Nonproteolytic Properties of Murine Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor: Implications for Integrin-Mediated Signaling in Murine Models

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.51). 04/2012; 18(1):771-9. DOI: 10.2119/molmed.2011.00416
Source: PubMed


This study was performed to determine whether murine alternatively spliced tissue factor (masTF) acts analogously to human alternatively spliced tissue factor (hasTF) in promoting neovascularization via integrin ligation. Immunohistochemical evaluation of a spontaneous murine pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model revealed increased levels of masTF and murine full-length tissue factor (mflTF) in tumor lesions compared with benign pancreas; furthermore, masTF colocalized with mflTF in spontaneous aortic plaques of Ldlr(-/-) mice, indicating that masTF is likely involved in atherogenesis and tumorigenesis. Recombinant masTF was used to perform in vitro and ex vivo studies examining its integrin-mediated biologic activity. Murine endothelial cells (ECs) rapidly adhered to masTF in a β3-dependent fashion. Using adult and embryonic murine ECs, masTF potentiated cell migration in transwell assays. Scratch assays were performed using murine and primary human ECs; the effects of masTF and hasTF were comparable in murine ECs, but in human ECs, the effects of hasTF were more pronounced. In aortic sprouting assays, the potency of masTF-triggered vessel growth was undistinguishable from that observed with hasTF. The proangiogenic effects of masTF were found to be Ccl2-mediated, yet independent of vascular endothelial growth factor. In murine ECs, masTF and hasTF upregulated genes involved in inflammatory responses; murine and human ECs stimulated with masTF and hasTF exhibited increased interaction with murine monocytic cells under orbital shear. We propose that masTF is a functional homolog of hasTF, exerting some of its key effects via β3 integrins. Our findings have implications for the development of murine models to examine the interplay between blood coagulation, atherosclerosis and cancer.

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    • "Additional non-hemostatic effects of both flTF and asTF have been described in tumor angiogenesis [13], [19], [20], [21]. While flTF induces endothelial cell migration via PAR2 [22], asTF acts through direct binding to endothelial integrins [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) triggers blood coagulation and is translated from two mRNA splice isoforms, encoding membrane-anchored full-length TF (flTF) and soluble alternatively-spliced TF (asTF). The complete knockout of TF in mice causes embryonic lethality associated with failure of the yolk sac vasculature. Although asTF plays roles in postnatal angiogenesis, it is unknown whether it activates coagulation sufficiently or makes previously unrecognized contributions to sustaining integrity of embryonic yolk sac vessels. Using gene knock-in into the mouse TF locus, homozygous asTF knock-in (asTFKI) mice, which express murine asTF in the absence of flTF, exhibited embryonic lethality between day 9.5 and 10.5. Day 9.5 homozygous asTFKI embryos expressed asTF protein, but no procoagulant activity was detectable in a plasma clotting assay. Although the α-smooth-muscle-actin positive mesodermal layer as well as blood islands developed similarly in day 8.5 wild-type or homozygous asTFKI embryos, erythrocytes were progressively lost from disintegrating yolk sac vessels of asTFKI embryos by day 10.5. These data show that in the absence of flTF, asTF expressed during embryonic development has no measurable procoagulant activity, does not support embryonic vessel stability by non-coagulant mechanisms, and fails to maintain a functional vasculature and embryonic survival.
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    ABSTRACT: The hemostatic system is involved in multiple interactions with transformed cells that progress from a dormant, non-vascularized tumor to highly metastatic phenotypes. Oncogenic transformations up regulate not only the initiator of the coagulation cascade, tissue factor (TF), but also induce other molecules that are required for TF's direct cell signaling activity, including the protease activated receptor (PAR) 2 and factor VIIa. TF-dependent signaling is a major driver for primary tumor progression, whereas TF-initiated coagulation and other components of the hemostatic system support metastasis. Basic research continues to identify pivotal molecular interactions in these processes and provides potential leads for targeting specific tumor promoting pathways associated with hemostasis and thrombosis.
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