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Intelligence in childhood and risk of psychological distress in adulthood: The 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study

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Abstract

Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of severe psychiatric disorder, but it is unclear whether it influences risk of psychological distress due to anxiety or the milder forms of depression. The participants in the present study were members of two British birth national birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey (n=6369) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=6074). We examined the association between general cognitive ability (intelligence) measured at age 10 (1970 cohort) and 11 years (1958 cohort) and high levels of psychological distress at age 30 (1970 cohort) or 33 years (1958 cohort), defined as a score of 7 or more on the Malaise Inventory. In both cohorts, participants with higher intelligence in childhood had a reduced risk of psychological distress. In sex-adjusted analyses, a standard deviation (15 points) increase in IQ score was associated with a 39% reduction in psychological distress in the 1958 cohort and a 23% reduction in the 1970 cohort [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.61 (0.56, 0.68) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.83), respectively]. These associations were only slightly attenuated by further adjustment for potential confounding factors in childhood, including birth weight, parental social class, material circumstances, parental death, separation or divorce, and behaviour problems, and for potential mediating factors in adulthood, educational attainment and current social class. Intelligence in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress due to anxiety and the milder forms of depression in young adults. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this association may help inform methods of prevention.

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... In two British cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study, IQ in childhood was inversely associated with risk of psychological distress in individuals in their early 30's. In these two cohorts, Childhood IQ and scores on a the Malaise depression scale correlated − 0.11 and − 0.18, respectively (Gale, Hatch, Batty & Deary, 2008). The current study aims to expand these findings by testing for links between intelligence in youth and self-reports of mental health in an American cohort of adults around the age of 50. ...
... A small number of studies have also found some evidence that suggests there may be a positive correlation between IQ and increased risk of bipolar disorder (Gale et al., 2013;Higier et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2015) and mania in adulthood (Koenen et al., 2009). However, the current findings on depression diagnosis do deviate from the general trend in the literature which tends to find higher intelligence is associated with less mental illness (Der et al., 2009;Gale, Hatch, et al., 2008;Martin et al., 2007;Weeks et al., 2014). ...
... Childhood SES was found to explain at most a small part of the relationship between intelligence in youth and each of the mental health outcomes, which is similar to the results found in other studies (Der et al., 2009;Koenen et al., 2007;Gale, Hatch, et al., 2008;Martin et al., 2007;Weeks et al., 2014;Wrulich, Brunner, Schalke, Keller & Martin, 2014). This suggests that the relationship between intelligence in youth and mental health outcomes is not confounded by childhood SES. ...
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Background Few cognitive epidemiology studies on mental health have focused on the links between pre-morbid intelligence and self-reports of common mental disorders, such as depression, sleep difficulties, and mental health status. The current study examines these associations in 50-year-old adults. Methods The study uses data from the 5793 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY-79) who responded to questions on mental health at age 50 and had IQ measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when they were aged between 15 and 23 years in 1980. Mental health outcomes were: life-time diagnosis of depression; the mental component score of the 12-item short-form Health Survey (SF-12); the 7-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); and a summary measure of sleep difficulty. Results & conclusion Higher intelligence in youth is associated with a reduced risk of self-reported mental health problems at age 50, with age-at-first-interview and sex adjusted Bs as follows: CES-depression (B = − 0.16, C.I. − 0.19 to − 0.12, p < 0.001), sleep difficulties (B = − 0.11, C.I. − 0.13 to − 0.08, p < 0.001), and SF-12 mental health status (OR = 0.78, C.I. 0.72 to 0.85, p < 0.001; r = − 0.03 p = 0.075). Conversely, intelligence in youth is linked with an increased risk of receiving a diagnosis of depression by the age of 50 (OR 1.11, C.I. 1.01 to 1.22, p = 0.024; r = 0.03, p = 0.109). No sex differences were observed in the associations. Adjusting for adult SES accounted for most of the association between IQ and the mental health outcomes, except for having reported a diagnosis of depression, in which case adjusting for adult SES led to an increase in the size of the positive association (OR = 1.32, C.I. 1.16 to 1.51, p < 0.001).
... In two British cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study, IQ in childhood was inversely associated with risk of psychological distress in individuals in their early 30's. In these two cohorts, Childhood IQ and scores on a the Malaise depression scale correlated − 0.11 and − 0.18, respectively (Gale, Hatch, Batty & Deary, 2008). The current study aims to expand these findings by testing for links between intelligence in youth and self-reports of mental health in an American cohort of adults around the age of 50. ...
... A small number of studies have also found some evidence that suggests there may be a positive correlation between IQ and increased risk of bipolar disorder (Gale et al., 2013;Higier et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2015) and mania in adulthood (Koenen et al., 2009). However, the current findings on depression diagnosis do deviate from the general trend in the literature which tends to find higher intelligence is associated with less mental illness (Der et al., 2009;Gale, Hatch, et al., 2008;Martin et al., 2007;Weeks et al., 2014). ...
... Childhood SES was found to explain at most a small part of the relationship between intelligence in youth and each of the mental health outcomes, which is similar to the results found in other studies (Der et al., 2009;Koenen et al., 2007;Gale, Hatch, et al., 2008;Martin et al., 2007;Weeks et al., 2014;Wrulich, Brunner, Schalke, Keller & Martin, 2014). This suggests that the relationship between intelligence in youth and mental health outcomes is not confounded by childhood SES. ...
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Background: The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods: Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components - income, education, & occupational prestige - are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion: Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55-1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components-income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities.
... These results indicate that there is no over-riding demographic variable that can explain the increased affective symptomatology in siblings. A growing body of research indicates that higher levels of educational attainment can act as a protective factor against affective disorders (Bjelland et al., 2008; Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009); possibly with a cumulative effect as the individual ages (Bjelland et al., 2008). Gale et al. (2009) suggested that having a higher IQ meant it was less likely that the individual would experience socio-economic disadvantage, which can be indicative of affective disorders. ...
... hat can explain the increased affective symptomatology in siblings. A growing body of research indicates that higher levels of educational attainment can act as a protective factor against affective disorders (Bjelland et al., 2008; Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009); possibly with a cumulative effect as the individual ages (Bjelland et al., 2008). Gale et al. (2009) suggested that having a higher IQ meant it was less likely that the individual would experience socio-economic disadvantage, which can be indicative of affective disorders. However, despite lower educational attainment being predictive of depressive symptoms in those whose siblings had DUA, they had the second highest levels of SES and ...
... Lower intelligence in early life has 42 been found to be a risk factor for poor physical health [21] and 43 early mortality in adulthood [22,23] . Although research specifical- 44 ly regarding MDD is relatively sparse [24], there is evidence to 45 suggest that g is impaired in depression [25,26] with longitudinal 46 studies suggesting lower g in childhood or adolescence confers 47 vulnerability to psychopathology in adulthood [27][28][29][30]. 48 Psychological distress represents a cluster of emotional 49 symptoms linked to depression [31][32][33]. ...
... Longitudinal research suggests neuroticism has a strong, 56 direct effect on psychological distress [38]. Low childhood 57 intelligence strongly associates with increased psychological 58 distress in adulthood [27,39], which may precede MDD onset 59 [40]. However, this is not a universal observation, particularly in 60 studies accounting for socioeconomic status (SES). ...
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Background: Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Methods: Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS. Results: Neuroticism was strongly associated with increased risk for depression and higher psychological distress in both samples. Although intelligence conferred no consistent independent effects on depression, it did increase the risk for depression across samples once neuroticism was adjusted for. Results suggest that higher intelligence may ameliorate the association between neuroticism and self-reported depression although no significant interaction was found for clinical MDD. Intelligence was inversely associated with psychological distress across cohorts. A small interaction was found across samples such that lower psychological distress associates with higher intelligence and lower neuroticism, although effect sizes were small. Conclusions: From two large cohort studies, our findings suggest intelligence acts a protective factor in mitigating the effects of neuroticism on psychological distress. Intelligence does not confer protection against diagnosis of depression in those high in neuroticism.
... A study questionnaire at age 42 years inquired about drug use [17]. At 11 years, assessments included parental social class (father's most recent occupation, if no father then mother's) [18], housing tenure, household crowding, receipt of state benefits, and whether household amenities were shared, from which we constructed an index of material disadvantage [19]. Mothers completed the Rutter's Parental 'A' Scale of Behaviour Disorder [20], which we used to create measures of antisocial behavior and anxiety [19]. ...
... At 11 years, assessments included parental social class (father's most recent occupation, if no father then mother's) [18], housing tenure, household crowding, receipt of state benefits, and whether household amenities were shared, from which we constructed an index of material disadvantage [19]. Mothers completed the Rutter's Parental 'A' Scale of Behaviour Disorder [20], which we used to create measures of antisocial behavior and anxiety [19]. ...
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Purpose: high childhood IQ test scores have been associated with increased alcohol dependency and use in adult life, but the relationship between childhood IQ and illegal drug use in later life is unclear. Methods: participants were 6713 members of the 1958 National Child Development Survey whose IQ was assessed at 11 years and had their lifetime illegal drug use measured at 42 years of age. Results: in analyses adjusted for a range of covariates, a 1 SD (15-point) increase in IQ scores was associated with an increased risk of illegal drug use in women: ever using cannabis (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16–1.45), cocaine (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.21–2.27), amphetamines (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.22–1.83), amyl nitrate (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.30–2.46) and “magic mushrooms” (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.18–1.98). Associations were of lower magnitude in men. Conclusions: in this cohort, high childhood IQ was related to illegal drug use in adulthood
... Rozsáhlá longitudinální studie Scottish Mental Survey, která sleduje zdravotní stav dospělých lidí ve Velké Británii, poukazuje na úlohu intelektových schopností v dětství a následného vzdělání jako významných prediktorů pozdějšího zdravotního stavu. Výsledky tohoto výzkumu ukazují, že nadprůměrná úroveň kognitivních schopností v 11 letech významně snižovala pravděpodobnost hazardního užívání alkoholu (Leon et al., 2009) a riziko výskytu psychologického stresu (Gale et al., 2009). Především v souvislosti s vyšším vzděláním zvyšuje pravděpodobnost toho, že člověk se bude pohybovat v bezpečnějším pracovním prostředí (manuální pracovníci vs. kancelářské zaměstnání) (Deary et al., 2004). ...
... Proto častou součástí bývají charakteristiky indikující absenci problémů v socializačním procesu, nepřítomnost rizikového chování jako alkoholismus, předčasné rodičovství, trestná činnost (porušování zákonů) i méně závažné porušování pravidel. Mezi osobnostní charakteristiky, které ovlivňují úspěšnost nebo neúspěšnost socializačního procesu, patří nadprůměrné kognitivní schopnosti a celkový akademický úspěch v dětství: snižují pravděpodobnost projevu antisociálního chování (Gale et al., 2009) i riziko předčasného rodičovství (Rönka, Pulkkinen, 1998). Pokud jsou u dětí kognitivní schopnosti nižší, vedou především ve spojení s akademickým neúspěchem a nízkou školní motivací k maladaptivnímu sociálnímu fungování, jako jsou problémy s alkoholem nebo kriminalita (Fraser, 1997). ...
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The study first introduces two essential theoretical concepts of well-being: subjective wellbeing and psychological well-being. The main focus of the study is on the analysis of the links between personality and well-being. In agreement with the present views on personality domains, the relationships between well-being and personality traits, characteristic adaptations and personal narratives are examined. Of the personality traits, extraversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness have the closest associations with well-being. Characteristic adaptations like self-efficacy, goal progress and fulfilled aspirations have their own unique influence on wellbeing, but at the same time they are associated with personality traits and represent specific mechanisms through which personality traits affect well-being. The links between well-being and personal narratives are not as tight as in the case of personality traits and characteristic adaptations, but also narrative identity makes a specific contribution to well-being.
