by their users, through the marking of space. ...
Article
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From prehistoric times, Signage was a means of visual communication helping people reaching out different environments (internal or external). Long before paper’s invention, humans made marks on objects, such as cave walls, in the surrounding environment, for their communication. As cities grew and mobility increased, making the built environment more complex, people requirements for better information concerning spatial perception and navigation, also grew. Thus, the necessity of proactive, systematically planned, visual unified signage and wayfinding programs have been emerged. Wayfinding is how people get from one location to another, including their information-gathering and decision-making processes for orientation and movement through space. Wayfinding design builds on research in cognition and environmental psychology to design built spaces and products that facilitate the movement of people through urban settings and individual buildings. Despite its demonstrated importance to building use, costs, and safety, wayfinding receives less than its due in planning, research and building evaluation. The aim of this study is to provide a “clear” reading of the environmental space and city’s routes to the users, through architectural wayfindig design. Also, architectural wayfinding design addresses built components, including spatial planning, articulation of form-giving features, circulation systems and environmental communication.
... Research on complexity theory of cities has found that to achieve a healthy urban environment, urban design and planning can encourage diversity, connectivity, resilience, and robustness (Batty, 2013;Barthelemy 2016). As Alexander (1977) states, one way of addressing this is to try to understand the underlying complexity and character of different places to better understand them. To help meet this task, we need to understand both the complexity of cities and the ways in which it could be generated through planning or design (Marshall, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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In urban morphology research, as well as in practice amongst urban design professionals, there is often the challenge to understand the different elements of urban form as three-dimensional processes and not only as two-dimensional forms of spatial information. The purpose of this paper is to undertake an initial critical analysis of the street as the basic unit of space in our experience of the city as a three-dimensional urban form. The richness of subject matter presented by cities and their nature of street form and configuration has given rise to an equal richness in methods of investigation. As such, this research develops a measure for assessing the physical complexity of the built environment by generating cross-sectional data of streets comparing different cities. The first aim is to demonstrate an automatic, scalable and reproducible method to measure and visualize street cross-sections, revealing spatial patterns that are of visual importance. The second is to identify the morphological properties shared by clusters of cases, understanding aspects of urban design and development form. Findings of this study reveal a taxonomy of street typologies through classification, offering a composite view in which different morphological approaches are combined and providing a better understanding of how urban streets constitute the set of spatial relationships that determine the morphological identity of cities.
... nieren, um daraus menschliches Handeln und soziale Interaktion zu motivieren.In der ersten Projektphase wurden die Spiele qualitativ beforscht, indem eine Vielzahl davon gespielt und die wiederkehrenden Spielelemente als Muster dokumentiert wurden. Dies geschieht in Anschluss an die aus der Architektur entlehnte Methodik der Architekturmuster (vgl.Alexander et al. 1977). Danach ist ein Spielelement eine in der Praxis bewährte Problemlösung für ein wiederkehrendes Entwurfsproblem (vgl. Björk und Holopainen 2005, S. 33). Um herauszufinden, welches motivationale Problem ein Spielelement löst, stellen wir uns für ein Spiel dieselbe Frage, wie sie sich eine Architektin für ein Haus stellt, dessen Statik si ...
Experiment Findings
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Wir arbeiten in einem Arbeitskreis mit Lehrenden und Studierenden mit einer Toolbox, die im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekt EMPAMOS - Empirische Analyse motivierender Spielelemente“ entstanden ist und bei dessen Weiterentwicklung wir mitwirken. Wir arbeiten dabei mit einem KI-basierten Ansatz, der uns auf dem Weg zu kreativen Lösungsansätzen behilflich ist.
... The cornerstone of the design pattern concept was laid down in the architecture domain by Alexander [4]. This concept was initially meant to focus on frequent problems faced by designers in order to offer a correct solution within a particular context. ...
Article
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User interface design patterns are acknowledged as a standard solution to recurring design problems. The heterogeneity of existing design patterns makes the selection of relevant ones difficult. To tackle these concerns, the current work contributes in a twofold manner. The first contribution is the development of a recommender system for selecting the most relevant design patterns in the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) domain. This system introduces a hybrid approach that combines text-based and ontology-based techniques and is aimed at using semantic similarity along with ontology models to retrieve appropriate HCI design patterns. The second contribution addresses the validation of the proposed recommender system regarding the acceptance intention towards our system by assessing the perceived experience and the perceived accuracy. To this purpose, we conducted a user-centric evaluation experiment wherein participants were invited to fill pre-study and post-test questionnaires. The findings of the evaluation study revealed that the perceived experience of the proposed system’s quality and the accuracy of the recommended design patterns were assessed positively.
