Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Dunn NA, Muller JM, Pyke CM, Baade PDThe descriptive epidemiology of female breast cancer: an international comparison of screening, incidence, survival and mortality. Cancer Epidemiol 36: 237-248
This paper presents the latest international descriptive epidemiological data for invasive breast cancer amongst women, including incidence, survival and mortality, as well as information on mammographic screening programmes. Almost 1.4 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide in 2008 and approximately 459,000 deaths were recorded. Incidence rates were much higher in more developed countries compared to less developed countries (71.7/100,000 and 29.3/100,000 respectively, adjusted to the World 2000 Standard Population) whereas the corresponding mortality rates were 17.1/100,000 and 11.8/100,000. Five-year relative survival estimates range from 12% in parts of Africa to almost 90% in the United States, Australia and Canada, with the differential linked to a combination of early detection, access to treatment services and cultural barriers. Observed improvements in breast cancer survival in more developed parts of the world over recent decades have been attributed to the introduction of population-based screening using mammography and the systemic use of adjuvant therapies. The future worldwide breast cancer burden will be strongly influenced by large predicted rises in incidence throughout parts of Asia due to an increasingly "westernised" lifestyle. Efforts are underway to reduce the global disparities in survival for women with breast cancer using cost-effective interventions.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Breast and ovarian cancers are predominant female cancers with increasing prevalence. The purpose of this study was to estimate the population attributable risks (PARs) of breast and ovarian cancer occurrence based on the relative risks (RRs) of modifiable reproductive factors and population-specific exposure prevalence. Methods The PAR was calculated by using the 1990 standardized prevalence rates, the 2010 national cancer incidence with a 20 year lag period, the meta-analyzed RRs from studies conducted in the Korean population for breast cancer, and the meta-analyzed RRs from a Korean epithelial ovarian cancer study and a prior meta-analysis, and ovarian cancer cohort results up to 2012. For oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy use, we did not consider lag period. Results The summary PARs for modifiable reproductive factors were 16.7 % (95 % CI 15.8–17.6) for breast cancer (2404 cases) and 81.9 % (95 % CI 55.0–100.0) for ovarian cancer (1579 cases). The modifiable reproductive factors included pregnancy/age at first birth (8.0 %), total period of breastfeeding (3.1 %), oral contraceptive use (5.3 %), and hormone replacement therapy use (0.3 %) for breast cancer and included breastfeeding experience (2.9 %), pregnancy (1.2 %), tubal ligation (24.5 %), and oral contraceptive use (53.3 %) for ovarian cancer. Conclusions Despite inherent uncertainties in the risk factors for breast and ovarian cancers, we suggest that appropriate long-term control of modifiable reproductive factors could reduce breast and ovarian cancer incidences and their related burdens by 16.7 % and 81.9 %, respectively.0Comments 0Citations
- "Breast and ovarian cancer incidences have been continuously increasing over the past 20 years  , and the average annual percentage increases in breast and ovarian cancers are 6.3 % and 1.6 %, respectively . Increases in the prevalence of breast and ovarian cancers have been linked to rapid changes in reproductive factors, including age at menarche, menopause, parity, and birthrelated characteristics (i.e., age at first birth, number of births, and breastfeeding), as well as a rapidly ageing population this country8910. Particularly in Korea, rapid development and economic growth since the 1950 Korean War have given rise to marked westernization, leading to rapid changes in the reproductive risk factors of cancers. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Finding advanced anti-cancer agents with selective toxicity in tumor tissues is the goal of anticancer delivery systems. This study investigated potential application of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) in increasing melatonin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methods: Melatonin-loaded NLCs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, cellular uptake, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of new formulation were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometric assays, respectively. Gene expression of apoptotic markers including survivin, Bcl-2 and Bid were examined by Real time quantitative PCR. Results: The optimized formulation of NLCs revealed mean particle size of 71±5nm with nearly narrow size distribution. The formulation exhibited an acceptable stability during four months in terms of size and lack of drug release. The IC50 values for melatonin and tamoxifen were 1.3±0.4mM and 30.7±5.2μM, respectively. Melatonin loaded NLCs decreased percentage of cell proliferation from 55±7.2% to 40±4.1% (p<0.05). Co-treatment of the cells with melatonin loaded nanoparticles and tamoxifen caused two fold increase in the percentage of apoptosis (p<0.05). Evaluation of gene expression profile demonstrated a marked decrease in anti-apoptotic survivin with increase in pro-apoptotic Bid mRNA levels. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest NLC technology as a promising delivery system, which elevates the efficacy of chemotherapeutics in breast cancer cells.0Comments 0Citations
- "Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the world . Despite significant progress in the development of anti-cancer drugs, cancer mortality carries on to rise. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer.0Comments 0Citations
- "The agestandardized incidence of female breast cancer in Italy was estimated to increase constantly from 43 per 100,000 persons/year in 1970 to approximately 120 per 100,000 persons/year in 2015 (Rossi et al., 2013). Factors that may lead to increases in breast cancer incidence rates include the introduction of populationbased screening using mammography, as well as the increasing prevalence of known risk factors such as obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, reduced physical activity, earlier onset of puberty, and having children at an older age (Youlden et al., 2012). The sharing of some of these risk factors by women and bitches, together with similar IRs and trends observed in dogs and humans, supports the validity of canine MT as an epidemiologic model for human breast cancer. "