... 2,9 Lower IQ scores are predictive of higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and psychological distress. [10][11][12][13][14][15] Finally, lower IQ is associated with a greater risk of suicidal ideation and suicide mortality. 8,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Evidence from these studies is consistent with cognitive reserve theories, which posit that strengthened neural connections (presumably manifested by higher scores on IQ tests) not only protect against the development of psychiatric disorders but also attenuate the severity of disorders following onset. ...
... In terms of generalisability, it is important to re-state that these effects pertain largely to variation within the normal range of IQ; only 2% of the current sample would have been considered to have an intellectual disability. We did not find evidence for gender differences in the association between childhood IQ and the course of adult depression, 8,12,20 although such differences have been reported previously. 13,14,18 We found that performance IQ was more strongly associated with depression-related outcomes than verbal IQ. ...
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Background There is inconsistent evidence regarding the influence of general cognitive abilities on the long-term course of depression.AimsTo investigate the association between general childhood cognitive abilities and adult depression outcomes.Method We conducted a cohort study using data from 633 participants in the New England Family Study with lifetime depression. Cognitive abilities at age 7 were measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Depression outcomes were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews administered up to four times in adulthood between ages 17 and 49.ResultsIn analyses adjusting for demographic factors and parental psychiatric illness, low general cognitive ability (i.e. IQ<85 v. IQ>115) was associated with recurrent depressive episodes (odds ratio (OR) = 2.19, 95% CI 1.20-4.00), longer episode duration (rate ratio 4.21, 95% CI 2.24-7.94), admission to hospital for depression (OR = 3.65, 95% CI 1.34-9.93) and suicide ideation (OR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.79-8.02) and attempt (OR = 4.94, 95% CI 1.67-14.55).Conclusions Variation in cognitive abilities, predominantly within the normal range and established early in childhood, may confer long-term vulnerability for prolonged and severe depression. The mechanisms underlying this vulnerability need to be established to improve the prognosis of depression among individuals with lower cognitive abilities.
... Psychometric properties were evaluated using an expert panel to review the mapping, Cronbach's alpha, and measurement invariance by age and gender (Garcia-Barrera et al., 2011). A similar factor analysis approach has been used elsewhere to retrospectively measure intelligence, personality, and behavior factors (Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009;Prevoo & ter Weel, 2015;von Stumm, Gale, Batty, & Deary, 2009). These more complex methods address some of the key challenges faced with measuring ADHD in BCS70, including mapping items from an existing scale to an unmeasured construct, estimating with greater precision, and evaluating psychometric properties. ...
Article
Objective To facilitate future outcome studies, we aimed to develop a robust and replicable method for estimating a categorical and dimensional measure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders‐5 (DSM‐5) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). Method Following a data mining framework, we mapped DSM‐5 ADHD symptoms to age 10 BCS70 data (N = 11,426) and derived a 16‐item scale (α = 0.85). Mapping was validated by an expert panel. A categorical subgroup was derived (n = 594, 5.2%), and a zero‐inflated item response theory (IRT) mixture model fitted to estimate a dimensional measure. Results Subgroup composition was comparable with other ADHD samples. Relative risk ratios (ADHD/not ADHD) included boys = 1.38, unemployed fathers = 2.07, below average reading = 2.58, and depressed parent = 3.73. Our estimated measures correlated with two derived reference scales: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire hyperactivity (r = 0.74) and a Rutter/Conners‐based scale (r = 0.81), supporting construct validity. IRT model items (symptoms) had moderate to high discrimination (0.90–2.81) and provided maximum information at average to moderate theta levels of ADHD (0.5–1.75). Conclusion We extended previous work to identify ADHD in BCS70, derived scales from existing data, modeled ADHD items with IRT, and adjusted for a zero‐inflated distribution. Psychometric properties were promising, and this work will enable future studies of causal mechanisms in ADHD.
... 7 This observation is consistent with findings that lower scores on tests of intelligence in youth increase the risk of later diagnosis with depression or anxiety and of reporting symptoms of these disorders. [8][9][10][11][12][13] Reaction time and scores on other measures of processing speed are moderately highly correlated with intelligence such that people with higher intelligence tend to process information faster, 14 so it is plausible that processing speed might be a risk factor for the onset of psychological distress. In contrast to tests of intelligence, tests of reaction time are almost knowledge-free and performance on them is less likely to be influenced by education or socioeconomic status, and less prone to practice effects. ...
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Background: Cross-sectional studies have shown that depression is often accompanied by less efficient cognitive function, as indicated by slower speed of information processing. The direction of effect is unclear. We investigated prospectively whether slower processing speed, as indexed by longer simple or choice reaction time, is associated with an increased risk of psychological distress. Methods: Participants were 3088 men and women aged 18 and over who had taken part in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey. Simple and choice reaction time was measured in the baseline survey. Symptoms of psychological distress were assessed at baseline and at the 7-year follow-up survey with the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results: In unadjusted models, a SD slower simple or choice reaction time at baseline was associated with ORs for psychological distress (≥5 on GHQ) at follow-up of 1.14 (1.06 to 1.23; p<0.001) or 1.13 (1.04 to 1.22; p=0.002), respectively. Further adjustment for age, sex, social class, educational attainment, health behaviours, number of chronic physical illnesses present, neuroticism and GHQ score at baseline had only slight attenuating effects on these associations. In fully adjusted models, a SD slower simple or choice reaction time at baseline was associated with ORs for psychological distress of 1.11 (1.02 to 1.21; p=0.017) or 1.11 (1.00 to 1.24; p=0.048), respectively. Conclusions: Slower processing speed may be a risk factor for the development of psychological distress. Future studies should explore the extent to which slower processing speed explains previously demonstrated associations between lower intelligence and poorer mental health.
... CP is defined as the capacity for information processing, planning, intellectual organization, and behavior control (Li, O'Connor, O'Dwyer, & Orr, 2017;Lin et al., 2018). A low level of executive CP (percentile 40) during early ages (6-18 years) has been related to psychological distress such as unpleasant feelings or emotions that interfere with daily living activities and can result in sadness or negative views of the environment, others, and the self (Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2008); anxiety; or depression (Jaycox et al., 2009). However, a high level of CP (percentile ! ...
Article
Physical activity has been positively related to better cognitive performance though the effects of varied exercise type and intensity and the duration of cognitive benefits are unclear. This study analyzed the effect of 16 minutes of monitored cooperative high-intensity interval training (monitored C-HIIT) at the start of the school day, on various cognitive variables over the next 24–48 hours. We randomly assigned 158 participants either to a control group (n = 81) that engaged only in static stretching or to an experimental group (n = 77) that performed monitored C-HIIT. We assessed cognitive functioning before the exercise, immediately afterward, and for five follow-up time points over the next two days (i.e., at 2, 3, 4, 24, and 48 hours). We analyzed age, sex, body mass index, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity as potential confounder variables. Adolescents in the monitored C-HIIT group increased selective attention by 17.39% during the next hour (p =.015) and increased concentration by 20.31% and 15.26% during the first (p =.022) and second (p =.059) subsequent hours, respectively. This positive short-term benefit of monitored C-HIIT during immediate subsequent hours is an important finding with implications for the school curricula and schedule.
... Since then, after a century of further development of tests and theorising, scores provided by intelligence tests remain a robust predictor of academic achievement (Deary, Strand, Smith, & Fernandes, 2007;Rohde & Thompson, 2007;Roth et al., 2015). More generally, IQ is positively correlated with a large array of life outcomes, including income (Zagorsky, 2007), mental and physical health (Der, Batty, & Deary, 2009;Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009), or life expectancy (Batty, Deary, & Gottfredson, 2007). ...
... Individual differences in intelligence are predictive of mental illness, where a higher level of intelligence in childhood is predictive of a lower level of self-reported psychological distress decades later [4]. This link between intelligence and mental illness also extends to severe psychiatric conditions where individuals who have a level of intelligence one standard deviation below the mean have, on average, a 60% greater chance of being hospitalized for schizophrenia, a 50% increase of being diagnosed with a mood disorder, and a 75% greater risk for having an alcohol-related disorder, over a two-decade follow up period [5]. ...
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Intelligence, as measured by standardised tests of cognitive function, such as IQ-type tests, is predictive of psychiatric diagnosis and psychological wellbeing. Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, a measure of the shared genetic effect across traits, can be quantified; because this can be done across samples, the confounding effects of psychiatric diagnosis do not influence the magnitude of these relationships. It is now known that there are genetic effects that act across intelligence and psychiatric diagnoses, which provide a partial explanation for the phenotypic link between intelligence and mental health. Potential causal effects between intelligence and mental health have been identified, and the regions of the genome responsible for some of these cross trait associations have begun to be characterised.
... The pattern of the findings in the present research are in line with the results reported in Dorfman's [58], and other studies [73][74][75] exhibiting positive correlation among self-esteem, physical activity and academic performance, and negative correlations among depression, physical activity, and academic performance. But, correlations among all of the constructs that are involved in the present study are much lower, except for self-esteem and academic performance. ...
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An important step to enhance the academic efficiency of students is increasing their physical activity. For this reason, it is necessary to see to what extent physical activity is related to the academic performance of the students and what might mediate this. A major objective of the study is to explore self-esteem and depression as mediators between physical activity and academic performance. On the basis of informed consent to participate in the study, 358 participants have been selected from Universities in Pakistan, and they were asked about their physical activity, depression during their study and self-esteem through self-report. Participants self-reported their self-esteem, level of depression and their physical activity through standardized measures; the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (1965), the University stress scale (2016), and the short form of the International Physical Activity questionnaire (2003), respectively. Academic performance had been measured as the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of the last two consecutive semesters. Self-esteem and depression were found to be significant mediators between physical activity and academic performance. The total effect of physical activity on academic performance was significant but smaller than the total indirect effect through mediators. Though total indirect effect is the combination of the effect of self-esteem and depression, but the larger contribution is of self-esteem which has been found to be the strongest mediator between physical activity and academic performance. The study has implications for future research, both in terms of testing the model and testing psychological constructs. Also, the study emphasizes that the importance of physical activity has to be kept in mind while designing a curriculum of an educational institution in order to foster sustainable development.
... Therefore, any school difference we find on mental health outcomes in adulthood might derive from this selection on ability. There is evidence that those with high ability have a lower risk of having a psychiatric disorder, including depression (Der, Batty, & Deary, 2009;Feinstein & Bynner, 2004;Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009;Hatch et al., 2007: Koenen et al., 2009Upmark, Lundberg, Sadigh, Allebeck, & Bigert, 1999). An explanation provided for this association is that those with higher ability are better equipped to cope with stressful life events (Koenen et al., 2009). ...
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Previous research has shown that there is a small but significant cumulative private school advantage in terms of educational attainment in Britain. However, research on how school type influences non-educational outcomes is more scarcer. This paper aims to identify the extent to which school type influences satisfaction with life and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood. Using Next Steps, a longitudinal study of young people in England born in 1989/90, the authors use multiple variable regression analyses to address the research questions. They find that for this cohort there is no evidence of a difference for mental health and life satisfaction by school type for either men or women in adolescence or early adulthood.