... The principle of patterns was first proposed by Christopher Alexander in the construction field, as he proposed to document architecture designs in a way that documentation can be reused for other buildings [17]. In one of his books [18], he proposes a definition of patterns, commonly reused later by other researchers, that is the following (2): Definition 2. Each pattern describes a problem that occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice. ...
Preprint
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A software pattern is a reusable solution to address a commonly occurring problem within a given context when designing software. Using patterns is a common practice for software architects to ensure software quality. Many pattern collections have been proposed for a large number of application domains. However, because of the technology's recentness, there are only a few available collections with a lack of extensive testing in industrial blockchain applications. It is also difficult for software architects to adequately apply blockchain patterns in their applications, as it requires deep knowledge of blockchain technology. Through a systematic literature review, this paper has identified 120 unique blockchain-related patterns and proposes a pattern taxonomy composed of multiple categories, built from the extracted pattern collection. The purpose of this collection is to map, classify, and describe all available patterns across the literature to help readers make adequate decisions regarding blockchain pattern selection. This study also shows potential applications of those patterns and identifies the relationships between blockchain patterns and other non-blockchain software patterns.
... Rilley (1992) describes place attachment as an emotional relationship between people and places through cognitions, judgments, and decisions. According to Low and Altman (1992) place attachment and place identity are interrelated issues, since they are closely related to the issue of identity of individuals, groups, communities and cultures. Biological, environmental-spatial, psychological and socio-cultural factors are influential in the formation and maintenance of the sense of place attachment and place identity. ...
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The city is a place of memory. Buildings, monuments, roads, squares, green areas are important elements for the city. However, we cannot talk about soul of the city without urban memory. Urban memory is as a kind of collective memory that is constituted by individuals’ experiences within the place itself and through its history and social environment. Every society has a social memory. This social memory all events of human history they have lived hold in memory, record and transmit to future generation. The place of memory in social life and political culture has called attention to the various struggles over remembering and forgetting the past. The events the impact on people coming to city and by past events make empathy, allows to living in the moment. Wars create a big crack on people’s and their life as well as the city. This research is about collective urban memory and the politics of urban space in case of Halabja. The meaning of Halabja totally dealing with urban memory and urban space in the past and even today. It’s very important to issue this criteria and preserving memory that by developing of public memory on urban place, to know the city of Halabja, the effects of urban memory left in this city examine in detail and the people living there city with social relation was investigated. The chemical attacks and its effect on urban life, urban memory has been cleared out.
... Considerable research evidences the importance of regular contact with nature for health promotion and longevity (CABE, 2010;Edwards and Tsouros, 2008;Marcus and Sachs, 2014;Salingaros and Masden, 2008;Takano et al., 2002;Ulrich, 2008;Webster et al., 2014). Research document that urban design can promote health and longevity (Alexander et al., 1977;Antonovsky, 1996;Bell, 2012Bell, , 2017Corburn, 2009;Register, 2006;Wakefield and McMullan, 2006). Mouratidis (2021), after extensive literature review, listed the following categories of urban planning strategies for improving subjective well-being (SWB) in cities: integration of urban nature, easy access to socially inclusive public spaces, high-quality communal spaces, easy and equitable access to a diversity of facilities and services, active travel and public transport, development of information and communications technology, maintenance of urban spaces, noise reduction, aesthetic quality, socio-spatial equity, and knowledgeable evidence-based urban planning processes. ...
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... The CoM project (Hill, 2020) introduced three main considerations in approaching transdisciplinarity: (1) reducing the complexity of information, (2) reducing the complexity of combinations of possible solutions and (3), applying an accessible, applicable instrument for the solutions. This resulted in developing a pattern language following Christopher Alexander's seminal work (Alexander et al., 1977), integrating the three pathways. ...
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... In this case, a VR experience would not be concise when it is considered the central part of the presentation and takes a considerably high amount of the presentation's time. We utilize the second attribute, pattern-based, within this paper to describe when a VR experience's content is built from bestpractices from a specific domain (Alexander et al., 1977) such as educational design patterns (Fincher, 1999;Eckstein and Voelter, 2000;Bergin et al., 2012). For example, a VR experience based on a hypothetical use-case where two objects shall be compared, a compare-pattern, could contrast aspects of two 3D models by drawing annotation lines between comparable parts of the models, explaining how the aspects differ or relate to each other. ...
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... The concept of pattern comes from Alexander et al. (1977) that define it as "a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice" (p. x). ...
