Genome Sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. Strain PAMC 25724, Isolated from Alpine Glacier Cryoconite

College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 04/2012; 194(8):2096. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00096-12
Source: PubMed


The draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, which is a violacein-producing psychrotolerant bacterium, was determined. The strain was isolated
from glacier cryoconite of the Alps mountain permafrost region. The sequence will allow identification and characterization
of the genetic determination of its cold-adaptive properties.

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Available from: Hyoungseok Lee, Feb 12, 2014
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    • "Janthinobacterium have been found in numerous habitats and have attracted substantial interest for biotechnological applications (Du et al., 2007; Shi et al., 2008; Johnsen et al., 2010). Interestingly, isolates of J. lividum and the strain PAMC 25,724, closely related to the Arctic population studied here, are able to produce violacein (Pantanella et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2012), a pigment with anti-grazing properties that may provide a survival advantage in the environment (Matz et al., 2004). We present the first report of a natural bloom of Janthinobacterium and, to our knowledge, also the first report of a betaproteobacterium bloom in seawater. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extremely low abundance microorganisms (members of the "rare biosphere") are believed to include dormant taxa, which can sporadically become abundant following environmental triggers. Yet, microbial transitions from rare to abundant have seldom been captured in situ, and it is uncertain how widespread these transitions are. A bloom of a single ribotype (≥99% similarity in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene) of a widespread betaproteobacterium (Janthinobacterium sp.) occurred over 2 weeks in Arctic marine waters. The Janthinobacterium population was not detected microscopically in situ in January and early February, but suddenly appeared in the water column thereafter, eventually accounting for up to 20% of bacterial cells in mid February. During the bloom, this bacterium was detected at open water sites up to 50 km apart, being abundant down to more than 300 m. This event is one of the largest monospecific bacterial blooms reported in polar oceans. It is also remarkable because Betaproteobacteria are typically found only in low abundance in marine environments. In particular, Janthinobacterium were known from non-marine habitats and had previously been detected only in the rare biosphere of seawater samples, including the polar oceans. The Arctic Janthinobacterium formed mucilagenous monolayer aggregates after short (ca. 8 h) incubations, suggesting that biofilm formation may play a role in maintaining rare bacteria in pelagic marine environments. The spontaneous mass occurrence of this opportunistic rare taxon in polar waters during the energy-limited season extends current knowledge of how and when microbial transitions between rare and abundant occur in the ocean.
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    • "We contend there is a paucity of information on the properties of cryoconite organic matter and microbial community structure from mountain glaciers. In particular, studies of European alpine cryoconite diversity have hitherto been limited to culture-dependent studies (Margesin et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2012). Recently, Edwards et al. (2013b) presented a 1.2 Gbp metagenome assembly from pooled cryoconite sampled on Rotmoosferner in the Austrian Alps. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cryoconite holes are known as foci of microbial diversity and activity on polar glacier surfaces, but are virtually unexplored microbial habitats in alpine regions. In addition, whether cryoconite community structure reflects ecosystem functionality is poorly understood. Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Fourier Transform -Infra Red metabolite fingerprinting of cryoconite from glaciers in Austria, Greenland and Svalbard demonstrated cryoconite bacterial communities are closely correlated with cognate metabolite fingerprints. The influence of bacterial-associated fatty acids and polysaccharides was inferred, underlining the importance of bacterial community structure in the properties of cryoconite. Thus, combined application of T-RFLP and FT-IR metabolite fingerprinting promise high throughput and hence, rapid assessment of community structure-function relationships. Pyrosequencing revealed Proteobacteria were particularly abundant, with Cyanobacteria likely acting as ecosystem engineers in both alpine and Arctic cryoconite communities. However, despite these generalities, significant differences in bacterial community structures, compositions and metabolomes are found between alpine and Arctic cryoconite habitats, reflecting the impact of local and regional conditions on the challenges of thriving in glacial ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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    • "Janthinobacterium spp. are Gramnegative , motile bacteria that have been isolated from a wide range of habitats including the Antarctic (Mojib et al., 2011), as symbionts of insects (Zhang et al., 2011a) and amphibians (Brucker et al., 2008; Harris et al., 2009), and from plants and the environment (Kang et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2012). Janthinocin A, B and C were isolated in 1990 from a water isolate of Janthinobacterium lividum (O'Sullivan et al., 1990). "
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