... Intelligence quotient (IQ) is generally touted as a gift predicting exceptional outcomes in many domains including educational attainment and income level (Bergman, Corovic, Ferrer-Wreder, & Modig, 2014) and is a positive indicator of high system integrity (Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009;Gale, Batty, Tynelius, Deary, & Rasmussen, 2010;Gottfredson, 2004;Lubinski & Humphreys, 1992;Wraw, Deary, Gale, & Der, 2015;Wrulich et al., 2013). However, there are conflicting studies in the literature which point to an association between gifted IQ, particularly high verbal ability, and various mental and immunological outcomes such as depression (Jackson & Peterson, 2003;Wraw, Deary, Der, & Gale, 2016); bipolar disorder (Gale et al., 2013;MacCabe et al., 2010;Smith et al., 2015); anxiety disorders (Lancon et al., 2015); ADHD (Rommelse et al., 2016); allergies, asthma, and immune disorders (Benbow, 1985(Benbow, , 1986; and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Clark et al., 2016). ...
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High intelligence is touted as being predictive of positive outcomes including educational success and income level. However, little is known about the difficulties experienced among this population. Specifically, those with a high intellectual capacity (hyper brain) possess overexcitabilities in various domains that may predispose them to certain psychological disorders as well as physiological conditions involving elevated sensory, and altered immune and inflammatory responses (hyper body). The present study surveyed members of American Mensa, Ltd. (n = 3715) in order to explore psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) processes among those at or above the 98th percentile of intelligence. Participants were asked to self-report prevalence of both diagnosed and/or suspected mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and physiological diseases that include environmental and food allergies, asthma, and autoimmune disease. High statistical significance and a remarkably high relative risk ratio of diagnoses for all examined conditions were confirmed among the Mensa group 2015 data when compared to the national average statistics. This implicates high IQ as being a potential risk factor for affective disorders, ADHD, ASD, and for increased incidence of disease related to immune dysregulation. Preliminary findings strongly support a hyper brain/hyper body association which may have substantial individual and societal implications and warrants further investigation to best identify and serve this at-risk population.
... It has been found that young people with high CP have a greater self-esteem and self-concept (Fati-Ashtiani, Ejei, Khodapanahi, & Tarkhorani, 2007) and they show less risk of chronic widespread pain (Gale, Deary, Cooper, & Batty, 2012). However, low CP has been associated with anxiety disorder (Martin et al., 2007), psychological distress (Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2008), and depression (Jaycox et al., 2009). ...
Article
The main aim was to analyse the effect of 8 weeks of Pokémon GO on cognitive performance (memory, selective attention, concentration, mathematical calculation and linguistic reasoning) and emotional intelligence (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability) in Spanish adolescents between 12 and 15 years. A longitudinal design was used, with a Control Group (n = 103) that did not use Pokémon GO, and Experimental Group (n = 87) that used Pokémon GO during 8 weeks. Age, sex, BMI, maternal educational level, number of computers at home and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were used as confounders. Results showed that players walked 54 km and spent 40 min/day playing in this period. Boys played more, won more points and reached a higher level in the game than girls. The players playing Pokémon GO significantly increased their selective attention (p = 0.003), concentration levels (p < 0.001), and sociability levels (p = 0.003) against their peers. It is concluded that Pokémon GO increases, in a playful way, the amount of daily exercise in adolescents, could positively affect their cognitive performance, and improve the social relationships. Further studies are required to perform comparisons between single and collaborative play and to identify the pedagogical benefits through some subjects such as Physical Education.
... [11][12][13][14] Vascular risk factors, including diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with poorer cognitive function and greater cognitive decline. [15][16][17][18] Cognitive function, measured early in life, has been found to predict later life physical functioning and health status, 19 psychological distress, 20 psychiatric illness, [21][22][23][24][25] dementia, 26 and death. [27][28][29][30] Performance on tests of health literacy and cognitive function are moderately to highly correlated. ...
Preprint
Higher health literacy is associated with higher cognitive function and better health. Despite its wide use in medical research, no study has investigated the genetic contributions to health literacy. Using 5,783 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) participants (mean age=65.49, SD=9.55) who had genotyping data and had completed a health literacy test at wave 2 (2004-2005), we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of health literacy. We estimated the proportion of variance in health literacy explained by all common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polygenic profile scores were calculated using summary statistics from GWAS of 21 cognitive and health measures. Logistic regression was used to test whether polygenic scores for cognitive and health-related traits were associated with having adequate, compared to limited, health literacy. No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for association with health literacy. The proportion of variance in health literacy accounted for by common SNPs was 8.5% (SE=7.2%). Greater odds of having adequate health literacy were associated with a 1SD higher polygenic score for general cognitive ability (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.26-1.42), verbal-numerical reasoning (OR=1.30, 1.23-1.39), and years of schooling (OR=1.29, 1.21-1.36). Reduced odds of having adequate health literacy were associated with higher polygenic profiles for poorer self-rated health (OR=0.92, 0.87-0.98) and schizophrenia (OR=0.91, 0.85-0.96). The well-documented associations between health literacy, cognitive function and health may partly be due to shared genetic aetiology. Larger studies are required to obtain accurate estimates of SNP-based heritability, and to discover specific health literacy-associated genetic variants.
... The powerful role of cognition has been recognised as a predictor of well-being later in life (1). Lower levels of general intelligence in early years have been associated with cancer, heart disease, depression and psychological distress during adulthood (2,3). Adolescence is a critical period for brain development, cognition and academic achievement, as well as for mental changes (4). ...
Article
Aim This study investigated whether general intelligence could predict physical fitness and academic achievements one year later. Methods We recruited 129 Spanish adolescents (57.4% boys) with a mean age of 13.6 ±0.7 years old from a convenience sample of a single public‐funded school. The first step was to assess general intelligence during the 2015‐2016 school year using the D48 non‐verbal test. A year later we collected data on fitness and academic achievements. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with the 20 metre endurance shuttle‐run test, muscular strength with the standing long jump and flexibility with the sit and reach test. Academic achievement was measured using school grades. The findings were assessed using three models with different variables. Results One year later, general intelligence at baseline was marginally significantly associated with flexibility (p=0.079) and mathematics (p=0.084) in the first model, with mathematics (p=0.029) and geography and history (p=0.016) in the second model and with geography and history (p=0.022) in the third model. All the analyses were controlled by age, sex, fitness and academic achievement. Conclusion General intelligence may not predict fitness, but it may predict academic achievements in adolescents one year later. Further studies are needed to examine our findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Long-running panel surveys, such as the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the German Socio-Economic Panel, and the British birth cohort studies (including the National Survey of Health & Development, the National Child Development Study, and the 1970 British Cohort Study), have provided researchers with an abundance of social science data for decades. Panel surveys such as these have enabled researchers to make significant contributions in numerous fields of inquiry, including the dynamics of health and aging (Langa, Larson, Karlawish, Cutler, Kabeto, et al. 2008;Gwozdz and Sousa-Poza 2010;Bendayan, Piccinin, Hofer, and Muniz 2017), childhood development and transitions into adulthood (Brown and Taylor 2008;Gale, Hatch, Batty, and Deary 2009;Francesconi, Jenkins, and Siedler 2010), and the impact of social inequality over the life course (Winkelmann and Winkelmann 1998;Chandola 2000;Cappellari and Jenkins 2002), among others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Panel surveys are increasingly experimenting with the use of self-administered modes of data collection as alternatives to more expensive interviewer-administered modes. As data collection costs continue to rise, it is plausible that future panel surveys will forego interviewer administration entirely. We examine the implications of this scenario for recruitment bias in the first wave of a panel survey of employees in Germany. Using an experimental multi-mode design and detailed administrative record data available for the full sample, we investigate the magnitude of two sources of panel recruitment bias: nonresponse and panel consent (i.e., consent to follow-up interview). Across 29 administrative estimates, we find relative measures of aggregate nonresponse bias to be comparable between face-to-face and self-administered (mail/Web) recruitment modes, on average. Furthermore, we find the magnitude of panel consent bias to be more severe in self-administered surveys, but that implementing follow-up conversion procedures with the non-consenters diminishes panel consent bias to near-negligible levels. Lastly, we find the total recruitment bias (nonresponse and panel consent) to be similar in both mode groups—a reassuring result that is facilitated by the panel consent follow-up procedures. Implications of these findings for survey practice and suggestions for future research are provided in conclusion.
... Vascular risk factors, including diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with poorer cognitive function and greater cognitive decline (Knopman et al., 2009;Mõttus et al., 2013;Pavlik et al., 2005;Singh-Manoux & Marmot, 2005). Cognitive function, measured early in life, has been found to predict later life physical functioning and health status (Wraw et al., 2015), psychological distress (Gale et al., 2009), psychiatric illness (Batty et al., 2005;Dickson et al., 2012;Gale et al., 2008;Scult et al., 2017;Zammit et al., 2004), dementia (McGurn et al., 2008), and death (Batty et al., 2007;Calvin et al., 2011Calvin et al., , 2017Christensen et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Higher health literacy is associated with higher cognitive function and better health. Despite its wide use in medical research, no study has investigated the genetic contributions to health literacy. Using 5783 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) participants (mean age = 65.49, SD = 9.55) who had genotyping data and had completed a health literacy test at wave 2 (2004–2005), we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of health literacy. We estimated the proportion of variance in health literacy explained by all common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polygenic profile scores were calculated using summary statistics from GWAS of 21 cognitive and health measures. Logistic regression was used to test whether polygenic scores for cognitive and health-related traits were associated with having adequate, compared to limited, health literacy. No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for association with health literacy. The proportion of variance in health literacy accounted for by common SNPs was 8.5% ( SE = 7.2%). Greater odds of having adequate health literacy were associated with a 1 standard deviation higher polygenic score for general cognitive ability [ OR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.26, 1.42)], verbal-numerical reasoning [ OR = 1.30, 95% CI (1.23, 1.39)], and years of schooling [ OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.21, 1.36)]. Reduced odds of having adequate health literacy were associated with higher polygenic profiles for poorer self-rated health [ OR = 0.92, 95% CI (0.87, 0.98)] and schizophrenia [ OR = 0.91, 95% CI (0.85, 0.96)). The well-documented associations between health literacy, cognitive function and health may partly be due to shared genetic etiology. Larger studies are required to obtain accurate estimates of SNP-based heritability and to discover specific health literacy-associated genetic variants.
... Higher general cognitive function in childhood is predictive of lower self-reported psychological distress decades later (7). This association between cognitive function and psychological well-being extends to severe psychiatric conditions, with a 1 standard deviation lower score in general cognitive function being associated with a 60% increased risk for hospitalization for schizophrenia, a 50% increase for mood disorders, and a 75% greater risk for alcohol-related disorders in two decades of follow-up (8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: General cognitive function predicts psychiatric illness across the life course. This study examines the role of pleiotropy in explaining the link between cognitive function and psychiatric disorder. Methods: We used two large genome-wide association study data sets on cognitive function-one from older age, n = 53,949, and one from childhood, n = 12,441. We also used genome-wide association study data on educational attainment, n = 95,427, to examine the validity of its use as a proxy phenotype for cognitive function. Using a new method, linkage disequilibrium regression, we derived genetic correlations, free from the confounding of clinical state between psychiatric illness and cognitive function. Results: We found a genetic correlation of .711, (p = 2.26e-12) across the life course for general cognitive function. We also showed a positive genetic correlation between autism spectrum disorder and cognitive function in childhood (rg = .360, p = .0009) and for educational attainment (rg = .322, p = 1.37e-5) but not in older age. In schizophrenia, we found a negative genetic correlation between older age cognitive function (rg = -.231, p = 3.81e-12) but not in childhood or for educational attainment. For Alzheimer's disease, we found negative genetic correlations with childhood cognitive function (rg = -.341, p = .001), educational attainment (rg = -.324, p = 1.15e-5), and with older age cognitive function (rg = -.324, p = 1.78e-5). Conclusions: The pleiotropy exhibited between cognitive function and psychiatric disorders changed across the life course. These age-dependent associations might explain why negative selection has not removed variants causally associated with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia.