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... Design patterns originally came from the field of architecture and were established in the work of Alexander et al. [6], in which they support architects in the designing of houses and the planning of cities. In design, architects often face recurring problems to which proven solutions can be applied. ...
... The principle of patterns was first proposed by Christopher Alexander in the construction field, as he proposed to document architecture designs in a way that documentation can be reused for other buildings [17]. In one of his books [18], he proposes a definition of patterns, commonly reused later by other researchers, that is the following (2): Definition 2. Each pattern describes a problem that occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice. ...
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... The 'pattern' concept was coined by Christopher Alexander in the context of problems when designing towns, buildings or windows. For Alexander, a pattern is defined by the following characteristics [1]. ...
... Elaboración propia Los «nodos» a los que hace mención Salingaros, que tienden a aglutinar relaciones, tendrían una importancia fundamental en el desarrollo de la vida cotidiana, sin dudas correspondidas con valores propios de la configuración y características del espacio, y a su vez, como ámbitos de definición normativa de valorización y de establecimiento de un orden por parte de una comunidad. Justamente es ésta última variable la que no entra en consideración por dicho autor, quién, siguiendo a Alexander (1977), busca patrones espaciales independientes de las variaciones culturales que pueden presentarse en determinados lugares o momentos históricos. A pesar de ello, difícil resulta no acordar con la idea de nodo como espacio de confluencia, como una propiedad intrínseca de las dinámicas sociales. ...
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This paper presents the results of a Danish study on the scaling of the design approach of design pattern languages into the context of citizen-oriented health animation. We propose that the use of design patterns, and the development of an emerging pattern library of health animation patterns, can support the design of more informative and useful animations visualizing health information. We mapped 72 Danish citizen-oriented animation products into 23 design categories, including both form-related and content-related elements. We used the design pattern approach to systematize the state-of-art animations to enable an overview of approaches typically applied in health animation across different institutions, producers, and target audiences. We discuss how design patterns can be appropriated from previous uses in e.g. architecture and digital design into a health communication context, and through a pilot split-test we discuss both the benefits but also the limitations of using the design pattern approach to design new health animations.
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En la Introducción se habla de los arquitectos y su formación. En el capítulo 1 (Teoría) se hace una crítica al libro 'Complejidad y contradicción en la arquitectura' de Robert Venturi y se revisa el sentido de la teoría arquitectónica. En el capítulo 2 (Epistemología) se presenta la aproximación epistemológica sobre el diseño arquitectónico de Jaime Irigoyen y la noción de marco epistémico. En el capítulo 3 (Visiones) se revisa la distinción entre arte y diseño y la evolución histórica del marco epistémico y epistemológico que ha determinado la evolución social y arquitectónica desde el Renacimiento. En el capítulo 4 (Contradicción) se analiza la contradicción que surge en la arquitectura al comparar los criterios de diseño expuestos en los libros 'Arquitectura' (artísticos) y 'Arquitectura ecológica' (ecológicos y energéticos) de Francis Ching. En el capítulo 5 (Demolición) se cuestionan con un enfoque ecológico, energético y bioclimático los criterios que definen las "obras maestras" de la arquitectura contemporánea (desde el siglo XX) y se critica la cultura arquitectónica que tiene como modelo a Le Corbusier, a pesar de la reacción posmoderna. En el capítulo 6 (Complejidad) se presentan las definiciones de complejidad y sistemas complejos, discutiendo la conveniencia de su uso en la arquitectura, lo que conduce a los elementos de análisis que aporta la psicología ambiental en lo relacionado con la percepción del ambiente construido. En el capítulo 7 (Metodologías) se critica la manera como se generan los partidos arquitectónicos y se toman etapas de los métodos o procesos de diseño resumidos por la teoría del diseño y la ingeniería para proponer una metodología de diseño arquitectónico, teniendo como apoyo los métodos de investigación cualitativa de las ciencias sociales. En el capítulo 8 (Sachlichkeit) se justifica el uso del término alemán Sachlichkeit para orientar este enfoque arquitectónico, el cual busca el rendimiento, el sentido práctico y la objetividad de los proyectos, con base en criterios sustentados en la ecología, la energética, la entropía, la economía y la antropología (4E+A); también se discute la carencia de un término para nombrar la etapa que vivimos, posterior a la posmodernidad, y la necesidad de desarrollar un sentido existencial ético que oriente la disciplina. En el capítulo 9 (Posarquitectura) se presentan las conclusiones explicando el sentido del término posarquitectura y elaborando una propuesta sobre el papel del arquitecto, las posibilidades de su intervención, el carácter de su formación y el significado mismo del término arquitecto.
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