Experimental Models of Type-2 Diabetic Nephropathy

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.
Experimental Diabetes Research (Impact Factor: 4.33). 03/2012; 2012:218917. DOI: 10.1155/2012/218917
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Available from: Yoshio Shimizu
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    ABSTRACT: The KK.Cg-A (y) /J (KK-A (y) ) mouse strain is a previously described model of type 2 diabetes with renal impairment. In the present study, female KK-A (y) mice received an elevated fat content diet (24% of calories), and a cohort was uninephrectomized (Unx) to drive renal disease severity. Compared to KK-a/a controls, 26-week-old KK-A (y) mice had elevated HbA1c, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and Unx further elevated these markers of metabolic dysregulation. Unx KK-A (y) mice also exhibited elevated serum BUN and reduced glomerular filtration, indicating that reduction in renal mass leads to more severe impairment in renal function. Glomerular hypertrophy and hypercellularity, mesangial matrix expansion, podocyte effacement, and basement membrane thickening were present in both binephric and uninephrectomized cohorts. Glomerular size was increased in both groups, but podocyte density was reduced only in the Unx animals. Consistent with functional and histological evidence of increased injury, fibrotic (fibronectin 1, MMP9, and TGF β 1) and inflammatory (IL-6, CD68) genes were markedly upregulated in Unx KK-A (y) mice, while podocyte markers (nephrin and podocin) were significantly decreased. These data suggest podocyte injury developing into glomerulopathy in KK-A (y) mice. The addition of uninephrectomy enhances renal injury in this model, resulting in a disease which more closely resembles human diabetic nephropathy.
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    ABSTRACT: The rising global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is accompanied by an increasing burden of morbidity and mortality that is attributable to the complications of chronic hyperglycaemia. These complications include blindness, renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Current therapeutic options for chronic hyperglycaemia reduce, but do not eradicate, the risk of these complications. Success in defining new preventative and therapeutic strategies hinges on an improved understanding of the molecular processes involved in the development of these complications. This Review explores the role of human genetics in delivering such insights, and describes progress in characterizing the sequence variants that influence individual predisposition to diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and accelerated cardiovascular disease. Numerous risk variants for microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported, but very few have shown robust replication. Furthermore, only limited evidence exists of a difference in the repertoire of risk variants influencing macrovascular disease between those with and those without diabetes. Here, we outline the challenges associated with the genetic analysis of diabetic complications and highlight ongoing efforts to deliver biological insights that can drive translational benefits.
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