... More generally, IQ is positively correlated with a large array of life outcomes, including income (Zagorsky, 2007), mental and physical health (Der et al., 2009;Gale et al., 2009), or life expectancy (Batty et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
This dissertation aimed at providing a greater understanding of what fosters or hampers the acquisition of academic skills in children. To do so, we have conducted a series of studies using longitudinal data from two French cohorts, the EDEN cohort and the DEPP Panel 2007, assessing the relative influences of a wide variety of factors on diverse aspects of academic achievement in middle school. First, we studied the extent of the association between intelligence and academic skills in France. We assessed the strength of this relationship, as well as the socio-economic and conative influences on academic skills and their progression beyond the role of IQ. We further investigated the relationship between IQ and academic achievement among intellectually gifted student. Second, we digged into one component of academic skills, numeracy, examining its preschool predictors. We assessed the relative predictive power of cognitive, socio-emotional and environmental factors on arithmetic skills as well as their mediation relationships; and investigated the differential cognitive predictors of addition, subtraction and multiplication. Third, we similarly studied the preschool cognitive, socio-emotional and environmental influences on the acquisition of different literacy skills, and their mediating relationships. Fourth and last, we examined sex differences in both literacy and numeracy, assessing the influence of evaluation characteristics on these gaps. The results of these studies provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of academic skills in France, and have practical implications for practitioners and actors in the education sphere.
... Moreover, Beddoes et al. [24] indicated that elementary school children's cognitive functions mainly include five subcomponents, such as attention, working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Studies showed that lower cognitive function in childhood may be a risk factor for mental health disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder [25,26], psychological distress [27], and depression [26]. In addition, Gale et al. [28] used the data collected during childhood and later life from four Healthy Aging across the Life Course cohorts and examined the relationships among cognitive function in childhood, lifetime cognitive changes, and PWB in older people. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to investigate the association of elementary school students' manipulative skill competency, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function with psychological wellbeing (PWB), as well as whether the association had gender differences. Methods: Participants were 291 fourth-grade students (166 boys vs. 125 girls; mean age = 9.770 years old; SD = 0.584) at two elementary schools from the province of Henan in China. The students' soccer skills in manipulative skill competency were assessed using the PE Metric Assessment Rubric, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by means of the PACER 15 m test, and cognitive function and PWB were assessed using the d2 test of attention and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, respectively. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression models. Results: The result of linear regression models showed that soccer skills, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function were collectively associated with PWB for the total sample (F (5, 285) = 3.097, p < 0.01), boys (F (5, 160) = 1.355, p < 0.01), and girls (F (5, 119) = 2.132, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the standardized regression coefficients (β) indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness was the only significant contributor to PWB for the total sample (β = 0.119, t = 2.021, p < 0.05), but not for boys and girls. Soccer skills and cognitive function were not individual significant contributors to PWB for the total sample, boys, and girls. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with PWB, and there were no gender differences in the relationship of manipulative skill competency, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function with PWB in elementary school students. This study provides empirical evidence that improving cardiorespiratory fitness is an important intervention strategy to promote elementary school students' PWB.
... Girls scored lower in the full scale intelligence quotient which is contradictory to the difference in intelligence of gender despite the number of girls participating in this study being less than half of the entire sample. More generally, IQ is positively correlated with a wide range of life outcomes, including income (Zagorsky, 2007), mental and physical health (Der, Batty, & Deary, 2009;Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009), or life expectancy (Batty, Deary, & Gottfredson, 2007). ...
Chapter
In this sixth volume, a committed set of authors explore the Psychology field, therefore contributing to reach the frontiers of knowledge. Success depends on the participation of those who wish to find creative solutions and believe in their potential to change the world, altogether, to increase public engagement and cooperation from communities. Part of our mission is to serve society with these initiatives and promote knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary the strengthening of research efforts in all fields and cooperation between the most assorted studies and backgrounds. In particular, this book explores five major areas (divided into five sections) within the broad context of Psychology: Social Psychology, Cognitive and Experimental Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Legal Psychology and Educational Psychology. Each section comprises chapters that have emerged from extended and peer reviewed selected papers originally published in the proceedings of the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT 2020) conference series (http://www.inpact-psychologyconference.org/). This conference occurs annually with successful outcomes. Original papers have been selected and its authors were invited to extend them significantly to once again undergo an evaluation process, afterwards the authors of the accepted chapters were requested to make corrections and improve the final submitted chapters. This process has resulted in the final publication of 33 high quality chapters.
... The 1970 British Birth Cohort Study reveals that higher educational level is significantly associated with healthier behavior over the life course. Longitudinal studies in mental health also show that higher cognitive function is associated with lower rates of mental depression and higher intelligence in early life is linked with a declining risk of psychological distress in middle and later life (Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2008). Higher educated people are more likely to have the opportunity to utilize new medical technology and have a better understanding of, and access to, knowledge about new diseases compared with people with a lower level of education (Coulter, Parsons, & Askham, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the existing literature on the association between the socioeconomic status (SES) and the health of the ageing population in the United Kingdom. It has been noted that socioeconomic differentials are more marked across the United Kingdom than they are in other developed countries. Social class gradients are significant in health for working-age people (up to age 65), whereas studies on older populations have so far been limited so as to draw any robust conclusions. In this article, we examine the inequalities through selected SES indicators in order to tease out the effects on health outcomes of the older population. We critically review the physical and mental health indicators of older people in the United Kingdom with regard to their SES differentials. The findings reveal that older people with lower SES are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes (e.g., long-standing illness or increased disability) and have shorter life expectancy compared with those of higher SES. We illustrate how education remains the single most important determinant of health inequality in later life. We suggest that educational level or occupational class allied with material deprivation offer the best combined indicators of SES for studying health inequalities among older people. The findings of this article has profound implications for prioritizing policies to improve the health and well-being of elderly people with lower SES and go offer an evidence base of how to understand and to develop interventions that minimize the inequalities in health in later life in the United Kingdom.
... Low level of cognitive performance during youth has been associated with psychological concerns such as unkind emotions. Those emotions could produce depressive feelings, unhappiness or harmful interpretations of the environment, and influence daily living activities [28,29]. On the other hand, a positive relationship between physical activity (e.g., moderate aerobic exercise or coordinative activities) and cognitive performance in youth has been found [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Development of innovative and time-efficient strategies to involve youth in physical activity is pivotal in the actual inactivity pandemic. Moreover, physical activity may improve academic performance, of great interest for educators. This present systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cognitive performance and psychological outcomes in youth. A database search (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO) for original research articles was performed. A total of eight articles met the inclusion criteria, and the Cochrane risk of bias tool was used. The studies’ results were recalculated to determine effect sizes using Cohen’s d. Different HIIT interventions reported improvements on cognitive performance at executive function (d = 0.75, + 78.56%), linguistic reasoning (d = 0.25, +7.66%), concentration (d = 0.71, +61.10%), selective attention (d = 0.81, +60.73%), non-verbal and verbal abilities (d = 0.88, +47.50%; d = 1.58, +22.61%, respectively), abstract reasoning (d = 0.75, +44.50%), spatial and numerical abilities (d = 37.19, +22.85%; d = 1.20, +8.28%, respectively), and verbal reasoning (d = 1.00, +15.71%) in youth. Regarding psychological outcomes, HIIT showed higher self-concept (d = 0.28, +8.71%) and psychological well-being in boys and girls (d = 0.73, +32.43%, d = 0.39, +11.58%, respectively). To sum up, HIIT interventions between 4–16 weeks, for 8–30 minutes/session, at ≥85% maximal heart rate, would provide positive effects on cognitive performance and psychological outcomes in youth.
... Cognitive ability was assessed by the General Ability Test(233)in NCDS (age 11) and a modified version of the British Ability Scales (234) in BCS70 (age 10). Following the approach used in previous studies, I performed a principal components analysis for each of the verbal and nonverbal sub-tests, in order to obtain scores indicating a general cognitive ability factor (g) and to ensure similar relative ranking in the latent unmeasured trait(202,235). The scores were standardised to a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Internalising and externalising problems were captured with the modified version of the Rutter A scale, completed by mothers of the participants as part of the home interview(230). ...
Thesis
Life expectancy has increased in the last decades of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century, for instance, in the United Kingdom from 66.3 years in 1946 to 82.0 in 2015. However, the evidence on trends in other key health indicators, such as non-communicable conditions or disability, has been inconsistent. The systematic review of 53 studies found no evidence for improvement in the age-standardised or age-specific prevalence of any of the studied major chronic conditions over the last few decades, apart from Alzheimer’s disease. The evidence on trends in disability, expressed as prevalence or health expectancy was inconclusive. In the secondary analyses of the 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts, with the total sample of n=16,834, I found that the prevalence of multimorbidity was higher in the younger cohort: 24.3% vs 17.8% at age 42-48. Across both cohorts, early-life parental social class, birthweight, cognitive ability and body mass index at age 10/11, internalising and externalising problems at 16 were associated with multimorbidity at age 42-48. A higher prevalence of morbidity in younger birth cohorts was not limited to physical health. In the comparison across the 1946, 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts (n=28,362), progressively younger birth cohorts had higher levels of mental health symptoms across adulthood. Worsening health across progressively younger birth cohorts has also been observed in Sweden, in the analysis of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study. Successively younger birth cohorts (1915-1972) had a higher prevalence of hospitalisation at overlapping ages, with inter-cohort differences emerging from early- 4 adulthood and increasing with age in absolute terms. Those with medium and low parental socioeconomic position (vs high) had respectively 13% and 20% higher odds of experiencing hospitalisation during the observation period (1989-2008)—when age, year-of-birth and gender were accounted for. Hence, rising life expectancy has not translated into improving health and reduced hospitalisation, associated with non-communicable conditions, both in Great Britain and Sweden. This is likely to translate in greater demands on healthcare and public services.
... Wechsler described intelligence to be the individual's capability to accommodate plus productively unraveling obstacles in the surroundings", whilst IQ is described as a "total score obtained from multiple standardized trials aimed at evaluating human intelligence" [17]. High risks of developing mental ailments, depression [18][19][20], emotional and behavioral issues, and anxiety complaints [21,22], were experienced by children who scores were poor on the IQ tests [23]. Meanwhile, Bishara, et al. [24] suggested that sustained digit sucking might be a sign of disturbed emotional status. ...
Article
ABSTRACT Background: There is a pronounced controversy regarding the dental and mental consequences of thumb sucking habit, which is a familiar nonnutritive pattern of sucking. Commonly, this behavior is harmless, yet those who sustain this pattern may have dental alterations and emotional difficulties. Children’s intelligence level influences their capabilities to judge, evaluate and handle priorities and/or problems profoundly and precisely. Thumb sucking habit might be a manner of liberating the psychological tenseness among several children. Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of thumb sucking habit and its relation to the eruption of permanent teeth and IQ among children aged 6-7 years old. Subjects and methods: In Karbala city, Iraq, a cross-sectional study was performed through which an over-all of (1222) students at primary schools, 6-7 years old, were included. Questionnaires answered by the parents were used for collecting information regarding the presence of thumb sucking habit. All the students were examined clinically for the stage of eruption of their permanent teeth. Concerning the intelligence quotient (IQ) it was estimated by means of the colored progressive matrices of Raven’s test. Data was statistically analyzed utilizing SPSS version 21. Results: The present study revealed that the prevalence of the thumb sucking habit amongst the whole sample was (7.61%), it was more predominant in the below average IQ category of children (8.99%). Furthermore, it was found that children who practiced the habit had a delay in the eruption of their permanent teeth. Yet, these results showed no statistical significance. Conclusion: There is an association between thumb sucking habit in children, their intelligence level and the eruption of their permanent teeth, by which the habit was practiced more by children of below average category of intelligence and the eruption of permanent teeth among those who performed the habit was delayed however this result was not significant statistically. Key words: Intelligence quotient (IQ), Permanent teeth, Karbala, Thumb sucking
... Healthy cognitive development is an important contributor to an individual's long-term life chances, influencing future academic performance, social competence and mental health (e.g., Peet et al., 2015;Gale, Hatch, Batty, & Deary, 2009). Although cognitive development shows substantial genetic influence (e.g., Kirkpatrick, McGue, Iacono, Miller, & Basu, 2014), there has been a growing appreciation of the role of early environmental exposures in shaping brain development and influencing cognitive outcomes, with increasing attention directed toward prenatal exposures (Grossman et al., 2003). ...
Article
Antenatal exposure to maternal stress is a factor that may impact on offspring cognitive development. While some evidence exists of an association between maternal antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms and infants' cognitive outcomes, less is known about the role of biological indices of maternal antenatal stress in relation to infant cognitive development. The current study investigated the association between maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, stress and inflammatory markers during pregnancy and infant's cognitive development in a sample of 104 healthy pregnant women (mean gestational age = 34.76; SD = 1.12) and their 12‐week‐old infants (mean postnatal weeks = 11.96; SD = 1.85). Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were evaluated during pregnancy, alongside measurements of serum Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), C‐Reactive Protein (CRP), salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase (sAA) concentrations. Infant cognitive development, maternal caregiving and concurrent anxiety or depressive symptoms were assessed 12 weeks after delivery. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that higher maternal diurnal cortisol and CRP levels were independently associated with lower infant cognitive development scores, while adjusting for infant gender and gestational age, maternal IQ, caregiving, depressive, or anxiety symptoms. Though correlational, findings seem suggestive of a role for variation in maternal biological stress signals during pregnancy in influencing infants' early cognitive development.
... In the general population, cognitive functioning is positively associated with greater longevity and less physical and psychiatric morbidity, and negatively associated with several quantitative disease risk factors and indices [1]. Higher general cognitive function in childhood is predictive of lower self-reported psychological distress decades later [2]. This association between cognitive function and psychological well-being extends to severe psychiatric conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease associated with widespread cognitive impairment. Although cognitive deficits are one of the factors most strongly associated with functional impairment in schizophrenia (SZ), current treatment strategies hardly tackle these impairments. To develop more efficient treatment strategies in patients, a better understanding of their pathogenesis is needed. Recent progress in genetics, driven by large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and the use of polygenic risk scores (PRS), has provided new insights about the genetic architecture of complex human traits, including cognition and SZ. Here, we review the recent findings examining the genetic links between SZ and cognitive functions in population-based samples as well as in participants with SZ. The performed meta-analysis showed a negative correlation between the polygenetic risk score of schizophrenia and global cognition (p < 0.001) when the samples rely on general and healthy participants, while no significant correlation was detected when the three studies devoted to schizophrenia patients were meta-analysed (p > 0.05). Our review and meta-analysis therefore argues against universal pleiotropy for schizophrenia alleles and cognition, since cognition in SZ patients would be underpinned by the same genetic factors than in the general population, and substantially independent of common variant liability to the disorder.
Chapter
Introduction A Brief History Finding Roots in Epidemiology Pre-Morbid Intelligence and Risk of Total Mortality Specific Causes of Morbidity and Mortality Intelligence–Disease Mechanisms, and the Future for Cognitive Epidemiology Conclusion Acknowledgments References
Article
Why individuals differ typically involves the study of practically inseparable influences of multiple dimensions of complex and confounded environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. With respect to the practice of school psychology within the context of historical, social, and political influences on education, studies dealing with individual differences, and the application of knowledge gained from these, are challenging and often controversial. It is difficult to simultaneously embrace both the values of individualism and egalitarianism-values that are deeply rooted in American education. The primary intent of this chapter is to present findings of replicated and recent research on individual differences, with emphasis on general cognitive functioning, genetic, and epigenetic factors that influence commonly desired life outcomes. Further, we suggest relevant educational and psychological applications of these findings to promote the design of optimal environments that facilitate individual functioning.
Article
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Optimal development is an area that is associated with more systematic research in last years. Even due to its relatively short history it is "connected with numerous inconsistent and ambiguous areas, which are a challenge for both theoretical and empirical level. These include terminological and partly also contextual inconsistencies of the construct of optimal development and its cultural and historical dependence. The suitability of the selection of criteria of optimality is often discussed; these are insufficiently defined in many studies. The paper deals mainly with the social dimension of optimal development and problems related mainly to the selection of adequate indicators (career stability, socioeconomic status, absence of risk behavior etc.). Many of them are culturally specific and influenced by cohort effect that can affect mainly the interpretation of the results of longitudinal studies and cross-cultural comparisons.
Article
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Illicit drug use is known to be associated with premature mortality. Whether exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage and mental health problems in childhood help to explain this association, is unclear. We analysed data from 11,250 participants in the 1970 British Birth Cohort study. At 10-years of age, socioeconomic disadvantage (parental socioeconomic position, material disadvantage, family disruption) and mental health problems with antisocial behaviour, attention, and anxiety were reported by mothers and teachers. At 30-years of age, study members provided information on their illicit drug use, exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage and mental health problems. At 30-years, 19.2% of participants had used an illicit drug in the past year. Mortality was elevated for eight of the twelve drugs assessed. Family disruption, maternal, and teacher assessments of antisocial behaviour at 10-years were associated with illicit drug use at 30-years. There was, however, very little change in these associations when exposure to childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (% change in hazard ratios [HR] 0–10%) or mental health problems (0.4–11.9%) were added to the sex-adjusted model. Adding exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage (0.8–38.9%) and mental health problems (31.7–74.1%) in adulthood to the sex-adjusted model resulted in marked attenuation in HRs for all drugs. These findings imply that interventions which provide opportunities for education, employment and access to effective mental health treatments in early adulthood may help to reduce mortality among drug users.
Chapter
Social functioning is an aspect of successful development that relates to relatively objective, easily assessable, external attributes. Therefore, it provides a good basis for interpersonal comparisons. Since these comparisons use social norms and requirements as criteria, successful social functioning is likely to be influenced not only by a particular society (culture), but also by the historical period in which it is set (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003). Criteria, or indicators, of adaptive social functioning include, for example, medical records as objective measures of health (Pulkkinen, Nygren, & Kokko, 2002), accomplishment of developmental tasks (such as starting a family, finding a job) (Havighurst, 1972), adjustment to social norms (for example, academic achievement, socioeconomic status, career success) (Ng & Feldman, 2014) or absence of risk behaviour (see Schulz & Heckhausen, 1996; Rönka & Pulkkinen, 1995).
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Despite a growing interest in understanding the cognitive deficits associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), it is largely unknown whether such deficits exist before disorder onset or how they might influence the severity of subsequent illness. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal datasets to determine whether cognitive function acts as a predictor of later MDD diagnosis or change in depression symptoms. Eligible studies included longitudinal designs with baseline measures of cognitive functioning, and later unipolar MDD diagnosis or symptom assessment. The systematic review identified 29 publications, representing 34 unique samples, and 121 749 participants, that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quantitative meta-analysis demonstrated that higher cognitive function was associated with decreased levels of subsequent depression (r = -0.088, 95% confidence interval. -0.121 to -0.054, p < 0.001). However, sensitivity analyses revealed that this association is likely driven by concurrent depression symptoms at the time of cognitive assessment. Our review and meta-analysis indicate that the association between lower cognitive function and later depression is confounded by the presence of contemporaneous depression symptoms at the time of cognitive assessment. Thus, cognitive deficits predicting MDD likely represent deleterious effects of subclinical depression symptoms on performance rather than premorbid risk factors for disorder.
Article
Background Higher cognitive ability is associated with favourable health characteristics. The relation between ability and alcohol consumption, and their interplay with other health characteristics, is unclear. We aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive ability and alcohol consumption and to assess whether alcohol consumption relates differently to health characteristics across strata of ability. Methods For 63 120 Norwegian males, data on cognitive ability in early adulthood were linked to midlife data on alcohol consumption frequency (times per month, 0–30) and other health characteristics, including cardiovascular risk factors and mental distress. Relations were assessed using linear regression and reported as unstandardised beta coefficients [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Results The mean ± s.d. frequency of total alcohol consumption in the sample was 4.0 ± 3.8 times per month. In the low, medium, and high group of ability, the frequencies were 3.0 ± 3.3, 3.7 ± 3.5, and 4.7 ± 4.1, respectively. In the full sample, alcohol consumption was associated with physical activity, heart rate, fat mass, smoking, and mental distress. Most notably, each additional day of consumption was associated with a 0.54% (0.44–0.64) and 0.14% (0.09–0.18) increase in the probability of current smoking and mental distress, respectively. In each strata of ability (low, medium, high), estimates were 0.87% (0.57–1.17), 0.48% (0.31–0.66) and 0.49% (0.36–0.62) for current smoking, and 0.44% (0.28–0.60), 0.10% (0.02–0.18), and 0.09% (0.03–0.15) for mental distress, respectively. Conclusions Participants with low cognitive ability drink less frequently, but in this group, more frequent alcohol consumption is more strongly associated with adverse health characteristics.
Article
Objective: The current study examined the effect of depression on cognitive test performance in a sample of adults seeking treatment for a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). We hypothesized that patients with greater depressive symptoms would perform worse on tasks of fluid cognition compared to those without depression, after controlling for potential confounds. Method: Patients (N = 76) completed a brief cognitive test battery (NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery; NIHTB-CB) and a depression screening questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 11.7-weeks post injury (SD = 6.3 range 2–26). Cognitive scores were adjusted for age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity. Depressive symptoms were examined continuously and dichotomized as: (1) total PHQ-9 score of ≥ 10, the optimal cut-off for Major Depressive Disorder caseness from prior research, and (2) five or more symptoms of depression, including either depressed mood or anhedonia (i.e. DSM-5-based definition). Results: Twenty-seven patients (35.5%) met DSM-5-based criteria for depression and 42 (55.3%) met criteria based on PHQ-9 > 10. Depression symptom severity correlated with lower fluid cognition composite scores [r = −.22, p = .05] and contributed to the prediction of fluid cognition performance in a model that controlled for time since injury and crystallized cognitive abilities [F(3, 72) = 7.49, p < .001; R² = 20.6%]. Examining specific NIHTB-CB fluid subtests, the largest group differences were seen on processing speed (d = .40–.49), cognitive flexibility (d = .32–.36), and episodic memory (d = .20–.34). Depression severity was strongly associated with overall post-concussion symptom burden (r = .77, p < .001). Conclusion: Depression is a common comorbidity and an important factor to consider when interpreting neurocognitive test performance in adults with concussion in a clinical setting.
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La evidencia científica actual ha corroborado que una manera de estimular la función cognitiva es a través de la práctica habitual de actividad física, componente intrínseco de los videojuegos activos. Recientes estudios han demostrado que con la inclusión de este tipo de videojuegos durante la jornada escolar se podrían reducir los niveles actuales de sedentarismo en adolescentes, favoreciendo una mejor condición física, socialización y desarrollo integral de aquellos que los practican. Además, estos podrían ser útiles para mejorar los resultados cognitivos y académicos. Sin embargo, estos efectos se encuentra aún casi inexplorados y muy pocos estudios han establecido la relación entre estas variables. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar y analizar los resultados de las investigaciones más actuales basadas en la influencia de los videojuegos activos sobre la cognición en adolescentes. Se revisaron las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science, Sportdiscus y ProQuest, estableciendo un límite temporal de los últimos diez años. Seis fueron los estudios incluidos, todos mostraron una asociación positiva en estas variables y solo tres de los estudios incluyeron covariables. Estos resultados sugieren que promover programas mediante videojuegos activos podría tener un gran potencial para el desarrollo cognitivo y académico en esta etapa educativa. Además, permitirían el desarrollo de hábitos saludables de actividad física, el aumento de la motivación del alumnado y una mejor socialización.
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The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of using Pokémon GO for 10 weeks on the cognitive performance (memory, selective attention, concentration, and creative imagination) and emotional intelligence (well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability) of Taiwanese primary students in the fifth and sixth grade. A mixed experimental design was used, with a control group (CG; n = 62) that did not use Pokémon GO, and an experimental group ( n = 61) that used Pokémon GO for 10 weeks. Confounders were age, sex, education level of the family, number of computers in the home, daily study time, and Internet access. The results showed that the players spent about 40 minutes/day on this game during this period. Boys played more and won more points in the game than girls. Compared against their peers, the players playing Pokémon GO showed a significant increase in their selective attention ( p = .025), concentration levels ( p = .004), creative imagination ( p < .001), emotionality ( p = .001), and sociability levels ( p = .005) but not memory, well-being, or self-control (all p > .05). It is concluded that Pokémon GO, in a playful way, could positively affect their cognitive performance (selective attention, concentration levels, and creative imagination) and improve their social relationships. However, if future researchers would like to ascertain whether Pokémon GO is a useful viable cognitive and social approach or not, more randomized controlled trial studies will be needed to compare Pokémon GO with traditional teaching approaches and educational methods.
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This article extends the evidence base on childhood circumstances, education and psychological distress. We examine the link between childhood advantage and disadvantage, the type of school attended during adolescence and psychological distress at ages 16 and 42. The analysis uses a large, population‐based birth cohort study, the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) (n = 17,198) using a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. More advantaged young people were more likely to attend private schools, but we find no evidence for an effect of private schooling on psychological distress for men, and for women there was an association between private schooling and raised psychological distress at age 16. Having a university degree was associated with a modest reduction in psychological distress in mid‐life. We establish that maternal psychological distress at age 10 was a risk factor for the offspring’s psychological distress both in adolescence and in mid‐life, and adolescent psychological distress predicts psychological distress in mid‐life. We conclude that schools which are academically successful do not necessarily provide wider benefits in terms of mental health.
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Although genetically heterogeneous laboratory mice express individual differences in general cognitive ability (c.f., "intelligence"), it is unknown whether these differences are translated into behaviors that would promote survival. Here, genetically heterogeneous laboratory CD-1 mice were administered a series of cognitive tests from which their aggregate general cognitive ability was estimated. Subsequently, all animals were tested on nine (unlearned) tasks designed to assess behaviors that could contribute to survival in the wild. These tests included nest building (in the home and a novel environment), exploration, several indices of food finding, retrieval, and preference, and predator avoidance. Like general cognitive ability, a principal component analysis of these measures of survival-related behaviors (survival-readiness) yielded a general factor that accounted for ∼25% of the variance of mice across all of the tasks. An aggregate metric of general cognitive ability predicted an aggregate metric of general survival-readiness (r = 0.64), suggesting that more intelligent animals would be more suited for survival in natural environments. The nature of the pattern of correlations between general cognitive ability and performance on individual tests of survival-readiness (where tests conducted in previously unexplored contexts were more closely related to general cognitive ability) suggests the possibility that heightened attention (which is taxed in a novel environment) may be the common mediator of both of these classes of abilities, although other potential mediators are discussed. In total, these results suggest that performance on tasks that are explicitly intended to assess the likelihood of survival can be impacted by cognitive abilities.
Article
Background Childhood neglect is more common within low-income families and can have long-term effects on mental health. Despite this, the extent to which it can mediate the well documented longitudinal inverse relationship between childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and adult affective symptoms is yet to be investigated. Method Data (9595 males and 8959 females) from participants of the National Child Development Study (NCDS) were used to investigate the extent to which prospectively measured neglect mediates the relationship between SEP (age 11) and affective symptoms (ages 23 and 50). Results Neglect partially mediated the relationship between childhood SEP and affective symptoms at ages 23 (b = -0.02, [-0.02, -0.02]) and 50 (b = -0.02, [-0.02, -0.01]), after controlling for other family-related adversities. In addition, gender moderated the direct effect of SEP on affective symptoms at both ages 23 (b = -0.06, t = -4.87, [-0.08, -0.03]) and 50 (b = -0.05, t = -3.86, [-0.07, -0.02]), with the relationship being stronger for females; but did not moderate the indirect effect of neglect at either age 23 (b = 0.01, t = 1.09 [-0.01, 0.02]) or 50 (b = 0.00, t = -0.60 [-0.02, 0.01]). Conclusions Neglect in childhood should be viewed as having serious implications for the mental health of both men and women. Greater investments into social support interventions that reduce incidences of neglect are also warranted.
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A kognitív epidemiológia az intelligencia és az egészségi állapot összefüggésének tudo- mánya. A modern, sokszor több százezer fős, teljes populációkon végzett kognitív epide- miológiai vizsgálatok eredményei alapján a magasabb premorbid intelligencia gya- korlatilag valamennyi mentális betegség, illetve pszichiátriai probléma alacsonyabb kockázatával függ össze. A magasabb premorbid intelligencia a halálozás, a szív- és ér- rendszeri betegségek, a metabolikus betegségek, a rossz egészség-magatartás és számos kisebb népegészségügyi jelentőségű betegség előfordulásával is negatívan függ össze; a légzőszervi betegségekkel és a dohányzáshoz nem köthető daganatokkal azonban gyen- ge vagy hiányzik az összefüggés. A mentális betegségekkel való összefüggést nem, a szo- matikus betegségekkel és a mortalitással való összefüggést azonban részben mediálják a felnőttkori szocioökonómiai státusz mutatói. A speciális vizsgálati elrendezések – úgymint ikerkontroll-vizsgálatok, pszeudoexperimentális vizsgálatok, valamint a mendeli ran- domizáció módszerét használó molekuláris genetikai vizsgálatok – eredményei arra utal- nak, hogy az intelligencia és az egészség közötti kapcsolat jelentős részét genetikai ténye- zők közvetítik, de a szomatikus egészségre a magasabb intelligencia következményeként elérhető jobb szocioökonómiai státusz is szerény hatást gyakorol. Cognitive epidemiology is the science of the relationship between intelligence and health. Modern studies of cognitive epidemiology, often with samples of several hundreds of thousands of individuals, have revealed that higher premorbid intelligence is associated with a lower risk of virtually all of mental illnesses and psychiatric problems. Higher premorbid intelligence is also associated negatively with the incidence of mortality, circulatory illness, metabolic illness, poor health behavior and many diseases of lower epidemiological significance, but its relationship to respiratory illness and non-smoking related cancers is weaker or non-existent. Indicators of adult socioeconomic status do not mediate the association between intelligence and mental illness, but they do partially mediate the relationship with somatic illness and mortality. Studies with special designs -twin control studies, pseudo-experimental studies and molecular genetic studies using Mendelian randomization – suggest that the relationship between intelligence and health is heavily mediated by genetic factors, but somatic health may be modestly but causally improved by better social status as a consequence of higher intelligence.
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Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated demographic and clinical features of borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) among individuals with polysubstance use disorder (pSUD). Methods: We applied a cross-sectional analytical design to data from the Norwegian STAYER study ( n = 162), a cohort study of patients with a pSUD from the Stavanger University hospital catchment area. We used Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) to define BIF (FSIQ = 70–85) and non-BIF (FSIQ = >85) and collected demographic and clinical data using semi-structured interviews and self-reports on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Results: The prevalence of BIF was 18% in the present study. The presence of BIF was associated with higher SCL-90-R GSI scores than in the non-BIF group. There were no significant differences between the BIF and non-BIF groups regarding age, gender, participation in meaningful daily activity, years of work experience, years of education, satisfaction with life, level of care, treatment attempts, age at substance-use onset, years of substance use, history of injecting drugs, or age of onset of injecting drugs. Conclusion: The present study confirmed a higher prevalence of BIF among patients with pSUD than expected from the distribution of IQ scores in a general population. Elevated SCL-90-R GSI scores suggested that BIF is associated with increased psychological distress in patients receiving treatment for pSUD. Further studies on this association, and its effect on treatment procedure and outcomes are strongly warranted.
Article
The scope of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could expand in the future to include detailed analysis of the fetal genome. This will allow for the testing for virtually any trait with a genetic contribution, including “non-medical” traits. Here we discuss the potential use of NIPT for these traits. We outline a scenario which highlights possible inconsistencies with ethical decision-making. We then discuss the case against permitting these uses. The objections include practical problems; increasing inequities; increasing the burden of choice; negative impacts on the child, family, and society; and issues with implementation. We then outline the case for permitting the use of NIPT for these traits. These include arguments for reproductive liberty and autonomy; questioning the labeling of traits as “non-medical”; and the principle of procreative beneficence. This summary of the case for and against can serve as a basis for the development of a consistent and coherent ethical framework.
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Objective The purpose of this report is to perform a systematic review of the evidence on the associations between physical activity and cognition by differentiating between academic and cognitive performance measures. Second-generation questions regarding potential mediators or moderators (i.e. sex, age and psychological variables) of this relationship were also examined. Design Systematic review. Methods Studies were identified from searches in PubMed, Sportdiscus and ERIC databases from 2000 through 2013. The search process was carried out by two independent researchers. Results A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria, 2 of them analyzed both cognitive and academic performance in relation to physical activity. Four articles (18%) found no association between physical activity and academic performance, 11 (50%) found positive association and one showed negative association (5%). Five articles (23%) found positive association between physical activity and cognitive performance and one showed negative association (5%). The findings of these studies show that cognitive performance is associated with vigorous physical activity and that academic performance is related to general physical activity, but mainly in girls. Results of the review also indicate that type of activity and some psychological factors (i.e. self-esteem, depression) could mediate the association between physical activity and academic performance. Conclusions Results of the review support that physical activity is associated with cognition, but more research is needed to clarify the role of sex, intensity and type of physical activity and some psychological variables of this association.
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A conceptual model has recently been hypothesized in which parallel but correlated developmental pathways exist for attention deficit behaviors and conduct problems. An important component of this model suggests that attention deficit behaviors are related to later scholastic underachievement, whereas conduct problems are unrelated to scholastic underachievement except by their common correlation with attention deficit and intelligence. The present study replicated the general model using a cross-sectional sample of 325 children, and examined whether hypothesized dual pathways (behavioral and cognitive) better account for the relationship between attention deficit, intelligence, and later scholastic achievement. Results of the structural equation modeling analysis were consistent with the hypothesized dual pathway model and suggest that school behavior and select cognitive abilities serve as important mediators between attention deficit, intelligence, and later scholastic achievement. Implications of these results for understanding the developmental trajectory of children with attention deficit and general theoretical models of ADHD are discussed.
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We examined whether childhood cognitive ability was associated with two mental health outcomes at age 53 years: the 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a measure of internalising symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the CAGE screen for potential alcohol abuse as an externalising disorder. A total of 1875 participants were included from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. The results indicated that higher childhood cognitive ability was associated with reporting fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression GHQ-28 scores in women, and increased risk of potential alcohol abuse in both men and women. Results were adjusted for educational attainment, early socioeconomic status (SES) and adverse circumstances, and adult SES, adverse circumstances, and negative health behaviours. After adjusting for childhood cognitive ability, greater educational attainment was associated with reporting greater symptoms of anxiety and depression on the GHQ-28. Although undoubtedly interrelated, our evidence on the diverging effects of childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment on anxiety and depression in mid-adulthood highlights the need for the two to be considered independently. While higher childhood cognitive ability is associated with fewer internalising symptoms of anxiety and depression in women, it places both men and women at higher risk for potential alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine possible psychosocial mechanisms that may be associated with both higher childhood cognitive ability and greater risk for alcohol abuse. In addition, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the gender-specific link between childhood cognitive ability and the risk of experiencing internalising disorders in mid-adulthood warrants further consideration.
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Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the relationship between normal birth weight (more than 2,500 g) and childhood intelligence in term (37-42-week gestation) deliveries. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, and the authors present a comprehensive narrative review of these studies. There was a small, consistent, positive association between birth weight and childhood cognitive ability, even when corrected for confounders. Parental social class accounted for a larger proportion of the variance than birth weight, and these 2 variables were largely independent.
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This study aimed to quantify the association between low IQ and the later development of psychosis in a population-based cohort study of 18-year-old conscripts. Fifty thousand males conscripted into the Swedish army in 1969-1970 were followed by means of the Swedish National Register of Psychiatric Care up to 1983. Tests of verbal and visuospatial abilities, general and mechanical knowledge and several psychosocial variables were recorded at conscription. One hundred and ninety-five subjects were admitted to hospital with schizophrenia and 192 with a non-schizophrenic psychosis on ICD-8 criteria. The distribution of scores in those later diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia was shifted in a downward direction, with a linear relationship between low IQ and risk. This remained after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for non-schizophrenic disorders was also higher in those with lower IQ but the effect was less marked and non-linear. Only poorer performance on the verbal tasks and mechanical knowledge test conferred a significantly increased risk for schizophrenia after taking into account general intellectual ability. Low IQ at conscription was not related to age of onset. The results confirm the importance of low intellectual ability as a risk factor for schizophrenia and other psychoses. This is unlikely to be due to prodromal decline or known confounders. The association could be directly causal with cognitive impairment leading to false beliefs and perceptions, or could be indirect with any factors causing lower IQ, such as abnormal brain development increasing the risk for schizophrenia.
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The Malaise Inventory is a commonly used self-completion scale for assessing psychiatric morbidity. There is some evidence that it may represent two separate psychological and somatic subscales rather than a single underlying factor of distress. This paper provides further information on the factor structure of the Inventory and on the reliability and validity of the total scale and two sub-scales. Two general population samples completed the full Inventory: over 11,000 subjects from the National Child Development Study at ages 23 and 33, and 544 mothers of adolescents included in the Isle of Wight epidemiological surveys. The internal consistency of the full 24-item scale and the 15-item psychological subscale were found to be acceptable, but the eight-item somatic sub-scale was less reliable. Factor analysis of all 24 items identified a first main general factor and a second more purely psychological factor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the validity of the scale held for men and women separately and for different socio-economic groups, by reference to external criteria covering current or recent psychiatric morbidity and service use, and that the psychological sub-scale had no greater validity than the full scale. This study did not support the separate scoring of a somatic sub-scale of the Malaise Inventory. Use of the 15-item psychological sub-scale can be justified on the grounds of reduced time and cost for completion, with little loss of reliability or validity, but this approach would not significantly enhance the properties of the Inventory by comparison with the full 24-item scale. Inclusion of somatic items may be more problematic when the full scale is used to compare particular sub-populations with different propensities for physical morbidity, such as different age groups, and in these circumstances it would be a sensible precaution to utilise the 15-item psychological sub-scale.
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Low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with high psychiatric morbidity, more disability, and poorer access to health care. Among psychiatric disorders, depression exhibits a more controversial association with SES. The authors carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude, shape, and modifiers of such an association. The search found 51 prevalence studies, five incidence studies, and four persistence studies meeting the criteria. A random effects model was applied to the odds ratio of the lowest SES group compared with the highest, and meta-regression was used to assess the dose-response relation and the influence of covariates. Results indicated that low-SES individuals had higher odds of being depressed (odds ratio = 1.81, p < 0.001), but the odds of a new episode (odds ratio = 1.24, p = 0.004) were lower than the odds of persisting depression (odds ratio = 2.06, p < 0.001). A dose-response relation was observed for education and income. Socioeconomic inequality in depression is heterogeneous and varies according to the way psychiatric disorder is measured, to the definition and measurement of SES, and to contextual features such as region and time. Nonetheless, the authors found compelling evidence for socioeconomic inequality in depression. Strategies for tackling inequality in depression are needed, especially in relation to the course of the disorder.
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The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly to investigate whether the association between childhood and adult psychosocial adjustment can be explained by socio-economic adversity experienced during childhood, and secondly to explore the role of family socio-economic disadvantage and psychological development in explaining adult social inequality in psychological well-being. A developmental-contextual perspective is adopted to analyse the pathways linking childhood experiences to adult functioning in a changing socio-historical context. The study draws on longitudinal data collected for two cohorts of about 30,000 individuals born in Great Britain 12 years apart. Structural equation modelling is used to assess the long-term influence of socio-economic adversity on psychosocial adjustment, and to compare different explanatory models of health inequalities. The results reject a simple selection or social causation argument, suggesting that both dynamics operate in life course development. The effects of social risk cumulate throughout the life course, influencing both behaviour adjustment during childhood and adult psychosocial functioning. It is concluded that the explanation of health differences in adult life must account for the reciprocal interaction between individual behaviour and social circumstances.
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Psychiatric epidemiologists were among the first to use the term “social epidemiology” (1), and the role of the social environment in the etiology and course of major mental disorders continues to be investigated (2–5). A number of reviews published in the late 1990s documented the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and specific mental disorders (6–9); in 2003, a comprehensive meta-analysis of the research on SEP and depression (10) concluded that both prevalence and incidence studies show that persons of low SEP (i.e., low educational and low income levels) are at a higher risk of depression.
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Co-morbidity within anxiety disorders, and between anxiety disorders and depression, is common. According to the theory of Gray and McNaughton, this co-morbidity is caused by recursive interconnections linking the brain regions involved in fear, anxiety and panic and by heritable personality traits such as neuroticism. In other words, co-morbidity can be explained by one disorder being an epiphenomenon of the other and by a partly shared genetic etiology. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the theory of Gray and McNaughton using the results of genetic epidemiological studies. Twenty-three twin studies and 12 family studies on co-morbidity are reviewed. To compare the outcomes systematically, genetic and environmental correlations between disorders are calculated for the twin studies and the results from the family studies are summarized according to the method of Klein and Riso. Twin studies show that co-morbidity within anxiety disorders and between anxiety disorders and depression is explained by a shared genetic vulnerability for both disorders. Some family studies support this conclusion, but others suggest that co-morbidity is due to one disorder being an epiphenomenon of the other. Discrepancies between the twin and family studies seem partly due to differences in used methodology. The theory of Gray and McNaughton that neuroticism is a shared risk factor for anxiety and depression is supported. Further research should reveal the role of recursive interconnections linking brain regions. A model is proposed to simultaneously investigate the influence of neuroticism and recursive interconnections on co-morbidity.
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It is unclear whether there is a fetal origin of adult depression. In particular, previous studies have been unable to adjust for the potential effect of maternal depression during pregnancy on any association. The association of birth weight with adult symptoms of depression was examined in an Australian prospective birth cohort, the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among 3,719 participants at the 21-year follow-up in 2002–2005. In multivariable analyses, there were a weak inverse association between birth weight and symptoms of depression in the whole cohort and some evidence of sex differences in this association. Among females, there was a graded inverse association: In the fully adjusted model, the odds ratio for a high level of depressive symptoms for a 1-standard deviation increase in birth weight (gestational age-standardized z score) was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.92). Among males, there was no association (with sex in all models: pinteraction < 0.004). Study results provide some support for a fetal origin of adult depression and suggest that the association is not explained by maternal mental health characteristics during pregnancy. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the association.
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The authors examined changes in the prevalence of major depression in the United States between 1991-1992 and 2001-2002 and sought to determine whether changes in depression rates were associated with changes in rates of comorbid substance use disorder. Data were drawn from two large (Ns exceeding 42,000) cross-sectional surveys of representative samples of the U.S. population conducted 10 years apart. Both surveys used face-to-face interviews, the same diagnostic criteria, and consistent assessment instruments. Rates of past-year major depressive episode in the total samples and among subjects with and without co-occurring substance use disorders in major demographic groups were compared. From 1991-1992 to 2001-2002, the prevalence of major depression among U.S. adults increased from 3.33% to 7.06%. Increases were statistically significant for whites, blacks, and Hispanics and for all age groups. For Hispanic men overall and Hispanic women 18-29 years of age, rates increased but not significantly. The hypothesis that increases in the rates of depression could be explained by concomitant increases in co-occurring substance use disorders was supported only for black men 18-29 years of age. Rates of major depression rose markedly over the past decade in the United States, and increases were noted for most sociodemographic subgroups of the population. If the prevalence continues to increase at the rate it did during the past decade, the demand for services will increase dramatically in the coming years.
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The close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize them in future diagnostic systems. We tested whether risk factors for MDD and GAD are similar or different. The representative 1972-73 Dunedin birth cohort of 1037 males and females was followed to age 32 with 96% retention. Adult GAD and MDD were diagnosed at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years, and juvenile anxiety/depression were also taken into account. Thirteen prospective risk measures indexed domains of family history, adverse family environment, childhood behavior, and adolescent self-esteem and personality traits. Co-morbid MDD+GAD was antedated by highly elevated risk factors broadly across all domains. MDD+GAD was further characterized by the earliest onset, most recurrence, and greatest use of mental health services and medication. Pure GAD had levels of risk factors similar to the elevated levels for co-morbid MDD+GAD; generally, pure MDD did not. Pure GAD had risks during childhood not shared by pure MDD, in domains of adverse family environment (low SES, somewhat more maltreatment) and childhood behavior (internalizing problems, conduct problems, somewhat more inhibited temperament). Pure MDD had risks not shared by pure GAD, in domains of family history (of depression) and personality (low positive emotionality). Specific antecedent risk factors for pure adult MDD versus GAD may suggest partly different etiological pathways. That GAD and co-morbid MDD+GAD share many risk markers suggests that the presence of GAD may signal a pathway toward relatively more severe internalizing disorder.
Article
Low birth weight increases the risk of childhood behavioural problems, but it is not clear whether poor foetal growth has a long-term influence on susceptibility to depression. Aims: To examine the relation between birth weight and riskof psychological distress and depression. Method: At age 16 years 5187 participants in the 1970 British Cohort Study completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress. At age 26 years 8292 participants completed the Malaise Inventory to assess depression and provided information about a history of depression. Results: Women whose birth weight was 3 kg had an increased risk of depression at age 26 years (OR=1.3; 95% CI1.0–1.5) compared with those who weighed >3.5 kg. Birth weight was not associated with a reported history of depression or with risk of psychological distress at age 16 years.In men there were no associations between any measurement and the full range of birth weight but, compared with men of normal birth weight, those born weighing 2.5 kg were more likely to be psychologically distressed at age 16 years (OR=1.6,95% CI1.1–2.5) and to report a history of depression at age 26 years (OR=1.6,95% CI1.1–2.3). Conclusions: Impaired neurodevelopment during foetal life may increase susceptibility to depression.
Article
Background: This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior.Methods: In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-ÏÏJ-R criteria.Results: Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless, and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Undercontrolled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings.Conclusions: Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.
Article
Background: Recent evidence suggests that neurodevelopmental impairment may be a risk factor for later affective disorder. Methods: Associations between childhood developmental characteristics and affective disorder were examined in a prospectively studied national British birth cohort of 5362 individuals born between March 3 and March 9, 1946. Mental state examinations by trained interviewers performed at ages 36 and 43 years identified 270 case subjects with adult affective disorder (AD). Teachers' questionnaires completed at age 13 and 15 years identified 195 case subjects who had shown evidence of childhood affective disturbance (CAD). Results: Female gender and low educational test scores at ages 8, 11, and 15 years were a risk factor for AD, CAD, and AD without CAD. In addition, attainment of motor milestones was later in the CAD group (odds ratio [OR] =1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.3), followed by, and independent of, greater risk for speech defects between the ages of 6 and 15 years (OR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0), decreased psychomotor alertness on medical examination between ages 4 and 11 years (OR=4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-9.7), and an excess of twitching and grimacing motor behaviors in adolescence (OR=3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.1). Persistent CAD was strongly associated with persistent AD (OR=7.8; 95% CI, 2.6-23.2). Conclusion: The findings give credence to the suggestion that affective disorder, especially its early-onset form, is preceded by impaired neurodevelopment.
Article
The structure and coherence of competence from childhood (ages 8–12) to late adolescence (ages 17–23) was examined in a longitudinal study of 191 children. Structural equation modeling was utilized to test a conceptual model and alternative models. Results suggest that competence has at least 3 distinct dimensions in childhood and 5 in adolescence. These dimensions reflect developmental tasks related to academic achievement, social competence, and conduct important at both age levels in U.S. society, and the additional tasks of romantic and job competence in adolescence. As hypothesized, rule-breaking versus rule-abiding conduct showed strong continuity over time, while academic achievement and social competence showed moderate continuity. Results also were consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behavior undermines academic attainment and job competence.
Article
The Malaise Inventory developed by Rutter and his colleagues has been widely used to measure the level of stress experienced by mothers of disabled children. The results obtained using the inventory in a survey of 362 mothers with a disabled child are assessed for internal consistency. The reliability of the malaise scale is estimated. There was no case for dropping any items from the inventory or for applying weights to the items. However, a single dimension of emotional disturbance underlying the set of malaise items did not emerge. This finding may pose problems when the Malaise Inventory is used to test empirical hypotheses about the degree of stress.
Article
We test the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact within a stable population in northeast Scotland. Data from a validated mental ability test administered to all 1921 born Scottish schoolchildren on June 1, 1932 were transformed into age-adjusted IQs. About 52.1% of those tested were identified as remaining in the region into adult life and 10.4% of these made contact with specialist psychiatric services by age 77. Odds ratios for the risk of psychiatric contact by IQ group were compared. A Cox regression analysis modeled the impact of socioeconomic deprivation, gender, and urban living. Intelligence is shown to be an independent predictor of lifetime psychiatric contact. Each standard deviation decrease in IQ results in a 12% increase in the risk of contact, independent of gender and childhood residence. The number of cases was too small to explore differences in diagnostic groups.
Article
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the value of examining a variety of pressing behavioral, medical, and social phenomena as they relate to gradations in general intelligence. Although few (if any) variables in the social sciences can compete with the construct of general intelligence in its ability to forecast an array of socially valued attributes and outcomes, measures of general intelligence are seldom incorporated into correlational and experimental designs aimed at understanding maladaptive behavior (e.g.,crime, dropping out of high school, unwise financial planning, health-risk behaviors, poor parenting, and vocational discord) or its opposite, highly adaptive behavior. We contend that, if consulted more often, the construct of general intelligence would contribute to understanding many puzzling human phenomena, because successive gradations of intelligence reflect successive degrees of risk. A method is provided for uncovering group trends, one expressly designed to reveal the range and prevalence of the many different kinds of human phenomena that vary as a function of intellectual gradations. By employing this method, policymakers and the public can more readily apprehend the significant, but often unsuspected, contribution made by general intelligence to many socially important outcomes. Our approach is similar to traditional epidemiological research aimed at ascertaining antecedents to maladies through the defining features of high-risk groups (e.g.,for lung cancer, smokers and passive smokers; for AIDS victims, participants in unsafe sex; for academic mediocrity, among the intellectually gifted in nonaccelerative educational tracks; for mental retardation, high blood-lead levels). Once such high-risk groups are defined (i.e.,groups of persons whose behavioral dispositions predispose them, and often others around them, to unfortunate outcomes), policymakers and scientists are in better position to disentangle genuine causes from families of correlations and can concentrate ameliorative resources more effectively. Data from educational and medical contexts are analyzed to show how measures of general intelligence, and other dimensions from differential psychology, can complement epidemiological and social science inquiry. We also argue that by incorporating such measures of human variation into policy development and research, policymakers are more likely to forestall “iatrogenic effects” (maladies caused by treatment).
Article
Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of psychopathology, but much of the evidence for risk is based on individuals who required specialist care. It is unclear whether lower ability influences the risk of particular patterns of comorbidity. To examine the relation between premorbid cognitive ability in early adulthood and the risk of major depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol and other drug abuse or dependence, and comorbid forms of these conditions in midlife. Prospective cohort study in which cognitive ability was measured on enlistment into military service at a mean age of 20.4 years and psychiatric disorder was assessed by structured diagnostic interview at a mean age of 38.3 years. The United States. A total of 3258 male veterans, participants in the Vietnam Experience Study. Major depression, GAD, PTSD, and alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence since enlistment and currently, diagnosed according to the DSM-III. Lower cognitive ability was associated with an increased risk of depression, GAD, alcohol abuse or dependence, and PTSD and with some patterns of comorbidity. For a 1-SD decrease in cognitive ability, unadjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for having these disorders currently were 1.32 (1.12-1.56) for depression, 1.43 (1.27-1.64) for GAD, 1.20 (1.08-1.35) for alcohol abuse or dependence, 1.39 (1.18-1.67) for PTSD, 2.50 (1.41-4.55) for PTSD plus GAD, 2.17 (1.47-3.22) for PTSD plus GAD plus depression, and 2.77 (1.12-6.66) for all 4 disorders. Most associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for several specific psychiatric disorders, including some forms of comorbidity. Understanding the mechanisms whereby ability is linked to individual patterns of psychopathology may inform intervention.
Article
In recent years Rutter's Malaise Inventory has been used increasingly to measure levels of stress among those who care for people with dependency needs. Although there has been an element of dispute in the literature about the unidimensional nature of the scale, later work (Bebbington and Quine 1987) tends to suggest that Malaise Inventory scores can be used as a single internally consistent measure of stress. In this study consideration is given to the results of a national sample survey of 527 members of the Association of Carers (now Carers: National Association) which suggests the existence of two valid dimensions to the Malaise Inventory across a wider range of carer groups. Implications for future development and administration of the scale as a measure of stress are discussed.
Article
This paper reports some psychometric properties of the Malaise Inventory of Rutter and colleagues from a longitudinal study of a large sample of New Zealand mothers. Malaise scores were relatively stable over time and the scale showed good psychometric properties. The measure was also sensitive to potential sources of adversity in the backgrounds of the women. Some recommendations regarding a number of the questionnaire items are made.
Article
The Malaise Inventory developed by Rutter and his colleagues has been widely used to measure the level of stress experienced by mothers of severely disabled children. The results obtained using the Inventory in a survey of 210 mothers with a disabled child are compared with two alternative measures of stress: a scale of symptoms and the taking of medication related to mental health. Most of the Inventory items and the malaise score--the total number of items reported--are moderately correlated with the other measures of stress. The results obtained from two successive surveys of the sample are compared to check the consistency of the findings.
Article
A series of structural equation model is developed to examine the relationship between early externalizing behaviors (conduct problems, attention deficit) and IQ measured at age 8 years, academic achievement over the period 10 to 13 years, and delinquent behavior to the age of 15 in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. These models indicated that early externalizing behaviors and IQ were related to later academic achievement and delinquent behavior by two quite distinct but highly correlated developmental sequences. In one sequence early conduct problems were predictive of later delinquency but were not directly related to later academic achievement. In the other sequence, attention deficit and IQ were prognostic of later school achievement but were not directly related to delinquency. Further, the apparent correlations between academic achievement and delinquency were adequately explained by the common and correlated effects of early behavior and IQ on later achievement and delinquency. These conclusions remained unchanged when the sample was stratified by gender, and when further explanatory factors were introduced into the model.
Article
The structure and coherence of competence from childhood (ages 8-12) to late adolescence (ages 17-23) was examined in a longitudinal study of 191 children. Structural equation modeling was utilized to test a conceptual model and alternative models. Results suggest that competence has at least 3 distinct dimensions in childhood and 5 in adolescence. These dimensions reflect developmental tasks related to academic achievement, social competence, and conduct important at both age levels in U.S. society, and the additional tasks of romantic and job competence in adolescence. As hypothesized, rule-breaking versus rule-abiding conduct showed strong continuity over time, while academic achievement and social competence showed moderate continuity. Results also were consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behavior undermines academic attainment and job competence.
Article
The factors associated with adolescent resiliency to childhood adversity were examined in a birth cohort of 940 New Zealand adolescents studied to the age of 16 years. Resilient teenagers were defined by: (a) high exposure to family adversity during childhood and (b) an absence of a wide range of externalising problems during adolescence including substance abuse, juvenile offending and school problems. Resilient teenagers were characterised by significantly higher IQ (p < .001), lower novelty seeking (p < .01) and lower affiliations with delinquent peers (p < .005) with these factors acting accumulatively to influence the probability of resilience to externalising problems.
Article
This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-III-R criteria. Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Under-controlled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings. Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.
Article
Recent evidence suggests that neurodevelopmental impairment may be a risk factor for later affective disorder. Associations between childhood developmental characteristics and affective disorder were examined in a prospectively studied national British birth cohort of 5362 individuals born between March 3 and March 9, 1946. Mental state examinations by trained interviewers performed at ages 36 and 43 years identified 270 case subjects with adult affective disorder (AD). Teachers' questionnaires completed at age 13 and 15 years identified 195 case subjects who had shown evidence of childhood affective disturbance (CAD). Female gender and low educational test scores at ages 8, 11, and 15 years were a risk factor for AD, CAD, and AD without CAD. In addition, attainment of motor milestones was later in the CAD group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.3), followed by, and independent of, greater risk for speech defects between the ages of 6 and 15 years (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0), decreased psychomotor alertness on medical examination between ages 4 and 11 years (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-9.7), and an excess of twitching and grimacing motor behaviors in adolescence (OR = 3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.1). Persistent CAD was strongly associated with persistent AD (OR = 7.8; 95% CI, 2.6-23.2). The findings give credence to the suggestion that affective disorder, especially its early-onset form, is preceded by impaired neurodevelopment.